Ecology Chapter 1

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laurenschmalz
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234120
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Ecology Chapter 1
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2013-09-17 21:35:57
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Ecology Chapter 1
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  1. Ecosystem
    • Includes all of the interaction parts of a biological community and its environment
    • E.g. forest, pond, arctic, sea, tundra, rain forest
  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    • An ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms
    • E.g. any environment that doesn't require support from foreign interactions
  3. Biotic
    • The living parts of an ecosystem
    • E.g. producers(plants), consumers(carnivores, herbivores), decomposers(fungi)
  4. Abiotic
    • The non-living parts of an ecosystem
    • E.g. air, light, chemical nutrients, soil, sunlight
  5. Lithosphere
    The hard part of the Earth's surface
  6. Hydrosphere
    • All the water found on Earth, including lakes, oceans, and ground water
  7. Atmosphere
    • The layer of gases above Earth's surface
  8. Biosphere
    • The regions of Earth where living organisms exist
  9. Nutrient
    • A chemical that is essential to living things and is cycled through ecosystems
    • E.g. water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous
  10. Eutrophication
    • A process in which nutrients levels in aquatic ecosystems increase, leading to an increase in the populations of primary producers
  11. Photosynthesis
    • A process that changes solar energy into chemical energy
    • E.g. carbon dioxide + water --> glucose + oxygen
  12. Trophic Level
    • A category of organisms that is defined by by how the organisms gain their energy
  13. Biomass
    • The total mass of living organisms in a defined group or area
    • E.g. leaves, stems, roots, flower nectar
  14. Trophic Efficiency
    • A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next higher tropic level
  15. Bioaccumulation
    • A process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than they are eliminated
    • E.g. DDT's and PBC's destroying species
  16. Biomagnification
    • A process in which the concentration of ingested toxins increases as it moves from one trophic level to the next
  17. Cellular Respiration
    • A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the presence of oxygen
  18. Fermentation
    • A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen
    • E.g. yeast
  19. Greenhouse Gases
    • Atmospheric gases that prevent heat from leaving the atmosphere, thus increasing the temperature of the atmosphere
    • E.g. water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane
  20. Greenhouse Effect
    • The warming of Earth as a result of greenhouse gases, which trap some of the energy that would otherwise leave Earth
  21. Acid Precipitation
    • Rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic due to gases in the atmosphere that react with water to form acids

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