A&P Lecture Test 1
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. What would you like to do?
What deals with structures so small we need a microscope?
What deals with body parts large enough to be seen with the unaided eye?
What would be the study of legs, thorax, etc?
What would be the study of systems?
What plane divides the body into cranial and caudal?
What plane divides the body into equal left and right planes?
What plane divides the body into dorsal and ventral?
What plane divides the body into unequal left and right halves?
What term means that the left and right halves are of the body are essentially mirror images of each other?
What two things does the dorsal body cavity contain?
Brain and spinal cord
What two cavities make up the ventral body cavity?
Thoracic Cavity and Abdominal Cavity
What is the lining of the thoracic cavity?
Whats the name of the side that covers the organs? the entire cavity?
What is the lining of abdominal cavity?
What is the basic functional unit of animal life?
What 5 life functions must be carried out to survive
1. Growth 2. Reproduction 3. seek out food 4. Respond to positive and negative stimuli 5. eliminate waste
When specialized cells group together they form what?
What are the four basic tissues?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Give an example of epithelial tissue.
Lining of the mouth
What are the three means of communication in the body?
- 1. Nervous
- 2. Lymphatics
- 3. Circulatory
What is name for epithelium that opens to the outside? Does not open to the outside?
- Outside- Mucosal
- Inside- Serosal
Which epithelium is delicate, single-layered, and flat-celled? Give an example
- Simple squamous epithelium
- Ex: Filtration membranes of kidneys
Which epithelium is single-layered and cube shape? Give an example
- Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
- Ex: Lining of the ducts of the liver
Which epithelium is single-layered and column shaped? Give an example.
- Simple Columnar Epithelium
- Ex: Excretory ducts
Which epithelium is single-layered columnar that appear to be stratified? Give an example.
- Pseudostratified Epithelium
- Ex: Nasal Cavity
Which epithelium tissue is composed of multiple layers of flat cells? Give an example.
- Stratified Squamous Epithelium
- Ex: Lining the mouth
Which epithelial tissue has multiple layers of cube shaped cells? Give an example.
- Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
- Ex: Ducts of mammary glands
Which epithelial tissue has multiple layers of columnar cells? Give an example.
- Stratified Columnar Epithelium
- Ex: Large ducts of mammary glands
Which epithelial tissue can expand and contrast, and may appear columnar, cuboidal or squamous? Give an example.
- Transitional Epithelium
- Ex: Urinary Bladder
In nervous tissue what is the process (nerve fiber) called if they conduct impulses away from the cell body? Towards the cell body?
- Away- Axon
- Towards- Dendrite
The ____ consist of a nerve cell body and two or more nerve processes.
Which tissue gives form and strength to organs, and porvides protection and leverage?
What are 3 types of muscle tissue?
- 1. Skeletal
- 2. Smooth
- 3. Muscle
What are made up of tissues that work together for a common purpose?
What is the name for a group of organs that are involved in a common set of activities?
Which tissue ranges from adipose to bone and makes up the animals major weight contribution?
What is the state of normal anatomy and physiology?
What is the maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium in the body?
The word___ implies activity, energy, change, and work, and _____ refers to balance.
Dynamic and Equilibrium
Which two systems are primarily responsible for homeostasis?
Endocrine and Nervous
What is the study of prenatal development of an individual beginning with the zygote?
What the 5 stages of a baby?
- 1. Egg
- 2. Zygote
- 3. Embryo
- 4. Fetus
- 5. New born
How many weeks does it take, in dogs, to implant the zygote into the uterus?
3 examples of mesoderm
- 1. Kidneys
- 2. blood
- 3. cartilage
Epithelia that release chemical substances are called what?
6 functions of epithelia
- 1. protects, lines and covers
- 2. filters biochemical substances
- 3. absorb nutrients
- 4. Provide sensory output
- 5. Manufactures secretions
- 6. Manufactures excretions
Grandular epithelium- individually are ____ and organized they are called _____
- Individually- Goblet cells
- Organized- Beta cells
Which surface on an epithelial cell faces the lumen or cavity? Which surface faces the connective tissue?
- Lumen- Apical
- Tissue- Basal
What are the 3 types of junctions?
- 1. Gap Junction
- 2. Tight Junction
- 3. Spot Desmosomes
Which junction is formed by fusion of the outermost layers of the plasma membrane of adjoining cells and prevents passage through from the apical surface?
Which Junction connects the plasma membranes of adjacent cells and is strong?
Which junction is linked by tubular channel proteins, called connexons
Blood Vessels have ___1__surfaces. Microvilli are found in the _2_. Brush boarder are found in the _3_. _4_ is smooth and has _5_.
