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2013-09-10 18:35:26

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  1. How are organelles isolated from animal tissues?
    • Tissue is mechanically homogenized in aqueous buffer
    • Large/small particles are separated by centrifugation at varying speeds
    • Isopycnic centrifugation (using a solution gradient) is used to separate similarly sized particles by density
  2. Define: in vitro, chiral, enantiomer, diasteromer, stereoisomer
    • in vitro: "In glass", No interference from other molecules
    • chiral: C w/ 4 diff attachments, can have 2 stereoisomers
    • enantiomer: stereoisomers that are mirror images of eachother
    • diasteromer: stereoisomers that are not mirror images of eachother
    • stereoisomer: same chemical bonds w/ different configuration
  3. List 4 differences between plant and animal cells
    • Cell walls/plasmodesmata in plants
    • Lysosome in animals
    • Chloroplast/thylakoids/starch granules in plants
    • Vacuole in plants
    • Secondary metabolites in plants
  4. Why is cell size limited by diffusion?
    • Metabolism requires O2 diffusion
    • If SA:V ratio increases too much the diffusion cannot match need
  5. What is a kilodalton? What does it represent?
    • a measurement of molar mass (moles/g)
    • 1 dalton = 1/12 mass of C-12
  6. Conformation vs configuration
    • Conformation: spatial arrangement of substituents that can be formed without breaking bonds (staggered vs eclipsed)
    • Configuration: the way the molecules are connected together (stereoisomerism)
  7. How do living organisms get energy?
    • Take up chemical fuels and oxidize them
    • Absorb energy from sunlight
  8. Gibbs free energy equation
    • ΔG = ΔH - TΔS (spontaneous (exergonic) if ΔG is -)
    • ΔH: enthalpy (#/types of bonds)
    • ΔS: entropy (measure of disorder in a system)
    • T: absolute temp (in K)
  9. Dissociation equation
    • aA + bB <-> cC + dD
  10. Relationship between Keq and ΔG?
    • If Keq >> 1, ΔG is large and negative (more likely to occur)
    • If Keq << 1, ΔG is large and positive (less likely to occur)
  11. How enzymes alter reactions? Affect Keq?
    • Enzymes increase the raterxn by decreasing activation energy required
    • Enzymes do not affect equilibrium
  12. Name for the precise 3D structure of a protein?
    Native conformation
  13. When does the fossil record show first eukaryotic fossils?
  14. 4 differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
    • Discrete complexes of protein/DNA (chromosomes)
    • Membrane-bound organelles
    • Nucleus
    • Multicellularity
  15. homolog vs Ortholog vs paralog
    • Homolog: proteins from genes that contain sequence similarities
    • Paralog: homologs in the same species
    • similar, but often have different functions
    • Ortholog: homologs in different species
    • often has the same function in both species
  16. What percentage of genes has no assigned function?
  17. How identical are human and chimpanzee genomes?

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