Anatomy & Physiology MBLEX

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Anatomy & Physiology MBLEX
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Anatomy Physiology MBLEX
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Anatomy & Physiology MBLEX, from Steve's MBLEX Review Class and MBLEX book
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  1. 4 components of the cardiovascular system
    • blood: blood is the fluid medium that distributes and renews the water environment that surrounds every cell
    • heart: the heart is the muscular pump that drives the blood through the system
    • vessels: form the irrigation network that distributes the blood to the tissues of the body
    • lymphatics:are additional vessels that return tissue fluid lost from the blood back to the blood and establish a body defense network
  2. Components of Tissue: Extracellular Matrix Plasma
    • water: the transport medium of this fluid tissue that serves as the solvent for the molecular substances in the solution
    • electrolytes: are ionic substances, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, etc., that are dispersed in the blood
    • plasma proteins: comprise 3 categories of proteins that exert an osmotic effect that is important in the distribution of the water solution between the plasma and the interstitial fluid
  3. Components of Tissue: Extracellular Matrix Cells
    • Erythrocytes (RBC): Transports O2
    • Thrombocytes (platelets): clotting of blood
    • Leukocytes (WBC): involved in the body defense & repair (immunity)
  4. Rhythmic contraction of the heart
    systole
  5. Rhythmic relaxation of the heart
    diastole
  6. Blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs
    pulmonary circuit
  7. Blood vessels that carry blood to & from all body tissues
    systemic circuit
  8. Chambers of the Heart
    • Right atrium: receives deoxygenated blood returning in veins from all parts of the body - 3 places it comes back into the heart:
    • 1. superior vena cava: into the heart (blood), drains blood from head & upper limbs
    • 2. inferior vena cava: into the heart (blood), drains blood from trunk & lower limbs
    • 3. coronary sinus: opening on right atrium, drains blood from heart
    • Left atrium: receives oxygenated blood from the veins returning to the lungs
  9. Tissue that is similar to squamous epithelium in shape; adapted for distension (stretching); found in the urinary tract only, particularly in the bladder
    Transitional epithelial tissue
  10. A measure of the strength of concentration of a solution
    Tonicity
  11. The highly vascular membranes that surround the inside of joint capsules in synovial joints (i.e., freely moveable joints); secrete synovial
    fluid (also called synovium), a lubricant, into the joint cavity.
    Synovial membranes
  12. Tissue composed of flattened cells; well adapted for diffusion, filtration, and protection found in the skin, the interior of blood vessels, the alveoli of the lungs, and the glomerulus in the kidney
    Squamous epithelial tissue
  13. Secrete serous fluid, a lubricant; cover the internal organs in the thoracic abdominal, and pelvic cavities
    Serous membranes (serosa)
  14. Organelles responsible for reading or decoding RNA and using the information to synthesize (assemble) necessary proteins
    Ribosomes
  15. The term used to describe a cell that does not have a nucleus in which to store its genetic material (e.g., bacteria)
    Prokaryote
  16. The process by which fluids are engulfed by the cell membrane
    Pinocytosis
  17. The process by which solid particles are engulfed by the cell membrane
    Phagocytosis
  18. The pressure created from a solvent, such as water, diffusing across a semipermeable membrane
    Osmotic pressure
  19. A structure within a cell that performs a specific function
    Organelle
  20. The largest of the organelles; contains the cell's genetic material
    Nucleus
  21. Tissue responsible for conducting an action potential (nerve impulse) through the body, allowing tissues to communicate
    Nervous tissue
  22. Tissue responsible for body movement and movement in the body
    Muscle tissue
  23. Secrete mucus, a thick fluid-like substance; line most of the cavities in
    the respiratory and digestive systems to protect and lubricate
    Mucous membranes (mucosa)
  24. The process of cell division in which one cell divides into two identical daughter cells
    Mitosis
  25. The organelles responsible for taking energy out of sugars, fats and other fuels and transferring it to the bonds that hold the adenosine triphosphate molecule together; often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell
    Mitochondria
  26. A small bag or pocket of digestive enzymes in the cell that is used to
    digest cells and organelles that are either foreign or damaged
    Lysosome
  27. The study of tissues
    Histology
  28. The center for storing, sorting, modifying, and delivering the products of ribosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum, particularly product to be secreted by the cell (e.g., mucus)
    Golgi apparatus
  29. A tail-like projection on the cell membrane used for cell motility, as on sperm cells
    Flagellum
  30. Movement of fluid through a membrane with pores that restrict larger molecules from passing through but allow the passage of smaller molecules; based on mechanical pressure
    Filtration
  31. The term used to describe a cell with an enclosed nucleus in which the cell stores genetic material (e.g., plants, fungi, animals, humans).
    Eukaryote
  32. Tissue that lines body surfaces and cavities
    Epithelial tissue
  33. A network of tubules in the cytoplasm responsible for collecting the proteins manufactured by the ribosomes and then packaging and shipping the proteins to various areas of the cell
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  34. Movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration to reach a uniform concentration
    Diffusion
  35. Artificial filtering of waste and excess material out of the blood through a semipermeable membrane
    Dialysis
  36. The fluid that fills the cell;allows the nutrients and building blocks to circulate within the cell
    Cytoplasm
  37. Tissue composed of cube-shaped cells;found in the lining of secretory, excretory, and absorptive glands and ducts (e.g., sweat
    glands, salivary glands, kidney tubules).
