EXAM#1 Blood

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  1. Blood is liquid connective tissue that transports oxygen and nutrients to cells via ________ and carbon dioxide  from cells via ______
    arteries & veins

    Ph of blood-7.35- 7.45
  2. How much blood is your body weight
    2-how much in a female and or men
    • 8% of body weight
    • men have about- 5-6  1.5 gal
    • woman-4-5 liters.
  3. A thin whitish layer present at the erythrocyte plasma junction is called?
    Buffy coat
  4. how much percent of the total blood volume does Erythrocytes normally contain? and plasma?
    • 45% erythrocyctes 
    • 55% plasma
    •  and less than 1% of buffy coat containing WBC
  5. what are the functions of blood?
    Distribution- transports O2,nutrients and waste & hormones.

    Regulation- maintains body temp, PH, and fluid volume

    protection-prevents blood loss & infections
  6. Accounts for 60% of plasma protein.
    -major blood protein contributing to the water remaining in the blood stream.
    - acts as a carrier shuttle to certain molecules through circulation.

    • globulins- 36%
    • fibrinogen 4%
  7. what are the formed elements?
    Erythrocytes-most of their blood cells don't divide, instead stem cells divide in red bone marrow to replace them

    leukocytes- only complete cells

    platelets- clotting work

    **most of the stuff here lives for only a few days.
  8. describe the structure of erythrocytes.
    7.5 um in diameter. bi-concave disks  flattened with depressed middles. with no nucleus or organelle.

    • 97% hemoglobin. 
    • - they generate ATP anaerobically so they don't consume oxygen they carry
  9. describe the function of erythrocytes?
    they transport o2 and co2. most oxygen in the blood is bound to the protein hemoglobin which is made up of heme.

    hemoglobin's location inside keeps hemoglobin from breaking up into the blood and it also makes the blood more viscous to raise osmotic pressure.
  10. what are the stats of hemoglobin?
    protein-goblin- 2 alpha 2 beta binding to a ring like heme group.

    each heme group has an iron in its center, and each hemoglobin carries about 4 molecules of o2 and each iron can reversibly carry one molecule of o2 so a single RBC can carry 1 billion molecules of o2.
  11. define oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carbinaminohemoglobin.
    oxy- when a molecule of oxygen attaches to an iron atom (becomes ruby red)

    de oxy- when a molecule of oxygen detaches from iron (reduced hemoglobin) becomes dark red.

    carb- when c02 binds to gobins amino acids. occurs better when hemoglobin is in its reduced state.
  12. describe the production of erythrocytes?
    formation called hematopoiesis happens in the red blood marrow. all of the RBC's rise from the hemocytoblast/stem cell. once its commited to a specific blood pathway it cannot change.
  13. describe the different stages of a red blood cell.
  14. what are the regulations and requirements for erythropoiesis?
    RBC's are made at 2 million per second and is controlled hormonally.

     starts off by hypoxia and then, erythropoietin from the kidneys targets red bone marrow that stimulates cell formation. this is triggered by a drop in o2 levels.

    once its in the blood it matures reticulocytes.
  15. what do you need to make RBC's

    lipids ,iron, b vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates
  16. How do red blood cells DIE!
    life span of 100 to 120 days and they have no neucleus. macrophages phagocytose the crappy blood cells from the spleen, liver and the red bone marrow. and they take the heme off of the globin and relive it of iron, which is then stored as ferritin and hemosiderin in the liver. the rest of the heme turns into bilirubin. iron is then bound to tranferrin and released to blood for EPO.
  17. what is anemia?
    • Blood oxygen carrying capacity is too low to support normal metabolism . its only a sign of disorder not a disease.
    • blood loss- if u were stabbed
    • not enough RBS's produced- iron deficency, lack of b12, aplastic which is destroying bone marrow.
    • -thalassemia- no globin and fragile RBS's and u have sickle cells abnormal hemoglobin.
  18. what is sickle cell anemia?
    • its a type of hemolytic anemia and it hereditary. its a chane in just 1 of 146 amino acids in the beta chain. and causes the beta chains to form under bad o2 conditions forming messed up rods so they become spikey and sharp and C shaped and because of that they can get jammed up in blood vessles and cause strokes, infections, and pain. 
    • they usually use blood transfusions to fix it
  19. what is polycythemia?
    • An excess of erythrocytes causing sludge blood flow. may go as high as 80% which can cause damage to the circulatory system. can be fixed by diluting with saline.
    • - secondary polycythemia- high altitudes make for less oxygen.
  20. what are the structural characteristics and functions of leukocytes.
    48,000-10,000 WBC in blood.

    WBC use blood as transport to get to other areas. also step out of the blood vessels using diapedesis and move thru the tissue using amoeboid motion and follow a chemical trail(positive chemo taxis) of molecules realeased by other damaged cells.
  21. leukocytosis
    WBC count over 11000 cells/u a normal homeostatic response to an infection in the body.
  22. what are the different types of leukocytes and how abundant are they in the blood.
    • Neutrophil-50-70% of WBCs, Neutral-Never
    • lymphocytes- 25-45% let
    • monocytes - 3-8%monkeys
    • eosinophils- 2-4%eat
    • basophils- half to 1%banannas
  23. What are the stats on neutrophils?
    • -50-70% of WBC's
    • -2 variety's of granules blue and red dye which together makes it get purple.
    • -contain hydrolytic enzymes considered lysosomes
    • -have the respiratory burst- the cells metabolize oxygen to produce a potent germ killing oxidizing substances such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide.
    • - the smaller granuoles contain defensins  which are a potent brew of anti microbial proteins.
    • - more of them comes when there is an infection
  24. Eosinophils
    • -2-4% of WBC's , nucleus looks like a pair of shades.
    • - they slay tape worms by laying on them and eating them from the outside in.
    • -granuoles contain digestive enzymes
    • -more in digestive and respiratory tracts.
    • -play a role in allergy and asthma.
  25. Basophils
    • 0.5%-1 WBC- rare
    • -the neuclus is either s or u shaped 
    • -granules have histamine(inflamatory chem) that vaso dialates and attracts other WBC to the area.
    • -like mast cells in CT
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EXAM#1 Blood
2013-09-13 17:18:34

chapter 17
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