chapter 7

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chapter 7
2010-06-13 20:32:45
emt vocab

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  1. agonal respirations
    occasional, gasping breaths that occur after the heart has stopped
  2. airway
    the upper airway tract or the passage above the larynx, which includes the nose, mouth, and throat
  3. american standard system
    a safety system for oxygen cylinders, designed to prevent the accidental attachment of a regulator to a cylinder containing the wrong type of gas
  4. apnea
    a period of not breathing
  5. aspiration
    the introduction of vomitus or other foreign material into the lungs
  6. ataxic respirations
    irregular, ineffective respirations that may or may not have an identifiable pattern
  7. bag-valve-mask device
    a device with a one-way valve and a face mask attached to a ventilation bag; when attached to a reservoir and connected to oxygen, delivers more than 90% supplemental oxygen
  8. barrier device
    a protective item, such as a pocket mask with a valve, that limits exposure to a patients body fluids
  9. bilateral
    a body part or condition that appears on both sides of the midline
  10. compliance
    the ability of the alveoli to expand when air is drawn in during inhalaltion
  11. cricoid pressure
    pressure on the cricoid cartilage; applied to occlude the esophagus in order to inhibit gastric distension and regurgitation of vomitus in the unconscious patient
  12. diffusion
    a process in which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
  13. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing
  14. exhalation
    the passive part of the breathing process in which the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles relax, forcing air out of the lungs
  15. gag reflex
    a normal reflex mechanism that causes retching; activated by touching the soft palate or the back of the throat
  16. gastric distension
    a condition in which air fills the stomach, often as a result of high volume and pressure during artificial ventilation
  17. head tilt-chin lift maneuver
    a combination of two movements to open the airway by tilting the forehead back and lifting the chin; not used for trauma patients
  18. hypoxia
    a dangerous condition in which the body tissues and cells do not have enough oxygen
  19. hypoxic drive
    a condition in which chronically low levels of oxygen in the blood stimulate the respiratory drive; seen in patients with chronic lung diseases
  20. inhalation
    the active, muscular part of breathing that draws air into the airway and the lungs
  21. ischemia
    a lack of oxygen that deprives tissues of necessary nutrients
  22. jaw-thrust maneuver
    technique to open the airway by placing the fingers behind the angle of the jaw and bringing the jaw forward; used for patients who may have a cervical spine injury
  23. labored breathing
    breathing that requires greater than normal effort; may be slower or faster than normal and usually requires the use of accessory muscles
  24. metabolism
    the biochemical processes that result in the production of energy from nutrients within the cells
  25. mild airway obstruction
    occurs when a foreign body partially obstructs the patients airway. the patient is able to move adequate amounts of air, but also experiences some degree of respiratory distress
  26. minute volume
    the amount of air moved through the lungs in one minute; calculated by multiplying tidal volume by respiratory rate
  27. nasal cannula
    an oxygen-delivery device in which oxygen flows through two small, tubelike prongs that fit into the patients nostrils; delivers 24% to 44% supplemental oxygen, depending on the flow rate
  28. nasopharyngeal airway
    airway adjunct inserted into the nostril of a conscious patient who is unable to maintain airway patency independently
  29. nonrebreathing mask
    a combination mask that is the preferred way to give oxygen in the prehospital setting; delivers up to 90% inspired oxygen and prevents inhaling the exhaled gases (carbon dioxide)
  30. oropharyngeal airway
    airway adjunct inserted into the mouth to keep the tongue from blocking the upper airway and to facilitate suctioning the airway