    Cuboidal epithelial tissue
  38. Tissue used for packaging;protecting,and supporting various organs;most abundant tissue in the body;found in almost every region and organ of the body
    Connective tissue
  39. Column-shaped cells used for protection and, in some cases, production of mucus found in the linings of the digestive and respiratory systems and in the uterine tubes;some types possess cilia
    Columnar epithelial tissue
  40. Hairlike protrusions from the cell membrane used for moving substances (e.g., mucus, fluids) around the cell
    Cilia
  41. Small, spindle-like organelles that supervise cell division; aid in distributing the DNA evenly into the two daughter cells that result when the parent cell divides
    Centrioles
  42. The external structure that houses the cell contents and regulates what travels into and out of the cell by way of many different proteins that act as gates, channels, or pumps; composed of a phospholipid bilayer
    Cell membrane
  43. Transport of substances into or out of the cell that requires energy; transport "uphill" or against a concentration gradient (i.e., from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration); opposite of diffusion
    Active transport
  44. Larger sweat glands located in the axillary and pubic regions; secrete a viscous and odoriferous fluid become active at puberty
    Apocrine glands
  45. The muscle attache to the root of the hair;contracts when a person is scared or when the skin becomes chilled, producing body heat;responsible for creating "goose bumps"
    Arrector pili
  46. bring blood to the epidermis and regulate body temperature; when body temperature rise, these fill with blood, bringing the heat closer to the surface of the skin and allowing it to dissipate by evaporating sweat
    Blood vessels
  47. Specialized secretary glands located in the external ear canal that secrete earwax
    Ceruminous glands
  48. The layer below the epidermis of the skin;composed of connective tissues, blood vessels, glands, muscle tissue, nerve endings, and hair follicles
    Dermis
  49. The most numerous type of sweat gland;found throughout the body, particularly on the back, forehead, hands, and feet
    Eccrine glands
  50. Superficial layer of skin;composed mostly of squamous epithelial cells
    Epidermis
  51. Hardened layer of the stratum corneum found at the end of each finger and toe; helps protect the end of the digits and aids in picking up objects with the fingers
    Fingernails and toenails
  52. Consists of shaft, root, and bulb;provides limited protection (e.g. eyelashes protect the eye, and hair in the nostrils protect the nose)
    Hair
  53. A protein found in the stratum corneum that makes this layer of skin tough and impenetrable
    Keratin
  54. Specialized sudoriferous glands in the breasts that secrete milk
    Mammary glands
  55. a dark pigement in the skin and hair that is produced by melanocytes found in the stratum basale;protects against the ultraviolet rays of the sun
    Melanin
  56. General sensory receptors for pressure, temperature, and pain
    Nerve endings
  57. Glands located along the shaft of the hair; secrete sebum, an oily substance, along the shaft of the hair that disperses along the surface of the skin and keeps the statum corneum supple and waterproof
    Sebaceous glands
  58. Innermost layer of the epidermis;cells in this layer are constantly dividing and pushing the layers upward toward the stratum corneum (the cells die as they move away from the nutrient and oxygen supply found in
    this layer)
    Stratum basale
  59. Outermost layer of the skin;cells produced in the startum basale are pushed up into the stratum corneum by newer cells being produced;the last few layers of the stratum corneum are dead cells that are continually shed
    Stratum corneum
  60. The last layer of the integument;composed mostly of connective tissues (primarily adipose tissue) and blood vessels;varies thickness depending on its location in the body and on the age, sex, and overall health of the individual
    Subcutaneous layer (superficial fascia, hypodermis)
  61. glands that produce and secrete perspiration (sweat), a fluid that is approximately 99% water and contains some electrolytes, salts, and urea; sweat eliminates some wastes and cools the body by removing heat through evaporation
    Subdoriferous glands
  62. Skeletal System
    A rounded bump for bone articulation
    Condyle
  63. Skeletal System
    A ridge in a bone
    Crest
  64. Skeletal System
    A bump above a condyle
    Epicondyle
  65. Skeletal System
    A long, narrow depression in a bone
    Fissure
  66. Skeletal System
    A rounded hole through a bone (plural is foramina)
    Foramen
  67. Skeletal System
    A shallow depression in a bone
    Fossa
  68. Skeletal System
    A long depression; a furrow in a bone
    Groove
  69. Skeletal System
    A long bump in a bone
    Line
  70. Skeletal System
    A canal in a bone
    Meatus
  71. Skeletal System
    A cavity in a bone
    Sinus
  72. Skeletal System
    A sharp, pointed bump
    Spine
  73. Skeletal System
    A large, roughened bump
    Tuberosity
  74. The science of the structure of the body and its parts
    Anatomy
  75. Anatomical direction meaning toward the front surface (i.e., toward the belly)
    Anterior (ventral)
  76. The system containing the heart and blood vessels that carry blood and remove waste
    Cardiovascular System
  77. Anatomical direction meaning toward the tailbone or sacrum
    Caudal
  78. Basic structural unit that makes up tissue and organs
    Cell
  79. Anatomical direction meaning toward the head or cranium
    Cephalic
  80. Anatomical direction meaning lying far down; underneath several layers
    Deep
  81. The system containing the organs that take in food and break it down into nutrients
    Digestive System
  82. Anatomical direction meaning farther away from the main mass of the body
    Distal
  83. The body cavity made up of the cranial and spinal cavities
    Dorsal cavity
  84. The system containing the internal glands and gonads that secrete hormones for body regulation
    Endocrine System
  85. The plane of division that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
    Frontal plane (coronal plane)
  86. A state of balance (or "steady state") that the body maintains to stay alive; maintained through positive and negative feedback systems
    Homeostasis
  87. Anatomical direction meaning below; in a lower position
    Inferior
  88. The system containing the skin and accessory organs that provide external support and protection
    Integumentary System
  89. Anatomical direction meaning farther away from the midline of the body
    Lateral
  90. The system containing the organs that produce body immunity, drain fluids from tissues and absorb fats
    Lymphatic System
  91. Anatomical direction meaning closer to the midline of the body
    Medial
  92. All the chemical and physical processes that go inside the body to sustain life
    Metabolism
  93. The single plane of division that divides the body into equal right and left halves
    Midsagittal plane
  94. The system containing the muscles that provide movement and body heat
    Muscular System
  95. The system containing the organs that make communication within the body, learning, and memory possible
    Nervous System
  96. Slanting plane of division; a plane that is not in any of the other planes
    Oblique plane
