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How long do Vaccine AB take to work after getting the vx?
What can occur when Bordetella is given SQ?
- Knot/Granuloma in vx area
- Better Protection with the injection instead of the intranasal
What are 2 other names for a killed virus?
- 1. Nonattenuated
- 2. Inactivated
What is special about a “Modified Live Virus?”
It is alive..but can’t reproduce
A Killed virus is?
- o Safe
- o Produces AB
- Considered the safest of the 3 types of vx
A modified live virus?
- Not safe
- Provides superior protection since it only stimulates the prod. of AB and it stimulates humoral immunity
Recombinant virus is?
- 1. The best of the 3 for its AB prod.
- 2.Specificially the “ gp70” type of AB
- 3.Stimulates both:
- Cell Mediated Immunity (T Cells)
- Humoral Immunity (B Cells)
What does inactivated mean?
- The agent is alive, but can no longer reproduce!
- · Ex: Modified Live Virus
What type of vaccine “if any” is given to a pregnant animal?
What is another name for a Modified Virus?
What occurs with an Attenuated Vx?
- 1. Rapid/Complete Protection
- 2. Include Mucosal Immunity
- o ****They can break through the “maternal AB” and pass to the young so they are protected like the mother..
- § The attenuated gets into the young earlier than inactivated vx can
What is IgA?
Mucosal Immunity AB
What is the Paramyxovirus?
What are Antigens?
Specific part of the infective agent that are recognized by the Immune System
What is the “part” of the antigen that actually binds to the Antibody????
- “The AB handcuffs the antigen on its epitope to take it away”
The Immune system responds to many epitopes of a vx which provides what?
A Broad Protection
When was Parvo found?
What are the 4 types of Antibodies?
- o 1. IgA
- o 2. IgE
- o 3.IgM
- o 4.IgG
- These are what grab the epitope of the antigen
What does “Ig” stand for in an antibody?
What is a booster vx?
Constant vx, always the same
What kind of vaccine is used the most today?
What is an Adjuvant?
- Chemical added to a vx to promote inflammation which will stimulate more AB production
- Normal is a metal
What else is in a vaccine?
Culture Cells ..usually derived from the species the vx is being made for
What is Murine?
What 2 Feline viruses made malignant sarcomas form?
- o 1. Rv
- o 2. Feline leukemia (FeLV)
How many of the feline vx were found to causes the malignant sarcomas?
What are properties that have enhanced Recombinant vx usage?
- 1. Complete Immunity-
- Humoral response
- Cell mediated Immunity
- 2. No virulence
- 3. No adjuvants are added
What is the main Adjuvant that caused issues and deaths?
How is Toxoplasmosis spread?
What is the life sequence in the womb?
How long does it take for the implantation of the egg into the uterus?
Where does the egg stay while inside the uterus
on the endometrium
Host factors influencing transmission of infections disease: (5)
- 1. Developmental anomalies of immune system
- 2. Maternal immunity (antibodies from milk of mom are needed in 24-48 hrs.)
- 3. age at time of exposure (Ex: pediatric, geriatric)
- 4. Concurrent illness - always makes it worse (ex: Rickets)
- 5. Nutrition (**Most IMPORTANT HOST FACTOR***)
Environmental Factors influencing transmission of infectious disease: (5)
- 1. Population density (too many = High risk)
- 2. Sanitation
- 3. Ventilation
- 4. Accumulation of feces
- 5. Animal movement from population (bet to isolate animal that's new)
3 most important Agent factors for contracting a disease:
- 1. Virulence (Southern parasites are vicious, ex: Dirofilaria immitis)
- 2. Dosage (Always a minimum # needed to get sick)
- Ex: Brucellosis with at lease 10,000 bacteria will test positive. It it is any less they will not.
- 3. Route of inoculation - IV "Speed kills"
How much of an etiological agent get into the blood stream & cause illness by these routes: IV, IM, SQ, PO: (Remember, everything is trying to get to the bloodstream)
- IV -100%
- IM- 85%
What else is in a vaccine besides the cultured cell?
- 1. Buffer: keeps acidity of vx low
- 2. pH indicators
- 3. Preservatives
- 4. Adjuvants
What is Humoral Immunity?