- 1. Smooth
- 2. Intestines
- 3. Trachea
- 4. Skin
- 5. Keratin
Which epithelium is delicate and thin, and found lining surfaces involved in passage of gas or liquid?
Simple Squamous Epithelium
What is the name for the simple squamous epithelium found in the pleura, pericardial, and pertoneal?
What is the simple squamous epithelium found in the blood and lymphatic vessels?
What is the simple squamous epithelium found in the brain, eye, and discreet areas?
____ will cause the vessels to dilate, resulting in movement of the cells sliding apart and allowing ____ and protein rich to escape into the tissue.
Histamine, WBC, Plasma
Which epithelium is a single layer of square cells with a dark staining nuclei, and occurs where secretion and absorption occur?
Where is it found?
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium found in the ducts of the liver
Which epithelium is elongated and closely packed together, and line the gastrointestinal tract?
Which epithelium consists of various layers, with cuboidal cells forming the base and occur in regions of the body that are subject to mechanical and chemical stresses?
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Which epithelium generally occurs as two layers of cuboidal cells, found along large excretory ducts?
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
____ is vasodilatation and reduce cardio output.
Which Epithelial cells appear to be stratified because the nuclei are found at different levels?
Pseudostratified columnar Epithelium
Which Epithelial cells have the ability to stretch?
Which epithelium cells have the ability to manufacture and discharge a secretion?
Cell is intact=___
A part of cell is lost= ___
Entire cell is lost =___
___ + ___ =Mucus
Mucin + Water = Mucus
What is a solid elevation, influx of inflammatory cells into the dermis?
What is a small circumscribed area within the epidermis filled with pus?
What is a small circumscribed area within or below the epidermis filled with clear fluid?
What is a sharply circumscribed, raised lesion that appears and disappears?
What is a solid elevation that extends into deeper layers of skin?
What is a large mass involving skin or subcutaneous tissue?
Name the study of for the following: Urinary, Integumentary, Articular, Muscle, Circulatory, Sensory, endocrine, skeletal
Urology, Dermatology, Arthrology, Myology, Cardiology, Esthesiology, Endocrinology, Osteology
What is a accumulation of loose fragments of the horny layer of the skin?
What is a increased epidermal and/or dermal melanin?
What is a dilated hair follicle filled with corneocytes and sebaceous material?
What is a scale of loose keratin flakes or "peeling" keratin arranged in a circle?
What is a shallow epidermal defect that does not penetrate the basal membrane?
What is a focal loss of epidermis with exposure of underlying dermis?
What is thickening and hardening of the skin?
What 3 components is all connective tissue composed of?
- 1. Ground Substance
- 2. Cells
- 3. Fibers
A mixture of the fibers and ground substance produce the ____.
What is the medium through with cells exchange nutrients and waste with the bloodstream?
Name the 3 fibers of connective tissue.
- 1. Collagenous
- 2. reticular
- 3. elastic
Which is the most commonly found in the body?
In Collagenous fibers the fibers are found in ____ and ____.
Tendons and ligaments
In collagenous fibers the fiber itself is white and is often called ___.
Which fiber is composed of collagen, and is thin, delicate, and branched?
Which fiber is coiled and can stretch and and contract like a rubber band?
Because of their color, the elastic fibers are often called ____.
Those cells that remain in the connective tissue are called
Cells that pass in and out of the connective tissue are called
Fixed cells are involved in the production and maintenance of the _____.
Transient cells are involved in ____ and ____ primarily.
Repair and protection
Fixed cells include ____, ____, ____, ____, and _____.
Fibroblast, Chondroblast, Osteoblast, Adipocytes, and Reticular cells
Fat cells group into groups known as ________.
_____ are large, irregularly shaped that make and secrete both fibers and ground substances.
_____ are flat star shaped cells with long out reaching arms forming net-like connections.
Reticular cells are involved in the _____ response.
What are the 3 types of transient or wandering cells?
Leukocytes, Mast cells, Macrophages
______ are white blood cells.
Leukocytes can squeeze between the spaces between the ________ cells of the capillaries to enter the surrounding tissue, this is known as ____.
Squamous epithelial; Diapedesis
____ cells have dark-staining granules in the cytoplasm. These granules contain what 3 things?
Mast; 1. Histamine 2. Heparin 3. Serotonin
______ promotes dilation of the vessels increasing diapedesis.
_____ are large having a primary job of phagocytizing scavenger.
Name the Macrophage of the Liver
Macrophage of the brain
Microphage of the Loose connective tissue
Microphage of the blood stream
Connective tissue is divided into 2 broad categories. What are they?
- 1. Connective tissue proper
- 2. Specialized connective tissue
What are the 2 sub classes of Connective tissue proper?