  97. A structure made up of a group of tissues performing a specialized function
    Organ
  98. A group of organs that perform a specialized body function
    Organ system
  99. An individual living thing
    Organism
  100. The study of the normal functioning of the body
    Physiology
  101. Anatomical direction meaning toward the back surface
    Posterior (dorsal)
  102. Anatomical direction meaning closer to the main mass of the body
    Proximal
  103. The system containing the internal and external organs that produce, transport, and provide a proper environment for the sex cells to mature and/or unite
    Reproductive System
  104. The system containing the lungs and air passages that bring in oxygen and move out carbon dioxide
    Respiratory System
  105. the plane of division that divides the body into right and left portions
    Sagittal plane
  106. The system containing the specialized sense organs that make possible the special sense of hearing, sight, smell, and taste
    Sensory System
  107. The system containing the bones and the joints that provide support and a framework for body movement
    Skeletal System
  108. Anatomical direction meaning on the surface
    Superficial
  109. Anatomical direction meaning above; in a higher position
    Superior
  110. A group of cells that perform a specific function
    Tissue
  111. The plane of division that divides the body into top and bottom portions
    Transverse plane (horizontal plane)
  112. The system containing the organs that remove waste products and excess water and transport urine out of the body
    Urinary System
  113. The body cavity mdae up of the thoracic abdominopelvic cavities
    Ventral cavity
  114. Digestive Process
    • Ingestion
    • Digestion: 1. mechanical 2. chemical
    • Propulsion: 1. swallowing 2. peristalsis
    • Absorption
    • Defecation
  115. Digestive Organs
    Oral Cavity :: Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • ingestion
    • mechanical digestion
    • chemical digestion of carbs
    • proplusion
  116. Digestive Organs
    Pharynx :: Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • propulsion
    • passageway for food & air
    • shared by the respiratory & digestive systems
  117. Digestive Organs
    Esophagus :: Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • transport tube
    • propulsion
    • peristalsis begins here
  118. Digestive Organs
    Stomach :: Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • secretion & absorption
    • mechanical digestion
    • chemical digestion of proteins
    • absorption of aspirin, alcohol, & a few other drugs
  119. Digestive Organs
    Small Intestine :: Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • chemical digestion of proteins carbohydrates & lipids
    • mechanical digestion
    • propulsion
    • absorption of nutrients & H20
    • majority of diesgestion and absorption occur here
  120. Digestive Organs
    Large Intestine :: Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • absorption of remaining H20, salts, & vitamins
    • some chemical digestion by intestinal bacteria
    • propulsion & defecation
  121. Digestive Organs
    Anus :: Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    defecation
  122. Salivary glands
    • Parotid gland :: below the zygomatic arch, superficial to the masseter
    • Submandibular gland :: angle of mandible
    • Sublingual glands :: below tongue
  123. How does the stomach protect the GI tract (*a second function of the stomach)
    • it releases acid which kills bacteria
    • it makes a thick layer of mucus which protect the stomach from acid
  124. What duct empties digestive enzymes & sodium bicarbonate into the duodenum. Is posterior to stomach & has both endocrine and exocrine functions.
    Pancreatic duct
  125. The largest and most important metabolic organ in the body. It's importance to the digestive system is its secretion of bile salts. Inferior to diaphragm.
    Liver
  126. Liver functions
    • detoxifies waste and drugs
    • stores glycogen (glucose) & vitamins
    • makes bile which emulsifies fat
  127. Four organs that empty into the duodenum
    • Stomach
    • Pancreas
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
  128. A pear-shaped, saccular organ. Attached to the inferior surface of the liver. Stores & concentrates bile from the liver.
    Gallbladder
  129. Large folds of the small intestine. Slow the passage of food through the small intestine. Increase surface area for absorption. Covered with villi.
    Circular folds
  130. Capillaries
    absorbs sugars and proteins
  131. Lymphatic capillary
    • located in villi
    • absorb dietary fats
  132. Name this gland:
    Have ducts
    Secrete products via transport ducts
    ex: sebaceous gland, eccrine gland, Apocrine gland
    Exocrine
  133. Name this gland:
    Ductless glands
    Secrete directly into bloodstream
    ex: pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal gland
    Endocrine
  134. Define hormones
    are regulatory chemicals or molecules that are produced by endocrine organs and distributed to specific receptor sites in the tissue of the body
  135. Location
    Function
    Hormones
    of Hypothalamus
    • Location: part of dicephalon
    • Function: controls the pituitary
    • Hormones: releasing & inhibiting hormones
  136. Location
    Function
    of Pituitary Gland
    • Location: sella turnica of the sphenoid bone
    • Function: "master gland" controls many other glands
  137. Hormone Functions
    Antidiurectic hormones (ADH)
    Increases H20 reabsorption in kidneys
    Posterior pituitary
    Vasopressin
  138. Hormone Functions
    Females: stimulates uterine contractions & milk ejection
    Males: stimulates contraction of smooth muscle of male reproductive tract
    Posterior pituitary
    Oxytocin
  139. Hormone Functions
    Stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
    Anterior pituitary
    TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)
  140. Hormone Functions
    Stimulates the adrenal gland to release cortisol
    Anterior pituitary
    ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
  141. Hormone Functions
    Stimulates growth of bones and soft tissues
    Anterior pituitary
    Growth Hormone
  142. Hormone Functions
    Female: promotes growth of the ovarian follicle
    Male: stimulates sperm production
    Anterior pituitary gland
    FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
  143. Hormone Functions
    Females: stimulates ovulation
    Males: stimulates testosterone secretion
    Anterior pituitary
    LH (luteinizing hormone)
  144. Hormone Functions
    Females: stimulates milk production
    Males: unknown
    Anterior pituitary
    Prolactin
  145. Hormone Functions
    Location: anterior & inferior to larynx
    Hormones: follicular hormones, increase metabolic rate/calcitonin
    thyroid gland
  146. Location
    Structure
    Hormone
    of Parathyroid Glands
    • four small glands on the posterior side of the thyroid
    • hormone: increases blood Ca2+ levels moves Ca2+ from bone --> blood increases osteoclast activity
  147. Location
    Structure
    of Adrenal Gland
    • Location: on top of kidney
    • Structure: inner medulla & outer cortex
  148. Suprarenal Hormones
    Coritcol & Medullary
    • Coritcol: aldosterone, cortisol and small amounts of androgens and estrogens, the male and female sex hormones.