- B cell immunity
- Short life memory, must vx often
What does the humoral immune system consist of?
- B lymphocytes
- 4 Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE)
Attenuated Vx have better control and are commonly used with what? What is it used in?
- Mucosal Immunity
- 1. Parvo
- 2. Feline Panleukopenia
- 3. Corona virus
When does most maternal immunity wear off?
What is the exception to the 12 week maternal immunity rule?
Parvo - it goes until 20 weeks
What does Humoral Immunity help prevent?
Serious systemic clinical signs
Where are the Lymphocytes and plasma cells from the humoral Immunity?
- 1. Bone marrow
- 2. spleen
- 3. lymph nodes
What do lymphcytes produce?
Inflammatory mediators - regulate chronic inflammation
What do plasma cells produce?
what are plasma cells also known as?
Where must the B cells that develop into Plasma cells travel through?
- Antigen<B cell lymphocytes<Thymus<Plasma cells
How long to vx last?
- no one truly knows
- that's why you vx every year
What are the 4 ways many Vx fail?
- 1. animal response - genetics, disease, drugs in vx
- 2. handling and admin of vx - human error
- 3. maternal antibody interference: gets in the way and will also block a toxoid vx
- 4. strain in the vx is too different from the strain needed to protect
What is the flow of blood?
- Left ventricle
- Aortic valve
- vena cavas
- right auricle
- right atrium
- tricuspid vavle
- right ventricle
- pulmonary vavle
- pulmonary artery
- pulmonary vein
- left auricle
- left atrium
- mitral vavle
How many strains of Parvo are there?
- (CPV -1, CPV-2a, CPV-2b, CPV-2c)
How long do T cells live for?
What cells do a Recombinant Vx stimulate?
When are vx started on a neonate?
Depends on the moms vx history
When do you vx a puppy against parvo?
8 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 weeks, 20 weeks, 22 weeks
What are more failures of vx?
- 1. Maternal antibodies
- 2. Human error - not given the correct route
- 3. preexisting infection: animals with an infection usually will not receive the protection of the vx
- 4. time: inactived prod. Usually require 2 doses before protection is gained, attenuated prods usually require 1 dose.
What is the name for an inactivated virus?
What is another name for an attenuated virus?
modified live virus
What is DM in Vx?
- Distemper measles
- Used back in the day because canine distemper was very similar to human measles
- made by norton
What are some issues with vx?
- 1. Pain and lethargy
- 2. Anaphylaxis: Rare Immediate hypersensitivity (1 hour after)
- 3. Injection site reaction
What are some Vx Injection site reactions?
- 1. Vasculitis: When a vx antigen and the antibody are put into the wall of a small blood vessel
- 2. Uveitis: found with CAV-1
- Canine adenovirus type 1
- Inflammation of the 1. Sclera, 2. Iris, 3. Cornea
- 3. Granulomas: lumps form from vx site because of local reactions to adjuvants
- 4. Sarcoma: In cats, Vx induced granuloma with aluminum based adjuvants
- take 3 months development
What are symptoms of Anaphylactic shock? (6)
- 1. Hives
- 2. facial swelling - Angio-Neurotic Edema
- 3. Respiratory distress - from Angio-Neurotic 4. Edema...the airway can be too tight
- 5. Diarrhea
- 6. Shock
Where are Vx not supposed to be given in cats?
Why do you not give cats vx in hind limbs?
They are too close to the sciatic nerve and could possibly cause paralysis
Where else (besides hindlimbs) are you not supposed to give vx in cats?
Why should you not give Vx to cats in the forelimbs?
Can hit the brachial plexus nerve and cause paralysis
What does DHLPCP stand for?
Distemper Hepatitis Leptospirosis Parainfluenza Corona Parvo
What does CPV stand for?
Canine Parvo Virus
What is a common tissue culture used for in Vx?
Chick embryo - Hypoallergenic
What are the lymph nodes of the intestines referred to as?
What is a "Haptan"?
1/2 of an antigen
How many cases of Mad Cow Disease have happened in the US?
What is IBR?
Infectious Bovine Rhinotrachitis
What is CAV-1?