Loose connective tissue and Dense connective tissue
Elastic cartilage is found commonly in the _____ and the _____.
External Ear and Epiglottis
Which cartilage contains thick bundles of collagen fibers, found in the spaces between vertebrae of the spine.
What is the hardest most rigid type of connective tissue?
The Liquid component of blood is the ?
What are the 3 blood cells
Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Thrombocytes
4 common types of epithelial membranes.
- 1. Mucous
- 2. Serous
- 3. Cutaneous
- 4. Synovial
The epithelial layer in mucous membranes is usually composed of either stratified squamous or simple columnar and it covers a layer of loose connective tissue.
Lamina Propria (Sub Mucosa)
Mucosae can produce large quantities of protective and lubricating ?
___ or ___ are responsible for the production and secretion of mucus that consist primarily of water, electrolytes and a protein
Goblet cells or multicellular glands
Serous membranes line walls and cover the organs that fill ___ body cavities, such as the ___,___,____,and ___.
Closed; Chest, thorax, abdominal and pelvic
The interstitial fluid that passes in the serosa layers is ____ and is thin and watery.
When cells, protein, and other solid material mix with serous fluid, it becomes denser than a transudate and is called a ____.
When an abnormally large amount of fluid enters a body cavity, the fluid is known as an ____.
The stomach is connected to the abdominal wall by mesentery called the ____. The uterus is similarly attached via the ____ _____.
Omentum; Broad Ligament
the Cutaneous membrane is also called ___ or more simply ___
What is the waterproof quality of skin?
Synovial membranes line the cavities of
Unlike other membranes, synovial membranes have no ____, they are composed exclusively of ____ _____.
Epithelium; Connective Tissue
Muscle cells/fibers are uniquely designed for ____. The fibers are composed of specialized proteins called ____ and ____.
Contraction; Actin and Myosin.
Skeletal muscle is controlled through conscious efforts, therefore it is ___
Since Smooth and Cardiac muscle contraction cannot be controlled by the mind, what are they?
Name the layers of the digestive tract from inside out.
Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscle, and Serosa
In cardiac muscle the cells are connected to each other by _____ ____.
Nervous tissue is designed to receive and transmit ____and ___signals.
Electrical and Chemical
Nervous tissue is composed primarily of two general cell types,
Neurons and Neuroglial cells
What does the central nervous system consist of?
Brain and Spinal Cord
Neurons are composed of 3 primary parts, name them.
- Perikaryon (stroma)
Neuroglial cells serve to ____ the neurons.
The bodies initial response to injuries is _____.
What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?
- 1. Heat
- 2. Swelling
- 3. Redness
- 4. Pain
- 5. Loss of function
Inflammation begins with in 5-10mins. with ______, followed by a sustained period of _____.
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
____and____ molecules are released from the mast cells which stimulate vasodilation and increase permeability of the capillaries.
Histamine and Heparin
Fluid from the plasma, composed of ____, ___, and ____, pour into the affected area, causing swelling of the soft tissue structure.
- 2. Antibodies
- 3. Protein
It wounds that are infected, _____, and _____ are responsible for _____, and disposing of invasive microorganisms.
- Neutrophils and macrophages.
A new bright pink tissue called ____ tissue, forms beneath the overlaying blood clot or scab.
In some cases granulation tissue becomes too thick and stands out above the epithelial layer, this is known as ____ ____.
Epithelial cells around the wound edges actively divide to lay down a new layer of epithelial tissue over the granulation tissue, what is this process called?
Describe first intention wound repair.
First- skin forms primary union w/o formation of granulation tissue or scar formation
Describe second intention wound repair
Second-Edges separated from one another, in which granulation tissue forms to close to gap, with a line of scar.
Describe 3rd intention wound repair
3rd- Larger, more extensive wounds are ususally involved, so its slower than second
What deals with the form and structure of the body?
What deals with the function and how things work?
What is included in thoracic cavity?
Heart, lungs, esophagus, blood vessels
What is included in Abdomen
Digestive, Urinary, reproductive organs
Epithelial tissues main job is to ____ body surfaces
Muscle tissue ___ the body inside and out.
What is another name fro microanatomy?
Mitotic division of the zygote will proceed to form a cluster of cells known as a ____ that proceeds to a _____. The cavity of this, the _____. As fluid accumulates, it gradually separates the cells into an outer layer of cells called the ____.
Morula; Blastula; Blastocele; Trophoblasts
The portion of the inner cell mass closest to the Trophoblast is the ____, and the portion adjacent to the Blastocele is the _____. The cavity formed dorsal to the ____ is the ______ cavity of the embryo.
Epiblast; Hypoblast; Epiblast is the Amniotic cavity
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