    • Medullary: (adrenal medulla) epinephrine and norepinephrine / enhances sympathetic
  149. Location
    Function
    Hormones
    of Pancreas
    • Location: posterior to stomach (between L1 & L3)
    • Function: has both endocrine & exocrine functions
    • Hormones: Insulin: decreased blood glucose levels / Glucagon: increase blood glucose levels / moves glucose from cell into blood
  150. Location
    Hormone
    of Pineal gland
    • Location: part of diencephalon
    • Hormone: melatonin
  151. Epidermis
    Type of Tissue & the 5 layers *Can Loud Girls Sing Bass
    • Avascular
    • stratified squamous epithelium
    • 5 layers: Corneum (top layer), Lucidem, Granulosum, Spinosum, Basale (bottom layer)
  152. 2 Basic Cell Types
    • Melanocytes: produces melanin, a protective protein pigment / melanin shields the cell nuclei from harmful UV rays
    • Keratinocytes: most abundance cell in epidermis / produces keratin, which is a protein that toughens & waterproofs of the skin
  153. Dermis
    type of tissue
    • Vascular
    • Dense irregular CT
    • has 2 layers: Stratum papillare & stratum reticulare
  154. Stratum papillare
    • peg-like projection that houses small blood vessels & nerve endings
    • anchor epidermis to dermis
    • improve sensation
    • increase surface area for exchange
    • friction edges
    • provides blood supply to epidermis
  155. Stratum reticulare
    • made of bundles of collagen fibers called reticular fibers
    • the reticular fibers in the dermis form cleavage lines caused by separations or less dense regions between collagen
  156. Invagination of the epidermis
    • rapid cell division
    • process accounts for the development of the hair follicles and glands of the skin
  157. A gland produces a clear, ordorless, watery fluid that cools the body, most numerous sweat glands of the body. E-odorless.
    Eccrine Sweat Gland
  158. Produces an initially odorless fluid that under bacterial action becomes thick, smelly sweat. Least numerous, but largest sweat glands. Found in armpits and groin. A-smelly ape.
    Apocrine Sweat Gland
  159. What system of vessels consists of an extensive network of one-way tubes that provide an accessory route through which fluid is returned from the interstitial fluid to the blood
    lymphatic system
  160. Major Lymphatic Pathways
    Right lymphatic duct
    Thoracic lymphatic duct
    • Right lymphatic duct: drains lymph from the right upper quadrant
    • Thoracic lymphatic duct: drains lymph from the L upper quadrant & entire lower body
  161. Muscle Tissue
    Types of Muscle
    • Non-Striated [smooth] muscle: short, spindle-shaped cells, involuntary, cells can divide.
    • Striated Cardiac Muscle: long, branched fibers composed of many cells stacked end to end, involuntary, too specialized to divide
    • Striated Skeletal Muscle: each long fiber is one multinucleated cell, striped appearance, voluntary, too specialized to divide
  162. Function of muscle tissue
    • a major function is the production of movement
    • contractile activity of muscle cells produces wide variety of movement / obvious movements of the skeleton / peristalitic waves of gut motility / subtle vasoconstriction of blood vessels
    • most prevalent tissue in the body
  163. Skeletal muscle organs
    • Muscle Belly: contains muscle cells that generate contraction (muscle cells can only pull on bones, they cannot push)
    • Tendons: attach muscle to bone / made up of dense regular CT
    • Muscle Cells (myocyte) or muscle fiber
    • CT: Endomysium: surrounds individual muscle fibers, made of loose CT / Perimysium: surrounds a group of muscle fibers (fasciculus), dense irregular CT / Epimysium: surrounds an entire muscle, dense irregular CT / Fascia: surrounds a group of muscles, supports the integument from the muscles, dense irregular CT
  164. Attachments
    Define Origin & Insertion
    • Origin (fixed end): "home base" / less mobile boney attachment, usually the proximal attachment (closer to the trunk)
    • Insertion (mobile end): more mobile boney attachment, usually the distal attachment (further away from the trunk)
  165. What is continuous with the endomysium, perimysium and epimysium of muscle and the periosteum bone
    tendon
  166. Myosin (football player)
    Actin (cheerleader)
    TTC (mom)
    • Myosin (thick filament): muscle protein that changes shape and grabs Actin / two parts: tail & head
    • Actin (thin filament): muscle protein with myosin binding sites / is pulled over or slides over myosin
    • TTC (troponin-tropomyosin complex): "door" that covers molecular binding sites - during rest, this protein binds to actin & covers myosin binding sites, thus preventing contraction
  167. Sarcomere
    • basic functional unit of skeletal muscle
    • are stacked end to end to form the myofibril
  168. Calcium's role in initiating muscle contraction
    • calcium binds to TTC that is covering the receptor sites on the thin filaments and pulls the TTC away from the actin receptor sites This is like opening the door and exposing the receptor sites.