Kennel cough virus
What is CAV-2?
Hepatitis and kennel cough virus
What is Theriogenology?
- Reproduction disorders in man/animal
What is ACT?
American college of theriogenologist
What do sex steroids mess with?
Development of muscles
When does Dr. Y like to give the Rabies Vx and why?
- Between 12-16 weeks
- Reassures that it won't be messed with by maternal antibodies
What does LHA mean?
- Local health authority
- state regulations/laws for vx
How many etiologies are for Bordetella bronchiseptica?
What is the Flea's perfedt temp?
65-80 degrees F
What is the fleas preferred humidity?
What is the active ingredient in Capstar?
What is another name for Feline Herpes Virus?
Feline year 1 vx schedule
- 8-10 weeks: FHV-1, fcv, fpv, fElv
- 12 weeks: fhv, fcv, fpv, fElv, rabies
- 6 months: fElv
- 1 year: fhv-1, fcv, fpv, fElv, rabies
- Fhv: Feline Herpes virus
- Fcv: feline calici virus
- Fpv: Feline panleukopenia
Canine year 1 vx schedule
- 6 weeks: cpv-2
- 8-10 weeks: dhlpcp and bord
- 10-12 weeks: dhlpcp and bord
- 14-16 weeks: dhlpcp and rabies
- 20 weeks: parvo
- 6 months: parvo
- 1 year: dhlpcp, bord, rabies
dhlpcp: Distemper, hepatits, leptospirosis, Parainfluenza, Corona virus, Parvo virus
Cpv-2: Canine Parvo Virus -2
Etiology of Brucellosis:
Etiology of Cat Scratch Disease:
Etiology of Chaga's disease:
Etiology of Conjunctivitis:
Etiology of Diarrhea: (4 common)
salmonella, camplyobacter, yersinia, giardia
Etiology of Echinococcous:
- Granulosus (southern)
- Multiocularis (northern)
Etiology of Visceral larval migrans
Etiology of Cutaneous larval migrans
Etiology of Leishmaniasis
Etiology of Leptospirosis
Letpospira, interrogans, canicola, Pomona, harjo, icterohaemorrhagica
Etiology of Plague
Etiology of rabies
Etiology of ringworm
Microsporum canis (90% in cats)
Difference between a hospital and clinic
- hospital: 24 hr care, continued care
- clinic: day-in and out
What is the JAVMA?
Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association
Immune system definition
efficient system of defense against producing agents
Definition of immunity
activities of the immune system
What are the two types of immunity?
- Specific Immunity (B & T cells)
- Non-specific immunity ( responds to all antigens in same manner)
What are the 3 lines of defense the body has for protection?
- 1. Mechanical and chemical barrier: skin and mm
- 2. Inflammatory response: (heat, redness, swelling, pain)
- 3. specific immunity (b & t cells)
What substances interfere with viruses by stopping disease spread?
interferons (enzyme group)
What substances attacks the infection (foreign invader) by punching holes and rupturing them?
Complement (enzyme group)
What cells produce large protein molecules called antibodies?
what cells remember past invaders and will produce specific antibodies?
How long after infection does it take for antibodies to be seen in the body?
What type of leukocyte helps T cells by attaching to the foreign invader and bringing to the T cell?
What is the large protein molecule produced by antibody, locks onto antigens?
What is inherited immunity
genetics; before birth
What is acquired immunity
What is passive immunity
- antibodies from animal A to animal B to provide protection
- via: galactogenic
What is active immunity?
animals response to pathogens and immunity resulting from exposure
What are the factors that affect immunity response? (from book)
- 1. nutrition
- 2. stress
- 3. sanitation
- 4. age
- 5. current disease
What are the 5 elements of non-specific immunity?
- 1. species resistance
- 2. mechanical/chemical barrier
- 3. inflammatory response
- 4. interferons
- 5. complement
What is the difference between "Interferon and Complement"?
- Similarities: Both are involved with non-specific immunity. Both part of the 5 elements.
- The are both chemically produced by cells invaded by viruses.
- Interferon: substance that interferes with the viruses repication within the host cell. The interferon will bring about death "inside the cell".
