Psych 100.txt

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Psych 100.txt
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2013-09-11 03:53:53
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flash cards for psych 100
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  1. Who came up with the concept of Structuralism?
    Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener.
  2. What is the premise of structuralism?
    THe mind can be broken down into mental elements which can then be studied and classified.
  3. What are the methods of structuralism?
    Methods: Reaction time tasks and introspection.
  4. There are some problems with introspection. What are they?
    Not objectively verifiable 

    Based on our imperfect senses

    irreproducible results
  5. Who came up with the concept Functionalism?
    William James
  6. What is the premise of Functionalism?
    • Mental processes are subject to natural selection.
    • Influenced by Charles Darwin
    • Focused on the nature side of the nature vs. nurture debate
  7. What methods are used in Functionalism?
    observation
  8. What is Gestalt psychology?
    perception is subjective and context-dependent.
  9. What does gestalt mean?
    gestalt-form or shape [Ger.]; wholeness [Eng.]
  10. What methods are involved in Gestalt psychology?
    Methods: observation and experiments in natural situations
  11. Question: How do patterns and context affect consciousness and experience?
    • Consciousness and experience cannot be broken down to small elements.
    • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
  12. What is psychodyamic theory? Who came up with it?
    • The mind is composed of conscious and unconscious forces. 
    • Sigmund Freud.
  13. What methods are used in Psychodynamic theory?
    Psychoanalysis and case studies
  14. What are some problems that psychodynamic theory can encounter?
    • Not subject to scientific investigation. 
    • subjective observations
    • unfalsifiable hypotheses
    • lack of generalizability
  15. What is behaviorism and who came up with it?
    • Science relies on objective observation; the mind cannot be observed directly, but behavior can; therefore psychologists should focus on behavior. 
    • John Watson, and B.F. Skinner
  16. What methods are used in Behaviorism?
    • Methods: Laboratory experiments and behavioral observation.
    • Stimulus (environment) and response (behavior)
    • Focuses the nurture side of the nature vs. Nurture debate.
  17. What is The Cognitive Revolution?
    • Premise: Mental processes can be studied via scientific observation of behavior. 
    • Reconcile behaviorism with approaches that focused on unobservable mental processes.
  18. Who came up with it? Hint: 4 people came up with it.
    • Ulric Neisser, Alan Newell, Herbert Simon 
    • Michael Gazzaniga and cognitive neuroscience.
  19. What methods are involved in The Cognitive Revolution?
    • Methods: Experiments, mathematical/computational models. 
    • Computer models of human mental processes
  20. What is Social Psychology?
    Social context affects behavior
  21. Who came up with Social psychology?
    Kurt Lewin, Gordan Allport, Soloman Asch
  22. What methods are used in Social Psychology?
    Methods: Observation and experiments.
  23. What is Evolutionary Psychology?
    • Human possess innate species-typical cognitive modules that arose via natural selection. 
    • Brings together the fields of psychology, anthropology, and evolutionary biology.
  24. Who came up with Evolutionary psychology? Hint: 3 people
    • Lida Cosmides
    • John Tooby
    • Steven Pinker
  25. What methods are involved in evolutionary psychology?
    • observation and experiments
    • Human universals
    • Comparative research
  26. What problems are seen with evolutionary psychology?
    • inferred modularity
    • Uncertainty about selection pressures that our ancestors faced
  27. What question does evolutionary Psychology ask?
    What are these cognitive traits and how are they adaptive?
  28. What is the scientific method?
    • Steps in the scientific method:
    • Theory
    • Hypotheses
    • Research
  29. What is a Theory?
    An explanation or model of how a phenomenon works.
  30. What is a Hypotheses?
    A specific, testable prediction about the outcome that would best support the theory.
  31. What is Research?
    Systematic and careful collection of Data (supports the theory or doesn't)
  32. Tools of scientific research: 
    What is longitudinal?
    Study same people across time period.
  33. What is Cross-sectional?
    Study different people of different ages at the same time.
  34. What is an example of longitudinal?
    Example: We study a group of 1st graders and then assess them again when they are in 3rd grade and again in 5th grade.
  35. What is an example of Cross-sectional?
    Example: We study a group of 1st graders, 3rd graders, and 5th graders during the same time.
  36. What is descriptive research?
    observe and classify behavior with no intervention by observer (Naturalistic) or with intervention by observer (participant observation).
  37. Descriptive research: 
    What are case studies?
    Focus on a single interesting case in detail.
  38. What is an example of a case study?
    Example: interested in how parents and kids use media together on a daily basis? Do an in-depth case study of one family.
  39. What is a Survey/Self-report?
    Set of questions that asks participants directly about their beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or activities.
  40. What are Correlational studies?
    Relationships between 2 or more variables that are measured but NOT manipulated.