    • the brain sends a signal, via a motor neuron, telling the muscle to contract
    • the signal triggers the release of calcium stores within the muscle cell
  169. Mechanics of Muscle Contraction
    • Relaxed state - at rest: myosin binding sites blocked
    • Attachment: calcium enters, binds to TTC, and moves it out of the way
    • Power stroke: Actin "slides" or is pulled over myosin (z line gets shorter)
    • Release & Rest: energy is used to release and reset mysoin, this step consumes ATP (energy)
  170. Stopping muscle contraction
    • Removing the Calcium: as long as calcium is present and ATP is available, the process keeps repeating
    • Energy Source - the ATP molecule: ATP is the "fuel", ATP is the energy source for muscle contraction and required for: 1. detaching the myosin head from actin and 2. removing calcium form the area
  171. Central Nervous System
    Brain
    Spinal Cord
    • Brain: controls center of body, process and interprets information (integration)
    • Spinal Cord: passes info to and from the brain and spinal nerves, major reflex center
  172. Peripheral nervous system
    Spinal Nerves
    Cranial Nerves
    • Spinal Nerves: attach to the spinal cord
    • 31 pairs
    • Cranial Nerves: attach to the brain, 12 pairs: optic nerve is one of those paris
  173. Distribution of the Nervous System
    Input & Output
    • Input: gathers information (sensory input) / sensory (afferent) neurons: carry sensory info from most tissues to CNS
    • Output: responds to gathered information (motor output), motor (efferent) neurons: carry motor info from CNS to muscle and glands
  174. Nervous Tissue: 2 basic cell types
    • Neurons:  "wire-like" cells that carry electrical signals through the body, typically do not divide, have extreme longevity, high metabolic rate
    • Neuroglia: "nerve glue", protects and nourish neurons, but do not carry nerve signals, can divide, most brain tumors form from glial cells (gliomas)
  175. Basic structure & function of the nerve cell
    • Cell body: aka soma, contains nucleus & organelles
    • Dendrites: carry signal toward the cell body
    • Axon: carries the signal away from the cell body
  176. Types of Neurons
    Multipolar
    Bipolar
    Unipolar
    • Multipolar: have more than one dendrite, motor & CNS neurons, most abundant type of neuorn (99%)
    • Bipolar: have 2 nuerites, one axon & one dendrite, special sense neurons (vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell & taste)
    • Unipolar: have one neurite that contains both the one axon and one dendrite, general sense neurons (touch, temperature, pain, proprioception)
  177. Neuroglia Cells
    Ependymocytes: CNS cells
    Astrocytes: CNS cells
    Oligodedrocytes: CNS cells
    Microglial cells: CNS cells
    Neurolemmocytes [Schwann Cells]: PNS cells
    • Ependymocytes: produce and circulate CSF
    • Astrocytes: help make a blood brain barrier
    • Oligodendrocytes: form myelin sheath in CNS
    • Microglial cells: immune defense cells of CNS
    • Neurolemmocytes: form myelin sheath in PNS
  178. What is the point of communication between 2 neurons
    Synapse
  179. Structure of the Myelin Sheath
    Neurilemma
    Myelin
    Nerve fiber node
    Internode
    • Neurilemma: outer portion of the neurolemmocyte nucleus & cytoplasm
    • Myelin: the inner fatty portion that tightly wraps around the axon
    • Nerve fiber node: "gap" between the myelin sheath / Nodes = No myelin
    • Internode: the myelinated part of the axon
  180. What electronically insulates axons and increases the speed of transmission by forcing the signal to jump from one doe to the next
    Mylein
  181. What changes energy from one form to another
    transducers
  182. Types of Receptors
    Thermoreceptors
    Chemoreceptors
    Photoreceptors
    Mechanoreceptors (4 types)
    • Thermoreceptors: responds to temperature
    • Chemoreceptors: responds to chemicals (smell & taste)
    • Photoreceptors: responds to light (sight)
    • Mechanoreceptors: responds to mechanical force: light touch, pressure, pain, and proprioception
  183. CNS 4 basic divisions
    Cerebrum
    Diencephalon
    Cerebellum
    Brain Stem
    • Cerebrum: largest mass portion of brain / initiate voluntary movement
    • Diencephalon: linked to emotion
    • Cerebellum: smoothing our coordinated movements
    • Brain Stem: imporatn for our basic life support system
  184. CNS: Lobes
    Frontal
    Parietal
    Occipital
    Temporal
    • Frontal: initiates voluntary skeletal muscle activity
    • Parietal: somatesthetic communication (our awareness of our own body)
    • Occipital: interpretation of movement that focus on eye correlation
    • Temporal: integration of auditory sensation, storage
  185. What is the passageway for the spinal cord
    vertebral column
  186. What is the passageway for spinal nerves to exit the vertebral canal
    Intervertebral foramen
  187. PNS:  Dorsal root
    • section of spinal nerve occurs within vertebral column
    • sensory [info] neurons ONLY
  188. PNS: Ventral root
    • section of spinal nerve occurs within vertebral column
    • motor [info] neurons ONLY
  189. PNS: Spinal nerve trunk
    • Formed by the junction of the ventral and dorsal roots
    • contains both sensory and motor neurons
  190. Dorsal ramus
    • crosses over the transverse processes of vertabrae & innervates the back muscle
    • it is a mixed nerve carrying both sensory & motor neurons
  191. Ventral ramus
    • innervates the antero-lateral bodywall & both the upper and lower limbs
    • the largest branch of the spinal nerve
  192. Cranial nerve I - olfactory nerve
    Eric clue *nose
    Nerve for smelling in the nose
  193. Cranial nerve II - optic nerve
    Eric clue *two eyes
    Nerve for vision in the eye
  194. Cranial nerve VIII (8) - vestibulocochlear nerve
    Eric clue *Eight Ear hearing & balance
    Nerve for hearing and equilibrium in the ear
  195. Cranial nerve III - oculomotor nerve
    Eric clue * eye movement
    Nerve to Extraocular movements
  196. Cranial nerve IV (4) - trochlear nerve
    Eric clue *eye movement
    Nerve to Extraocular movements
  197. Cranial nerve VI (6) - abducens nerve
    Eric clue *eye movement, abducts the eye, laterally rotates
    Nerve to Extraocular movements
  198. Cranial nerve XII (12) - hypoglossal nerve
    Eric clue *Twelve Tongue - tongue muscles
    Nerve to tongue muscles
  199. Cranial nerve V (5) - trigeminal nerve
    Eric clue *Five Face
    • Nerve for sensing touch on face, tongue and teeth.
    • Nerve to muscles of mastication.
  200. Cranial nerve VII (7) - facial nerve
    Eric clue *seven tastes like heaven
    • Nerve to muscles of fascial expression.
    • Nerve for sensing sweet, salty and sour taste.
    • Nerve to salivary glands.
  201. Cranial nerve IX (9) - glossopharyngeal nerve
    Eric clue *nine tastes sublime
    • Nerve for sensing bitter taste.