- Complement: another enzyme group that is activated during infections. It binds to the cell invading cell wall and creates small holes in its membrane. Rupture or lysis from the inside of the antigen and killing it.
- o Scabies:>Sarcoptes scabiei
- o Sporotrichosis> Sporothrix schenckii
- o Toxoplasmosis> Toxoplasma gondii
- o Tularemia> Francisella tularensis
- o Wound Infections> Pasturella multocida and haemolytica
Clinical sign that goes with Toxoplasmosis?
o Elevated Temp
What is the MOST COMMON etiological agent of all animal bite wounds?
o Pasteurella multocida
What are the Terrorist agents most commonly used?
- o Zoonotic> Pasteurella multocida and Tularemia
- o Human to Human> Small Pox
- o Bubonic Plague> Yersinia pestis (New Mexico)
- Intermediate Host: Ctenocephalides felis
- Host: Tropic Rat
What are some BREEDS associated with Human Bites in Harris County?
- o 1st: Pit Bull Terrier 21.99%
- o 2nd: Labrador Retriever 13.87%
- o 3rd: German Shepherd 8.5%
- o 4th: Chihuahua 5.3%
- o 5th: Chow Chow 4.01%
What does Bubonic mean?
o Enlarged submandibular lymph nodes
How many people die each year due to food borne infections?
How many have morbidity? (sickness)
o 1.3 million
Bacteria causes for this issue could be?
o Campylobacter and Salmonella…both are commonly in the cat intestines
What does Campylobacteria cause?
o Ascending Paralysis
What does Salmonella cause?
o Diarrhea, Arthritis
What causes giardia in humans?
o Giardia lamblia
What causes giardia in dog/cat?
o Giardia intestinalis
What are 2 causes of paralysis that we talked about?
- o 1. Campylobacteria
- o 2. Flea Paralysis
What are the 3 “P’s” of bacteria we are concerned about?
- o 1. Pasturella
- o 2. Protomona
- o 3. Pseudomonas
What are some viral things?
o Encephalitis, Infective Hepatitis, Rabies
What are some bacterial things?
o Anthrax, Brucellosis, Chlamydia, Bartonellosis, Leptospirosis, Rickettsial, Salmonellosis, Tuberculosis, Tularemia
What are some protozoal things?
o Amebiasis, Babesiosis, Toxoplasmosis, Metazoans, Scabies, Cestodes, Nematodes
What is the name for sarcoptic mange in dogs?
o Sarcoptes scabei
What is the name for sarcoptic mange in cats?
o Notoedres cati
What is Blastomycosis?
o Systemic Issue (in the blood)
Ring worm>>Microsporum canis is considered a what?
What does Salmonella cause in equine?
What are some infectious words to remember?
- o Titer: Relationship of AB to antigen in ratio terms Ex: Titer of 1:10 is 1 AB to 10 Antigens
- o Host: Always the larger of the 2
- o Epizootiology: Relationship of various factors that determine frequency and distribution of infectious disease Ex: The 3 Agents
- o TVMDL: Tx Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab
- o Definitivie Host: Natural host EX: Dirofilaria immitis D. host is the dog
- o Pathogenesis: Development of morbid conditions of disease
- Ex: Start with an infection and observe how it spreads and what all it affects
- o Prophylaxis: Prev. of Disease Ex: Vx
- o Diagnosis:
- 1. Differential Diagnosis: All the diseases that it could be based on symptoms
- 2. Tentative Diagnosis: Disease based on current history seen recently Ex: Outbreak of parvo in the area..could be from that
- 3. Definitive Diagnosis: Absolute ID of etiology based on clinical signs
- o Peracute Disease: Acquisition of etiology and death within 24hrs
- o Acute Disease: Severe/Deadly disease over a long period..Ex: 48-72 hrs
- o Subacute Disease: Disease with mild clinical signs like pyrexia and anorexia that doesn’t defer the patient from abnormal behavior
- o Subclinical Signs:Not obvious clinical signs, show occasional nausea and diarrhea. Animal harbors the etiology, but acts normal Ex: Birds will not show when they are sick
- o Chronic : Harbors etiology, never shows symptoms or clinical signs
- o Zoonosis: Transmission between man and animal Vs.
