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The cytoplasm is suspended in a fluid matrix called _____________.
Cytosol consist of 3 things:
- 1. water
- 2. proteins
- 3. nutrients
Proteins that attach to the inner or outer surface of the plasma membrane are called ______________.
Proteins that span across the membrane are called ______________.
______________ found in the plasma membrane of certain cells (such as the kidneys, plant roots) dramatically increase the passage rate of water molecules.
Recognition proteins are ___________ because they have short polysaccharide chains (oligosaccharides) attached.
The nucleus is bounded by the nuclear envelope consisting of how many phospholipid bilayers?
Histones serve to organize the lengthy DNA, coiling it into bundles called ______________.
The _____________ attaches polysaccharide groups to polypeptides as they are assembled by the ribosomes.
The ___________ is responsible for the synthesis of lipids and hormones.
In liver cells, __________ is involved in the breakdown of toxins, drugs, and toxic by products from cellular reactions.
Lysosomes are found in :
a. animal cells
b. plant cells
LYSOSOMES ARE NOT FOUND IN PLANT CELLS AT ALL !
Peroxisomes are common in what type of cells?
- *where they break down toxic substances
______________ break down H2O2, fatty acids, and amino acids.
In plants _____________ modify by-products of photorespiration, a process by which CO2 is diverted from its use in photosynthesis.
In germinating seeds, _______________ (called glyoxysomes) break down stored fatty acids to help generate energy for growth.
The cytoskeleton contains 3 types of elements:
- 1. actin filaments
- 2. intermediate filaments
- 3. microtubules
- long, extremely thin fibers
- occur in bundles or meshlike networks
- contains two chains of globular actin monomers twisted in a helical manner
- play a structural role when they form a dense, complex web just under the plasma membrane where they are anchored by special proteins
The presence of a network of _______ filaments lying beneath the plasma membrane accounts for the formation of pseudopods, extensions that allow certain cells to move in an amoeboid fashion.
How are actin filaments involved in the movement of cell and its oraganelles?
They interact with motor molecules
- rope-like assembly of fibrous polypeptides.
- some support the nuclear envelope
- some support the plasma membrane and take part in formation of cell-to-cell junctions.
- In the skin, the filaments which are made up of protein keratin, give great mechanical strength of skin cells
Which motor molecule is associated with actin filaments?
Which motor molecules are associated with microtubules?
kinesis and dynein.
In microtubules, _______________ moves vesicles or organelles in an opposite direction from dynein.
- short cylinders
- 9+0 pattern of microtubule triplets
Centrioles are believed to give rise to _____________.
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