    • Nerve to salivary glands
  202. Cranial nerve X (10) - vagus nerve
    Eric clue *Vegas
    • nerve to pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles (swallowing and speaking)
    • parasympathetic to heart and digestive system
  203. Cranial nerve XI - accessory nerve
    Eric clue *accessorize
    Nerve to trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles
  204. Types of reflexes
    Flexor withdrawal
    Stretch
    Golgi tendon
    • Flexor withdrawal: reflex that causes us to withdraw from a painful stimulus; the "ouch" reflex
    • Stretch: reflex that causes the muscle to contract after a sudden stretch; the "knee jerk" reflex, bobbing head
    • Golgi tendon: Reflex that causes the muscle to relax to avoid tearing of the muscle or tendon
  205. What system regulates the smooth & cardiac muscles / innervates the involuntary muscle organs of the body
    Autonomic nervous system
  206. Sympathetic Neuronal Pathways
    Parasympathetic Neuronal Pathways
    • Sympathetic: Fight or flight response
    • Parasympathetic: Rest & Digest Response
  207. Nerves can have both sensory and motor neurons. These mixed neurons are the most common type in the body:
    Endoneurium
    Perineurium
    Epineurium
    • Endoneurium: surrounds individual neurons
    • Perineurium: surrounds groups of neurons (fasciculus)
    • Epineurium: surrounds the entire nerve
  208. Meninges: 3 meningeal membranes surrounding the CNS: from outside to inside they are
    • dura mater (tough mother) - thickest
    • arachnoid mater (spider-like mother) - thick web-like creamy appearance
    • pia mater (delicate mother) - right against the brain
  209. Protective structures of CNS
    • Skull & Vertebrae
    • Meninges
    • Cerebrospinal flluid
  210. Periosteal dura (1st layer)
    • stays on the bone
    • superficial meningeal membrane
    • thick, 2 layered sheet of dense CT
    • attaches to cranial bones
  211. Meningeal dura (2nd layer)
    • forms the dural septa
    • divides as it dives
  212. Falx cerebri
    separates the 2 halves of the cerebrum
  213. Tentorium cerebelli
    separates the 2 halves of the cerebellum
  214. Tentorium cerebelli
    separates the cerebrum and cerebellum
  215. Dural venous sinuses
    venous channels found between layers of dura mater (blood)
  216. What is the middle meningeal membrane
    arachnoid mater
  217. beam-like extensions of the arachnoid mater
    arachnoid trabeculae (beams)
  218. below the arachnoid,  space between the arachnoid mater and pia mate, the CSF circulates through this space
    subarachnoid space
  219. Only on gray matter, deepest of the menigeal membranes, lies on the surface of the brain and spinal cord
    pia mater
  220. Other key spaces associated with the meninges:
    Epidural space & Subdural space
    • Epidural space: space between the dura mater and bone. Found in the vertebral canal, but not the skull
    • Subdural space: space between the arachnoid mater and the dura mater
  221. Muscular epithelial sac that houses the testes
    helps keeps the testes 3 degrees celsius cooler than normal body temperature
    Scrotum
  222. Male gonads (primary sex organs)
    have both endocrine & exocrine functions
    Testis
  223. Spermatic cord (3 components)
    Ductus deferens
    Testicular vessels
    Nerves
    • Ductus deferens: (vas) deferens / transport tube for sperm
    • Testicular vessels: carry blood to and from testes
    • Nerves: contain mostly to and from testes
  224. secretions make up 60% of semen
    posterior to bladder and prostate
    supply fructose
    primary energy source for ejaculated sperm
    secrete prostaglandins
    seminal (vesicles) glands
  225. secretions make up 30% of semen
    inferior to bladder and anterior to rectum
    what secretes an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the acidic vaginal
    secretions, an important function because sperm are more viable in a
    more alkaline environment
    prostate gland
  226. secretions make up 5% of semen
    inferior to prostate
    empties into urethra
    secretes an alkaline mucous-like substance that lubricates the urethra prior to ejaculation
    bulbourethral glands
  227. has both reproductive and urinary functions
    together with the scrotum, forms the external male genitalia
    penis
  228. site of sperm production
    seminiferous tubules
  229. site where sperm is stored and matures (learns to swim)
    epididymis
  230. carries sperm from through prostate to urethra
    ejaculatory ducts
  231. female gonands
    have both endocrine & exocrine functions
    ovaries
  232. aka fallopian tubes or oviduct
    transport tube for the ovum
    fertilization usually occurs here
    uterine tubes
  233. immediately posterior & superior to the bladder
    single largest mass of smooth muscle
    implantation occurs here
    houses the developing fetus
    uterus
  234. "birth canal"
    between urethra & rectum
    stratified squamous epithelium
    vagina
  235. Clitoris
    • erectile tissue
    • homologous with the penis
  236. labia minora
    • inner fold of hairless skin
    • protects opening of vagina and urethra
  237. labia majora
    • homologous or similar to the scotum
    • outer larger fold
  238. Vestibule
    the cleft between the two labia minora that serves and the port of entry to the vagina and urethra
  239. Bulb of the vestibule
    • some erectile tissue
    • expand and swell due to arousel
  240. vestibular glands
    • secrete lubricating fluids
    • homologus with bulbourethral male gland
  241. fingerlike extensions of the uterine tube which draw the ovum into the uterine tube
    fimbriae
  242. opening of the uterine tube
    ostium
  243. What are the respiratory functions
    • Respiration: breathing
    • Vocalization: make sound
  244. Respiratory passageways
    • nasal cavity: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
    • oral cavity: stratified squamous epithelium
    • hard palate: maxilla is main component
    • soft palate
    • pharynx: throat, shared by digestive and respiratory systems
    • layrnx: voice box
    • trachea: windpipe, made of cartilage
    • bronchial tree
    • lungs
  245. Structure of the Respiratory Passageways
    mucous coated epithelial layer that lines the respiratory passageways, pseudostratifed ciliated columnar epithelium
    tunica mucosa
  246. Structure of the Respiratory Passageways
    vascular loose CT layer situated immediately deep to the epithelial layer
    tela submucosa
  247. Structure of the Respiratory Passageways