- o Epizootic: Attacking many animals in any region at sometime
- Over a certain area Ex: Parvo outbreak in mont. County
- Ex: Rabies
- o Enzootic: Present in animal community at all times but occur in small number of cases
- Ex: Parvo
How many diseases are zoonotic to man that we gotta worry about?
What are the forms of 3 Equine Encephalitis that are vx for?
- o 1. Eastern Equine Encephalitis
- o 2. Western Equine Encephalitis
- o 3. Venezualen Equine Encephalitis
- • What does ELISA stand for?
- o Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test
- • What is the etiology for anthrax?
- o Bacillus anthrasis
- • What do cats not get?
- o Hepatitis
- • What does a Serum Electrophoresis do?
- o Determines deficiencies in the body Ex: Demodex
What does CPV stand for?
o Canine Parvo Virus
Where was Parvo originally from?
o North East
What 3 forms of parvo virus mainly are there?
- o CPV-Type 2 (Original from 1978)
- o CPV-Type 2a (1982)
- o CPV-Type 2b (1984)-Predominates
What is special about the Parvo Virus?
o It is “non enveloped” meaning that it is harder to kill
What is the recent Parvo virus form for cats?
o CPV-Type 2c (2000)
K9 Parvo Mutation came from what?
o Feline Panleukopenia
With the non enveloped DNA virus Parvo, what is the morbidity?
What is the mortality
What is CPV incubation period?
o 7-14 Days
What is the incubation period for CPV-2a and 2b?
o 4-6 Days
How are animals contaminated with this virus?
- o Oral/Nasal Rt
- o Primarily through contact with FECES
What are 2 main clinical signs of Parvo?
- o 1. Leukocytopenia
- o 2. Diarrhea
What is Parvo often associated with?
- o DIC-Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
- o Gram Negative Sepsis
What occurs with DIC?
o Can’t distribute Platelets normally. They can all go to 1 particular area preventing healing in others
Contamination is the most important thing with Parvo. It can occur in what 2 ways with Parvo?
- o 1. Inhalation of feces
- o 2. Eating Feces
Parvo is the most common of what?
o Infectious enteritis in pups
What are the 2 Primary Pathogens associated with Parvo?
- o CPV-1 and 2: Canine Parvovirus
- o CCV: Canine Corona Virus
What does CRV stand for?
o Canine Rota Virus
What is CPV-1 also known as?
o Minute Virus of canines
Which one do we vx for?
CPV-2 is most closely related to what?
o Bovine parvo
CPV-2 in the late 70’s had genetic alterations and made?
o New Strains of the virus
IN the 80’s CPV-2 turned into?
In 2000 what form became existent?
CPV-2c was found and isolated from what?
o Leopard Cats..1st report was in Oklahoma and Iowa
What is special and horrible about the CPV 2b?
o No vomiting or diarrhea occur..hard to diagnosis disease
When was the first Parvo seen?
o 1967 and it was CPV-1
What was it seen in?
o Military Dogs
Our basic Parvo vaccine now includes vx for which strains of parvo?
o CPV -1, CPV-2, CPV-2a and CPV-2b
The CPV-2c vx has to be special ordered because it affects?
o Dogs and Cats
What is the main amount of Leukopenia seen in parvo pets?
CPV-2 can be found in what animals?
- o Dogs
- o Coyotes
- o Wolves
- o Foxes
- o Dingos
- Anything in the Canidae group
What is the Parvo Viruses 1st Job????
o Inhibit WBC division in Bone Marrow and it turns the immune system OFF
What did the CDC find?
o 50% of people with AIDS carry the K9 Parvo antibodies
What are the new recommendations when vx for parvo?
- o Large Breed 75# and up: Vx @ 4wks until 16-20 wks
- o Middle Breds 20-75#: Vx @ 5 wks until 16-20 wks
- o Small Breeds Less than 20#: Vx @ 6 wks until 16-20 wks
Why is Parvo vx until 16-20 wks?
