A&P Lecture Test 1

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A&P Lecture Test 1
2013-10-06 19:03:37
Vet Tech

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  1. What deals with structures so small we need a microscope?
    Microscopic Anatomy
  2. What deals with body parts large enough to be seen with the unaided eye?
    Macroscopic Anatomy
  3. What would be the study of legs, thorax, etc?
    Regional Anatomy
  4. What would be the study of systems?
    Systemic Anatomy
  5. What plane divides the body into cranial and caudal?
    Transverse Plane
  6. What plane divides the body into equal left and right planes?
    Median Plane
  7. What plane divides the body into dorsal and ventral?
    Dorsal Plane
  8. What plane divides the body into unequal left and right halves?
    Sagittal Plane
  9. What term means that the left and right halves are of the body are essentially mirror images of each other?
    Bilateral Symmetry
  10. What two things does the dorsal body cavity contain?
    Brain and spinal cord
  11. What two cavities make up the ventral body cavity?
    Thoracic Cavity and Abdominal Cavity
  12. What is the lining of the thoracic cavity?
  13. Whats the name of the side that covers the organs? the entire cavity?
    Visceral; Parietal
  14. What is the lining of abdominal cavity?
  15. What is the basic functional unit of animal life?
  16. What 5 life functions must be carried out to survive
    1. Growth 2. Reproduction 3. seek out food 4. Respond to positive and negative stimuli 5. eliminate waste
  17. When specialized cells group together they form what?
  18. What are the four basic tissues?
    Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
  19. Give an example of epithelial tissue.
    Lining of the mouth
  20. What are the three means of communication in the body?
    • 1. Nervous
    • 2. Lymphatics
    • 3. Circulatory
  21. What is name for epithelium that opens to the outside? Does not open to the outside?
    • Outside- Mucosal
    • Inside- Serosal
  22. Which epithelium is delicate, single-layered, and flat-celled? Give an example
    • Simple squamous epithelium
    • Ex: Filtration membranes of kidneys
  23. Which epithelium is single-layered and cube shape? Give an example
    • Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    • Ex: Lining of the ducts of the liver
  24. Which epithelium is single-layered and column shaped? Give an example.
    • Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • Ex: Excretory ducts
  25. Which epithelium is single-layered columnar that appear to be stratified? Give an example.
    • Pseudostratified Epithelium
    • Ex: Nasal Cavity
  26. Which epithelium tissue is composed of multiple layers of flat cells? Give an example.
    • Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • Ex: Lining the mouth
  27. Which epithelial tissue has multiple layers of cube shaped cells? Give an example.
    • Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
    • Ex: Ducts of mammary glands
  28. Which epithelial tissue has multiple layers of columnar cells? Give an example.
    • Stratified Columnar Epithelium
    • Ex: Large ducts of mammary glands
  29. Which epithelial tissue can expand and contrast, and may appear columnar, cuboidal or squamous? Give an example.
    • Transitional Epithelium
    • Ex: Urinary Bladder
  30. In nervous tissue what is the process (nerve fiber) called if they conduct impulses away from the cell body? Towards the cell body?