    variable layer that differs from one region of the respiratory passageways to another, cartilage and muscle tissue
    tunica media
  248. Structure of the Respiratory Passageways
    an outer dense irregular CT coat that wraps around the other layers
    tunica adventitia
  249. Cartilages of the larynx
    Hyaline cartilage (first 3), last is elastic cartilage
    • Thyroid
    • Cricoid
    • Arytenoid
    • Epiglottis (elastic)
  250. Bronchial tree basic structural design
    • principal or main bronchi (1st division)
    • lobar bronchi (secondary)
    • segmental bronchi (third)
    • 20 or more branches until alveoli
  251. Has a thick layer of smooth muscle, regulates airway constricted & dilation, last part of bronchial tree
    Broonchioles
  252. Terminal branch of the bronchial tree
    Alveolar Ducts
  253. Enlarged sac leading to multiple alveoli, central area
    Alveolar Sacs
  254. Tiny sacs where gas exchange takes place, simple squamous epithelium, last spot where air travels to
    Alveoli
  255. Pulmonary arterioles
    unoxygenated blood from heart, carry O2 poor blood to the alveoli
  256. Pulmonary capillaries
    • exchanges gases (CO2 & O2) with alveoli
    • simple squamous epithelium
  257. Pulmonary venules
    carry O2 rich blood back to the heart
  258. Pathway of air to and from the lungs
    • *down is inhalation*
    • Nasal/oral cavity --->
    • pharynx --->
    • larynx --->
    • trachea --->
    • primary bronchi --->
    • alveoli ---> O2 pulmonary capillaries CO2 ---> alveoli all the way back up
    • *up is exhalation*
  259. Pathway of blood to and from the lungs
    • right atrium
    • right ventricle
    • pulmonary trunk
    • pulmanary arteries
    • pulmonary arterioles
    • pulmonary capillaries
    • CO2 Alveoli
    • O2
    • pulmonary capillaries
    • pulmonary venules
    • pulmonary veins
    • left atrium
  260. Cells that make cartilage
    chondrocytes
  261. Avascular - Slow to heal
    Differs from other CTs - not having nerves or blood vessels dispersed in its matrix
    cartilage
  262. Most common cartilage found in the body
    Most abundant, few fibers
    Hyaline
  263. Cartilage acts as a shock absorber
    Has enough strength to resist compression & tension, many fibers
    Found between pubic bones & vertebrae (intervertebral discs/symphysis pubis)
    Fibrocartilage
  264. Flexible cartilage
    Found in the external ear and epiglottis
    Elastic cartilage
  265. Osteoblast
    • bone builder
    • bone forming or depositing cell
  266. Osteocyte
    supervises / helps regulate building of bone
  267. Osteoclast
    • bone destroyer
    • cell responsible for breaking down or resorbing bone
  268. Collagen
    gives bone its tensile strength / resists tension
  269. Hydroxyapatite
    • the hard stuff of the bone
    • resists compression on site in bone
  270. Osteon
    is the fundamental structural unit of compact bone
  271. Compact bone is...
    • microscopically porous
    • external layer
    • dense & vascular
  272. Spongy or Trabecular bone
    • macroscopically porous
    • internal layer
    • vascular & spongy
    • filled with bone marrow
  273. Classification of bones
    Long
    Short
    Flat
    Irregular
    • Long: greatest length in one dimension / ex. phalanges, ulna, tibia, fibula etc.
    • Short: cube-like bones
    • Flat: plateline bones / ex. sternum
    • Irregular: complex shapes that do not fit in any of the above categories / ex. scapula
    • SHORT, FLAT & IRREGULAR BONES: similar to the epiphysis of long bones, do NOT have a diaphysis or medullary cavity, core of spongy bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone, marrow fills its porous cavities
  274. Thin layer of dense irregular CT that envelops the bone, has an outer fibrous layer with numerous blood vessels and nerves, has an inner osteogenic layer
    Periosteum
  275. Is hylaine cartilage, forms ball-bearing-like surfaces that cushion the opposing bone ends and reduce friction, lacks nerves and blood vessels
    articular cartilage
  276. Typical long bone has flared ends or epiphyses
    diaphysis vs epiphysis
  277. thick-walled, hollow center of the diaphysis, yellow bone marrow
    medullary cavity
  278. Openings in the bone that carry the blood vessels into the bone tissue
    Nutrient foramen
  279. Functions of Bone Tissue & Bones
    Eric Clue * M.E. C. P.B.S.
    • Movement
    • Energy storage
    • Calcium
    • Protection
    • Blood-cell formation
    • Support
  280. What are the 2 basic joints (see pg 95)
    • 1. Synarthroses (with 2 subcategories - immovable, "solid" joints:)
    • - Fibrous joints: bones are connected by a solid mass of collagen fibers
    • - Cartilaginous joints: bones connected by a solid mass of cartilage
    • 2. Diarthrosis or synovial joint
    • freely moveable joints, "hollow" joints, most common type of joint in body
  281. 3 types of fibrous joints
    • 1. Interosseous Membrane: CT membrane found between 2 bones
    • 2. Syndesmosis: bones joined by bands or thin layers of dense CT / example dento-alveolar syndesmosis or gomphosis: a peg and socket joint used to anchor teeth to maxilla & mandible
    • 3. Sutures: bones are "sewn" together with minimal amounts of CT, most common joint in skull, similar to puzzle pieces, they form tight connections that are very difficult to separate
  282. 2 types of cartilaginous joints
    • 1. Synchondrosis: made of hyaline cartilage
    • 2. Symphysis pubis: made of fibrocartilage, has strength to resist both compression and tension, acts as a shock absorber
  283. Synovial Fluid
    • made of loose CT
    • continuous w/the outer margins of the articular cartilage
    • smooth inner lining that makes synovial fluid
  284. Synovial Fluid
    • lubricating fluid that fills the joint cavity
    • resembles raw eggwhite ovum = egg
  285. The functions of the articular disc and meniscus include:
    • 1. providing shock absorption
    • 2. proving a better fit between articulating boney surfaces
    • 3. providing adaptable surfaces for combined movements
    • 4 distributing the weight over a greater contact surface
    • 5. spreading the synovial lubricant across the articular surfaces of the joint
  286. Ligaments
    • connect bone to bone
    • typically dense regular CT
  287. Tendons
    • connect muscle to bone
    • usually dense regular CT
  288. Bursae
    little bags of synovial fluid that reduce friction between neighboring tissues not bones
  289. Structure of synovial sheath
    is a modified bursa that wraps around a tendon to protect it from friction on all sides
  290. Retinaculum