  41. What are some problems with correlational studies?
    There can be a confusion of because of directionality problem. An example would be did a cause b to happen? Or did b cause a to happen? or is there a third unknown variable.
  42. What is an independent variable in an experimental study?
    intentionally varied; experimenter manipulates
  43. What is an experiment?
    What are the advantages and disadvantages?
    • Examine how variables are related when manipulated by researchers.
    • Advantage: Can demonstrate casual relationships. Avoid the directionality problem
    • Disadvantage: often take place in an artificial setting.
  44. WHat is a dependent variable?
    Aspect of situation that is measured as IV is changed.
  45. What are Tools of scientific research:
    • Samples (the subset you study)vs. Population (the group you want to know about)
    • Random assignment (each member of each sample has equal chance of being assigned to each experimental group) vs. random sampling (each member of population has equal chance of being in your sample)
    • Convenience sampling (people available to you) 
    • Quasi-Experimental (not random assignment)
  46. In Bias research what do you have to worry about?
    • Reliability
    • Validity
    • Accuracy
  47. What is reliability?
    the extent to which a measure is stable and consistent over time and in similar conditions.
  48. What is validity?
    • The degree to which a test actually measures what it's supposed to measure. 
    • A measure can be reliable without being valid, but cannot be valid without being reliable.
  49. What is accuracy?
    the extent to which an experimental measure is free from error.
  50. Types of Bias in Research: 
    What is selection/sampling bias?
    • when participants are not selected at random from the population, such that certain aspects of the population are over or underrepresented in your sample 
    • Example: self-selection, convenience sampling
  51. Types of Bias research: 
    What is experimenter bias?
    • any intentional or unintentional influence that the experimenter exerts on subjects to confirm the hypothesis under investigation. 
    • Example: demand effects, expectancy effects. 
    • Example: addressed via a double-blind design-neither the experimenter nor the participants know the group to which ecah participant is assigned (experimental or control).
  52. Types of Bias research:
    What is response bias?
    • the tendency to respond a particular way regardless of their actual knowledge or beliefs.
    • Ex: self-report bias, reactivity
  53. Types of Bias in research:
    What is Observer bias?
    errors in observation due to the observer's expectations.
  54. Bias in research: Expectancy effects
    What is hawthorne effect (i.e., observer effect)?
    a type of reactivity in which the participant's behavior changes because they know they are being studied, not because of manipulation of the IV (independent variable).
  55. Bias in Research: expectancy effects
    What is Clever Hans?
    The experiment's involuntary behavior unintentionally cues the participant.
  56. Bias in Research: expectancy effects
    What is Pygmalion effects?
    • one's behavior is influenced by the expectations of others
    • E.g., Rosenthal's rats, effect of teachers' expectations of students on their learning outcomes.
  57. Bias in Research: Detecting confounds
    What are four confounds?
    • Design
    • controls,unexplained variables, experimenter biases/demand effects
    • Sample
    • adequacy, appropriateness, representativeness
    • Measures
    • adequacy,reliability, validity, accuracy
    • Conclusions
    • DO the conclusions that are bade follow logically from the data?
  58. What is a confound?
    anything that affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study.
  59. What is Electroencephalograph (EEG)?
    • Non-invasive measurement of electrical activity in the brain via electrodes on the scalp. 
    • good temporal resolution, poor spatial resolution
  60. What is Positron emission tomography (PET)?
    • measurement of metabolic activity via ingestion of a radioactive substance that emits positron as it is metabolized.
    • Poor temporal resolution, good spatial resolution 
  61. What is Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)?
    • measure changes in blood-flow to specific brainregions in a magnetized field. 
    • Poor temporal resolution, good spatial resolution 
  62. WHat is Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?
    Temporary disruption of function of a specific cortical area via transmission of an electric field.
  63. Descriptive Statistics:
    • Summarize/organize scores from a research study
    • Measures of central tendency 
    • Mean-average
    • Median-middle
    • mode-most common
    • Variability and standard deviation
  64. Inferential statistics:
    Draw conclusions/make inferences that go beyond the scores from a research study.
  65. Meta-analysis:
    Combine the findings of multiple studies to arrive at a conclusion.
  66. What is Correlation coefficient?
    • A descriptive statistic that indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables. 
    • Ranges from -1.0 to+1.0
    • Closer to either extreme=stronger relationship
    • Closer to zero= weaker relationship
    • Zero=no relationship 
  67. What is a positive relationship? Hint: correlational coefficient
    The two variables increase and decrease together
  68. What is a Negative relationship? Hint: correlational coefficient
    as one variable increases, the other decreases.
  69. Measurement and data: Correlation

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