    • Away- Axon
    • Towards- Dendrite
  31. The ____ consist of a nerve cell body and two or more nerve processes.
  32. Which tissue gives form and strength to organs, and porvides protection and leverage?
    Connective Tissue
  33. What are 3 types of muscle tissue?
    • 1. Skeletal
    • 2. Smooth
    • 3. Muscle
  34. What are made up of tissues that work together for a common purpose?
  35. What is the name for a group of organs that are involved in a common set of activities?
  36. Which tissue ranges from adipose to bone and makes up the animals major weight contribution?
    Connective tissue
  37. What is the state of normal anatomy and physiology?
  38. What is the maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium in the body?
  39. The word___ implies activity, energy, change, and work, and _____ refers to balance.
    Dynamic and Equilibrium
  40. Which two systems are primarily responsible for homeostasis?
    Endocrine and Nervous
  41. What is the study of prenatal development of an individual beginning with the zygote?
  42. What the 5 stages of a baby?
    • 1. Egg
    • 2. Zygote
    • 3. Embryo
    • 4. Fetus
    • 5. New born
  43. How many weeks does it take, in dogs, to implant the zygote into the uterus?
    2 weeks
  44. 3 examples of endoderm
    • 1. Lungs
    • 2. Gut
    • 3. Liver
  45. 3 examples of ectoderm
    • 1 Skin
    • 2. Hair
    • 3. hooves
  46. 3 examples of mesoderm
    • 1. Kidneys
    • 2. blood
    • 3. cartilage
  47. Epithelia that release chemical substances are called what?
    Grandular epithelium
  48. 6 functions of epithelia
    • 1. protects, lines and covers
    • 2. filters biochemical substances
    • 3. absorb nutrients
    • 4. Provide sensory output
    • 5. Manufactures secretions
    • 6. Manufactures excretions
  49. Grandular epithelium- individually are ____ and organized they are called _____
    • Individually- Goblet cells
    • Organized- Beta cells
  50. Which surface on an epithelial cell faces the lumen or cavity? Which surface faces the connective tissue?
    • Lumen- Apical
    • Tissue- Basal
  51. What are the 3 types of junctions?
    • 1. Gap Junction
    • 2. Tight Junction
    • 3. Spot Desmosomes
  52. Which junction is formed by fusion of the outermost layers of the plasma membrane of adjoining cells and prevents passage through from the apical surface?
    Tight Junction
  53. Which Junction connects the plasma membranes of adjacent cells and is strong?
    Spot Desmosomes
  54. Which junction is linked by tubular channel proteins, called connexons
    Gap Junction
  55. Blood Vessels have ___1__surfaces. Microvilli are found in the _2_. Brush boarder are found in the _3_. _4_ is smooth and has _5_.
    • 1. Smooth
    • 2. Intestines
    • 3. Trachea
    • 4. Skin
    • 5. Keratin
  56. Which epithelium is delicate and thin, and found lining surfaces involved in passage of gas or liquid?
    Simple Squamous Epithelium
  57. What is the name for the simple squamous epithelium found in the pleura, pericardial, and pertoneal?
  58. What is the simple squamous epithelium found in the blood and lymphatic vessels?
  59. What is the simple squamous epithelium found in the brain, eye, and discreet areas?
    Mysenchymal Epithelium
  60. ____ will cause the vessels to dilate, resulting in movement of the cells sliding apart and allowing ____ and protein rich to escape into the tissue.
    Histamine, WBC, Plasma
  61. Which epithelium is a single layer of square cells with a dark staining nuclei, and occurs where secretion and absorption occur?
    Where is it found?
    Simple Cuboidal Epithelium found in the ducts of the liver
  62. Which epithelium is elongated and closely packed together, and line the gastrointestinal tract?
    Simple Columnar
  63. Which epithelium consists of various layers, with cuboidal cells forming the base and occur in regions of the body that are subject to mechanical and chemical stresses?
    Stratified Squamous Epithelium
  64. Which epithelium generally occurs as two layers of cuboidal cells, found along large excretory ducts?
    Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
  65. ____ is vasodilatation and reduce cardio output.
  66. Which Epithelial cells appear to be stratified because the nuclei are found at different levels?
    Pseudostratified columnar Epithelium
  67. Which Epithelial cells have the ability to stretch?
    Transitional Epithelium
  68. Which epithelium cells have the ability to manufacture and discharge a secretion?
    Grandular Epithelium
  69. Cell is intact=___
    A part of cell is lost= ___
    Entire cell is lost =___
    • Merocrine
    • Apocrine
    • Holocrine
  70. ___ + ___ =Mucus
    Mucin + Water = Mucus
  71. What is a solid elevation, influx of inflammatory cells into the dermis?
  72. What is a small circumscribed area within the epidermis filled with pus?
  73. What is a small circumscribed area within or below the epidermis filled with clear fluid?
  74. What is a sharply circumscribed, raised lesion that appears and disappears?
  75. What is a solid elevation that extends into deeper layers of skin?
  76. What is a large mass involving skin or subcutaneous tissue?
  77. Name the study of for the following: Urinary, Integumentary, Articular, Muscle, Circulatory, Sensory, endocrine, skeletal
    Urology, Dermatology, Arthrology, Myology, Cardiology, Esthesiology, Endocrinology, Osteology