    fibrous band that holds tendons in place and prevents them from being displaced upward
  291. Conjuctiva
    • stratified squamous epithelium
    • continuous with epidermis
    • mucus secreting membrane on anterior surface of eye
  292. Lens of eye
    changes shape to focus incoming light waves on the retina at the posterior aspect of the eye
  293. Fibrous tunic (2 components)
    • Sclera: white part of the eye, extrinsic eye muscles attache here
    • Cornea: transparent dome that focues on retina, does not change shape, avascular
  294. Vascular tunic (3 components)
    • Choroid coat: vascular loose CT that forms the majority of the middle layer and distributes blood vessels to the tissues of the eye
    • Ciliary body (2 components): Ciliary muscle: contracts and relaxes to modify the shape of the lens / Zonular fibers: slender fibers that attache the ciliary muscle ring to the equator of the lens
    • Iris: colored part of eye, has muscles that control the amount of light entering the eye
  295. Functions of the iris
    pupil
    sphincter pupillae muscle
    dilator pupillae muscle
    • Sphincter pupillae muscle: smooth muscle, decreases size of pupil (constriction), controlled by parasympathetic division
    • Dialtor pupillae muscle: increases size of pupil (dilation), controlled by sympathetic division
  296. Pathway of light entering the eye
    • Conjunctiva
    • Cornea
    • Pupil
    • Lens
    • Retina
  297. Internal tunic or retina
    Transducer cells: Rods & Cones
    • Rods: extremely light sensitive, used for night vision, help us see shade so gray (black & white), forms our peripheral vision
    • Cones: low sensitivity to light, used for day vision, help us see colors, form our central vision
  298. Auditory ossicles from lateral to medial (3)
    • Malleus
    • Incus
    • Stapes
  299. What is the inner ear responsible for
    sound reception and equilibrium
  300. What is the Cochlear Division of the Inner Ear responsible for
    hearing
  301. What is the Vestibular Division of the Inner Ear responsible for
    equilibrium
  302. Location of the Olfactory Epithelium &
    Pathway of Olfactory
    • Location: ceiling of the nasal cavity
    • Pathway: the human nose contains 5 million olfactory receptors, of which there are 1,000 different types
  303. Statistics: Urine Formation
    • kidneys filter 180 L (48 gallons) of fluid each day
    • 99% of fluid filtered by the kidneys is reabsorbed back into the body
    • 1% of the fluid leaves as urine
    • urine is produced 24 hrs/day
  304. Urine Formation
    • filtration of blood: glomerulus --> glomerular capsule
    • reabsorption of H2O & nutrients: renal tubule --> peritubular capillaries
    • secretion of wastes: peritubular capillaries --> renal tubule
  305. Kidneys
    • level of T11-L3
    • anterior to QL
    • lateral to psoas major
  306. Ureters
    run along the anterolateral side of the vertebral column
  307. Bladder
    • superior & posterior to pubis
    • male: anterior to rectum & superior to prostate
    • female: anterior to vagina & uterus
  308. Urethra
    • male: passes through penis & prostate
    • female: first of 3 openings
  309. 3 Tunics
    Tunica mucosa
    Tunica muscularis
    Tunica adventitia
    • Tunica mucosa: epithelial inner lining, transitional epithelium
    • Tunica muscularis: smooth muscle - moves urine through the system
    • Tunica adventitia: dense irregular CT - covering of passageways
  310. Ureter
    transports urine from kidney to bladder
  311. Bladder
    • collapsible muscular sac that stores urine
    • transitional epithelium
  312. Urethra
    • drains urine from the bladder & conveys it out of the body
    • pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  313. Collecting tubule
    • makes up the renal pyramid
    • collect urine from/formed by nephron
  314. Renal artery
    blood from aorta to kidney
  315. Renal vein
    blood from kidney to inferior venacava - deoxygenated
  316. Renal pyramid
    • draining tubes collecting urine in kidney
    • tons of hollow tubes
  317. Urinary Tubules: Glomerular capsule
    cuplike structure that surrounds the glomerulus & collects filtrate
  318. Circulatory Vessels: Glomerulus
    ball of specialized capillaries that forms filtrate
  319. Circulatory Vessels: Peritubular capillaries
    surround the renal tubule and exchange nutrients and wastes with it
  320. Where is urine formed
    Nephron: made up of 2 regions: renal tubule & renal corpuscle
  321. Renal tubule
    coiled tubule through which filtrate flows and urine is formed
  322. Axial Skeleton
    central line/central access of body
    • skull
    • vertebral column
    • rib cage
  323. Appendicular Skeleton
    • upper limb bones
    • lower limb bones
    • *appendages branch off axial skeleton
  324. 4 Regions of Trunk & # of Vertebrae
    • Neck/Cervical: 7 Vertebrae
    • Thorax/Thoracic: 12 Vertebrae
    • Abdomen/Lumbar: 5 Vertebrae
    • Pelvis/Sacrum: Sacrum 5 fused / Coccyx 4 fused
  325. Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle
    Skeleton Elements
    • Scapula
    • Clavicle
  326. Brachium (arm)
    Skeleton Element
    Humerus
  327. Antebrachium (forearm)
    Skeleton Elements
    • Radius
    • Ulna
  328. Manus (hand) - 3 Regions & # of bones
    • Carpus - 8 bones
    • Metacarpus - 5 metacarpal bones
    • Digits - 14 phalanges
  329. Pelvic Girdle (os coxa: hip bones)
    fusion of 3 bones:
    • ilium
    • ischium
    • pubis
  330. Anatomical Position
    • Body erect
    • Upper limbs @ sides
    • Palms facing forward
    • Lower Limbs together
  331. An imaginary vertical plane that separates the body into right and left parts
    Sagittal plane
  332. The imaginary vertical plane that divides the body longitudinally into exact right and left halves
    Median or median sagittal plane
  333. The imaginary vertical plane that is parallel to the median plane and divides the body into unequal right and left parts
    Paramedian or parasagittal plane
  334. The imaginary vertical planes which course at right angles to the sagittal plane. They divide the body into anterior and posterior parts. The coronal suture of the skull follows this plane.
    Coronal/Frontal Plane (front and back)
  335. The imaginary vertical plane that parallels the horizon. A plane situated at right angles to either of the vertical planes of space.
    • Horizontal plane (transverse)
    • divides the body in superior/inferior
  336. Actual cuts, or slices, made along the LONG axis of the body is called
    Longitudinal sections

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