- o Because of Maternal AB can block the Vx and cause exposure
- Point when a pup doesn’t have enough Maternal AB to protect it from Parvo, and if you vx then the Maternal AB will be high enough to block the vx exposure
The Modified Live Virus is a better choice for vx against parvo instead of Killed Virus because?
o The Killed virus is susceptible to the maternal AB interference more than the Modified virus
CPV-2c has been reported in what areas of the world?
- o North America
- o Europe
- o Asia
- o It is now found in 14 states plus of the USA
CPV of all types will divide and multiply in the what?
o Fat cells of the gastro intestinal tract
What form of the parvo virus doesn’t react with the ELISA test that well?
A Post Mortem test for CPV-2C requires what?
- o Tongue
- o Small Intestines
How many strains of the CPV-2c are lethal to the dog?
Cats with CPV-2c don’t commonly die, but will experience?
What are the 2 commercial parvo vx in the US effective in preventing CPV-2c?
- o Galaxy Vaccines
- o Continuum Vaccines (CPV strain 154)
- • Galaxy does produce AB for CPV?
- o CPV-2c
What are the common symptoms and clinical signs of parvo?
- o Diarrhea
- o Dehydration with PCV of 60-70%
- o Anorexia
- o WBC of 2,000
The clinical findings of GI Infections are seen in ?
Pups and Adults
The Myocardial infections are seen in?
Myocarditis can occur from infection in-utero or in pups younger than?
Myocarditis has been known to present itself as?
Congestive Heart Failure in a pup
How much of the pups maternal AB come from the transplacental transfer?
Recent vx with a Modified Live Virus booster may interfere with?
The testing for parvo
When the blood returning to the heart can’t be pumped out at a rate matching the body’s need, heart failure occurs.
The detectable parvovirus usually disappears from the feces in about how long?
What is Banamine approved only for?
What is the MOST common bacteria in parvo seen now?
- 1. Escherichia coli
- 2. Clostridium perfingens
- One is gram neg and the other gram pos. Broad Spectrum tx is necessary
Atropine, Glycopyrolate and Centrine are effective to decrease?
What are the 2 Rules to prev. parvo?
- 1. Minimize Exposure
- 2. Vx> Immunity for CPV in pups through 2 ways: Passive or Active Immunity
Early feeding during recovery will help dogs faster. Feed diets low in what?
- Carbs but high in fats and protein
- Ferret Food or Royal canine are perfect
Maternal Immunity provides?
- 10% through placental transfer
- 90% through colostrum
What Titer is protective for virulent challenge with parvo?
What are the primary causes of ailure of vaccines?
Interfering levels of maternal AB to CPV-2 vx
If bitch titer to parvo is high, you need to vx at?
If bitch titer ot parvo is low, you need to vx at?
Diluted bleach should be at what to clean for parvo?
What is the shedding period for parvo?
4-5 days following onset of illness
Give all the information as you can about Parvo?
- • Virus was first isolated in 87 asnd was associated with an outbreak of “hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with high mortality”
- The virus rapidly invades the cells of the lymphoid system, the intestinal tract, the bone marrow and the MYOCARDIUM in pups.
- • Factors including age, stress, genetics and concurrent intestinal parasites influence the severity of the disease
- • Dobermans and Rottweiler’s have a greater likelihood of the sever disease than others
- • The viral infection in the bone marrow and lymph system produces the lymphopenia and neutropenia in severly infected animals
- • Secondary sepsis may occur with possible intestinal intussusception
- • Treament for the disease consists firstly of SUPPORTIVE THERAPY. Nextly it will include AB, Antiemetics, Antinflammatory agents
- • What is the best preventative measure? Vx
- • Diagnosis by the ELISA test or CITE and IDEXX is required
Clinical signs in a young pup or older dog that isn’t vaccinated consist of:
- o Depression
- o Lethargy
- o Anorexia
- o Vomiting
- o Bloody Diarrhea
- o Dehydration
- o Fever
Diagnosis for Parvo can occur through:
- o CBC
- o Positive Fecal ELISA test
- o Serum chemistries
- o Hypoglycemia
- o Hyponatremia
- o Metabolic acidosis
- o Hypokalemia
- o Serology: High Titer of (1:10,ooo) for parvo
The supportive fluids of choice for parvo are?
- Avoid SQ fluids because the animals are prone to infections from repeated injections through the skin