  78. What is a accumulation of loose fragments of the horny layer of the skin?
  79. What is a increased epidermal and/or dermal melanin?
  80. What is a dilated hair follicle filled with corneocytes and sebaceous material?
  81. What is a scale of loose keratin flakes or "peeling" keratin arranged in a circle?
    Epidermal Collarette
  82. What is a shallow epidermal defect that does not penetrate the basal membrane?
  83. What is a focal loss of epidermis with exposure of underlying dermis?
  84. What is thickening and hardening of the skin?
  85. What 3 components is all connective tissue composed of?
    • 1. Ground Substance
    • 2. Cells
    • 3. Fibers
  86. A mixture of the fibers and ground substance produce the ____.
    Extracellular Matrix
  87. What is the medium through with cells exchange nutrients and waste with the bloodstream?
    Ground Substance
  88. Name the 3 fibers of connective tissue.
    • 1. Collagenous
    • 2. reticular
    • 3. elastic
  89. Which is the most commonly found in the body?
  90. In Collagenous fibers the fibers are found in ____ and ____.
    Tendons and ligaments
  91. In collagenous fibers the fiber itself is white and is often called ___.
    White fibers
  92. Which fiber is composed of collagen, and is thin, delicate, and branched?
    Reticular Fibers
  93. Which fiber is coiled and can stretch and and contract like a rubber band?
    Elastic Fiber
  94. Because of their color, the elastic fibers are often called ____.
    Yellow Fibers
  95. Those cells that remain in the connective tissue are called
    Fixed Cells
  96. Cells that pass in and out of the connective tissue are called
    Transient cells
  97. Fixed cells are involved in the production and maintenance of the _____.
  98. Transient cells are involved in ____ and ____ primarily.
    Repair and protection
  99. Fixed cells include ____, ____, ____, ____, and _____.
    Fibroblast, Chondroblast, Osteoblast, Adipocytes, and Reticular cells
  100. Fat cells group into groups known as ________.
    Adipose Tissue.
  101. _____ are large, irregularly shaped that make and secrete both fibers and ground substances.
  102. _____ are flat star shaped cells with long out reaching arms forming net-like connections.
    Reticular cells
  103. Reticular cells are involved in the _____ response.
  104. What are the 3 types of transient or wandering cells?
    Leukocytes, Mast cells, Macrophages
  105. ______ are white blood cells.
  106. Leukocytes can squeeze between the spaces between the ________ cells of the capillaries to enter the surrounding tissue, this is known as ____.
    Squamous epithelial; Diapedesis
  107. ____ cells have dark-staining granules in the cytoplasm. These granules contain what 3 things?
    Mast; 1. Histamine 2. Heparin 3. Serotonin
  108. ______ promotes dilation of the vessels increasing diapedesis.
  109. _____ are large having a primary job of phagocytizing scavenger.
  110. Name the Macrophage of the Liver
    Kupffer cells
  111. Macrophage of the brain
  112. Microphage of the Loose connective tissue
  113. Microphage of the blood stream
  114. Connective tissue is divided into 2 broad categories. What are they?
    • 1. Connective tissue proper
    • 2. Specialized connective tissue
  115. What are the 2 sub classes of Connective tissue proper?
    Loose connective tissue and Dense connective tissue
  116. Elastic cartilage is found commonly in the _____ and the _____.
    External Ear and Epiglottis
  117. Which cartilage contains thick bundles of collagen fibers, found in the spaces between vertebrae of the spine.
  118. What is the hardest most rigid type of connective tissue?
  119. The Liquid component of blood is the ?
  120. What are the 3 blood cells
    Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Thrombocytes
  121. 4 common types of epithelial membranes.
    • 1. Mucous
    • 2. Serous
    • 3. Cutaneous
    • 4. Synovial
  122. The epithelial layer in mucous membranes is usually composed of either stratified squamous or simple columnar and it covers a layer of loose connective tissue.
    Lamina Propria (Sub Mucosa)
  123. Mucosae can produce large quantities of protective and lubricating ?
  124. ___ or ___ are responsible for the production and secretion of mucus that consist primarily of water, electrolytes and a protein
    Goblet cells or multicellular glands
  125. Serous membranes line walls and cover the organs that fill ___ body cavities, such as the ___,___,____,and ___.
    Closed; Chest, thorax, abdominal and pelvic
  126. The interstitial fluid that passes in the serosa layers is ____ and is thin and watery.
  127. When cells, protein, and other solid material mix with serous fluid, it becomes denser than a transudate and is called a ____.
