L&M CH.1

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chuchi
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23419
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L&M CH.1
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2010-06-24 11:27:06
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Psychology Learning Motivation Mazur
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CH.1, Mazur
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  1. If a psychologist has a theory that people can read faster if they have had some caffeine, caffeine is the ________, and reading speed is the _____________.
    IV, DV
  2. ____________ means that a theory makes specific predictions that can be tested to determine whether the theory is right or wrong.
    testability, falsifiability
  3. __________ means that a theory stimulates a lot of new research and new ideas.
    fruitfulness
  4. A problem with using anecdotes as scientific data is that they could be a _____________.
    biased sample
  5. A variable that can affect the results of an experiment and makes the results impossible to interpret is called a _________.
    confounding variable
  6. Animals have been used as research subjects more often by _______________ psychologists than by ____________ psychologists.
    behavioral, cognitive
  7. According to John B. Watson, if psychology is to be a science it must focus on observable events, namely ____________ and _____________.
    stimuli, responses
  8. According to B. F. Skinner, theories in psychology should not include ____________.
    intervening variables
  9. If a theory deals with many different independent and dependent variables, adding an independent variable can make the theory _______________.
    simpler
  10. Most psychologist would agree that ___ is a process of change that occurs as a result of an individual's experience. (We learn from our experiences)
    Learning
  11. Which of the following scholars wrote the influential book, The Behavior of Organisms (1938)?
    (Important figure in behaviorism)
    B. F. Skinner
  12. In research, another name for the independent variable is often referred to as the:
    (Reason for the experiment)
    Cause
  13. According to the author, which of the following would be classified as an observational technique?
    (Behavior must be observable)
    Archival data, Survey data, Field data
  14. In medical research, patients who receive the inactive pill are usually in the ___group.
    (The drug has no pharmacological effects)
    Placebo
  15. A result is usually called significant in psychological research if the probability that it occurred by chance is less than ____. (Level of significance in research)
    .05
  16. The field of learning is frequently associated with the general approach to psychology called behaviorism. (Skinner was a behaviorist)
    True
  17. One reason for using animals as subjects in research is that of comparative complexity.
    (Humans can read, write, and speak; animals cannot)
    False
  18. The term "behaviorism" was first coined by B.F. Skinner.
    (Watson first behaviorist)
    False
  19. The period in which an organism is acquiring a new skill. (Process of learning)
    Acquisition Phase
  20. Theoretical concept used to predict the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
    (Unseen variables which may influence a relationship)
    Intervening Variable
  21. The ability of a theory to stimulate future research.
    (Research builds upon previous research)
    Fruitfulness
  22. A method for drawing inferences or conclusions from empirical results.
    (Determines the effect of the independent variable)
    Inferential Statistics
  23. Neither the subject nor the researcher knows what group the subject is in during an experiment.
    (Procedure to reduce the placebo effect)
    Double-Blind Procedure
  24. The term "dependent" variable replaces the word ___ in experimental studies.
    (What an experimenter measures)
    Effect
  25. A concern raised about the case history method is that the cases reported may represent a _____.
    (Small sample may not apply to all)
    Biased sample
  26. ___ psychology developed as a result of some psychologists who were dissatisfied with the behavioral approach. (Intervening variables are important for understanding behavior.)
    Cognitive
  27. Another psychologist, ____proposed that intervening variables enhanced the desirability for a theory. (Behavioral psychologist who disagreed with Skinner)
    Neal Miller
  28. Which of the following is NOT a component of a scientific theory?
    A. Dependent variable
    B. Independent variable
    C. Syntax
    D. Confounding variable
    Confounding variable
  29. A theory which makes unambiguous predictions which can be tested against fact has ____.
    Testability
  30. What is the name of the committee which oversees animal research at most universities?
    Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
  31. Most psychologist view learning as
    a process of change that occurs as a result of an individual’s experiences
  32. Behaviorist focus on
    observerable events and disregard intervening variables as part of the ability to predict behavior
  33. The major components of a theory consist of
    cause and effect relationships using the rule of syntax
  34. The criteria for judging the merit of a scientific theory are
    testability, simplicity, generality, and fruitfulness
  35. Psychologist use ____________, ____________, and _________ to collect behavioral data
    case histories, observational techniques, and experimentation
  36. Inferential statistics are often used to
    determine the effect of an experimental manipulation from which theoretical conclusions are drawn
  37. Many benefits have been achieved as a result of psychological research with animals such as
    behavior medicine, improved treatment for anxiety, psychosis, and Parkinson’s disease
  38. Cognitive psychologist examine behavior with regard to
    identifying the intervening variables which can strengthen a theories generality
  39. Chaos theory provides a
    mathematical technique for understanding complex physical systems like behavior
  40. Research focuses on
    Process and Product
  41. process =
    learning
  42. product =
    everything after
  43. Long-term changes in an individual's bx that results from a learning experience
    Product
  44. raccoon 1st encountering the smell of food - garbage can
    Process and Product
  45. raccoon encountering few changes after having considerable experience w/ the garbage can
    Acquisition Phase
  46. conditions that are varied or manipulated to produce change (cause)
    IV
  47. what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment (effect)
    DV
  48. movement of a paddle as it strikes a ping-pong ball, is the ____, movement of ball through the air is the _______
    IV, DV
  49. Not all psychological theories include _______, and some psychologists object to their use because they are not directly observable
    intervening variables
  50. rules and definitions that state how the IV & DV are measured and the relationship among IVs, intervening variables, and DVs
    Syntax
  51. Good theories can be disproven/replicated
    Testability (falsifiability)
  52. smallest number of constructs and assumptions are preferred
    Simplicity
  53. Simplest explanation amongst theories
    Simplicity
  54. the broad application
    Generality
  55. how well theory coincides w/ the facts
    Agreement w/the data
  56. Just b/c it doesn't agree it doesn’t mean that its bad
    Agreement w/the data
  57. Experimenter is passive observer
    • Observable techniques:
    • Commonality w/case histories
  58. Always involves a systematic effort to obtain a representative sample from the population
    Observable techniques
  59. when people know they are participating in an experiment, their bxs may change or improve
    Double-blind procedure
  60. receives the tx
    Experimental group
  61. receives no initial tx (comparison group)
    Control group
  62. means that it is unlikely that the results occurred by chance (i.e., .05)
    Statistically significant
  63. Emphasizes the study of external events (observable stimuli and responses) and avoids speculation about processes inside the organism
    Behaviorism
  64. what can I see and measure
    Behaviorism
  65. -Reliance on animal subjects
    -Emphasis on external events
    Behavioral Approach
  66. approach that focuses on the processes that take place inside the head (memory, attention, rehearsal, etc) that cannot be observed directly
    Cognitive Psychology
  67. What's going on internally w/in the mind
    Cognitive Psychology CBT
  68. Placebo effect or expectancy effect is minimized
    Advantages of Using Animals in Research
  69. Subjects are convenient
    Advantages of Using Animals in Research
  70. Controlled environment
    Advantages of Using Animals in Research
  71. Comparative Simplicity
    Advantages of Using Animals in Research
  72. Complex skills (e.g., Language) hard to study in animals
    Disadvantages of Using Animals in Research
  73. Human beings very different from animals
    Disadvantages of Using Animals in Research
  74. Ethical concerns: The role of PETA
    Disadvantages of Using Animals in Research
  75. IRB
    institutional review board (humans)

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