  128. When an abnormally large amount of fluid enters a body cavity, the fluid is known as an ____.
  129. The stomach is connected to the abdominal wall by mesentery called the ____. The uterus is similarly attached via the ____ _____.
    Omentum; Broad Ligament
  130. the Cutaneous membrane is also called ___ or more simply ___
    Integument; skin
  131. What is the waterproof quality of skin?
  132. Synovial membranes line the cavities of
  133. Unlike other membranes, synovial membranes have no ____, they are composed exclusively of ____ _____.
    Epithelium; Connective Tissue
  134. Muscle cells/fibers are uniquely designed for ____. The fibers are composed of specialized proteins called ____ and ____.
    Contraction; Actin and Myosin.
  135. Skeletal muscle is controlled through conscious efforts, therefore it is ___
  136. Since Smooth and Cardiac muscle contraction cannot be controlled by the mind, what are they?
  137. Name the layers of the digestive tract from inside out.
    Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscle, and Serosa
  138. In cardiac muscle the cells are connected to each other by _____ ____.
    Intercalated Disk
  139. Nervous tissue is designed to receive and transmit ____and ___signals.
    Electrical and Chemical
  140. Nervous tissue is composed primarily of two general cell types,
    Neurons and Neuroglial cells
  141. What does the central nervous system consist of?
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  142. Neurons are composed of 3 primary parts, name them.
    • Perikaryon (stroma)
    • Dendrites
    • Axon
  143. Neuroglial cells serve to ____ the neurons.
  144. The bodies initial response to injuries is _____.
  145. What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?
    • 1. Heat
    • 2. Swelling
    • 3. Redness
    • 4. Pain
    • 5. Loss of function
  146. Inflammation begins with in 5-10mins. with ______, followed by a sustained period of _____.
    Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
  147. ____and____ molecules are released from the mast cells which stimulate vasodilation and increase permeability of the capillaries.
    Histamine and Heparin
  148. Fluid from the plasma, composed of ____, ___, and ____, pour into the affected area, causing swelling of the soft tissue structure.
    • 1.Enzymes
    • 2. Antibodies
    • 3. Protein
  149. It wounds that are infected, _____, and _____ are responsible for _____, and disposing of invasive microorganisms.
    • Neutrophils and macrophages. 
    • Phagocytizing
  150. A new bright pink tissue called ____ tissue, forms beneath the overlaying blood clot or scab.
  151. In some cases granulation tissue becomes too thick and stands out above the epithelial layer, this is known as ____ ____.
    Proud Flesh
  152. Epithelial cells around the wound edges actively divide to lay down a new layer of epithelial tissue over the granulation tissue, what is this process called?
  153. Describe first intention wound repair.
    First- skin forms primary union w/o formation of granulation tissue or scar formation
  154. Describe second intention wound repair
    Second-Edges separated from one another, in which granulation tissue forms to close to gap, with a line of scar.
  155. Describe 3rd intention wound repair
    3rd- Larger, more extensive wounds are ususally involved, so its slower than second
  156. What deals with the form and structure of the body?
  157. What deals with the function and how things work?
  158. What is included in thoracic cavity?
    Heart, lungs, esophagus, blood vessels
  159. What is included in Abdomen
    Digestive, Urinary, reproductive organs
  160. Epithelial tissues main job is to ____ body surfaces
  161. Muscle tissue ___ the body inside and out.
  162. What is another name fro microanatomy?
  163. Mitotic division of the zygote will proceed to form a cluster of cells known as a ____ that proceeds to a _____. The cavity of this, the _____. As fluid accumulates, it gradually separates the cells into an outer layer of cells called the ____.
    Morula; Blastula; Blastocele; Trophoblasts
  164. The portion of the inner cell mass closest to the Trophoblast is the ____, and the portion adjacent to the Blastocele is the _____. The cavity formed dorsal to the ____ is the ______ cavity of the embryo.
    Epiblast; Hypoblast; Epiblast is the Amniotic cavity