COMM1210 Terms Part1

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COMM1210 Terms Part1
2010-06-22 16:42:58
Comm1210 Communication Exam1 Part1

Terms from Perspectives on Human Communication by Alberts
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  1. Human Communication
    A process in which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages.
  2. Messages
    The building blocks of communication
  3. Symbol
    Something that represents something else and conveys meaning
  4. Iconic Signs
    Signs that represent a thing itself and always bear some resemblance to the object to which they refer.
  5. Indexical Signs
    Signs that reveal something beyond the thing itself
  6. Content Meaning
    Denotative meaning: the concrete meaning of the message, and Connotative meaning: the meanings suggested by or associated with the message and the emotions triggered by it.
  7. Relationship Meaning
    What a message conveys about the relationship between the parties.
  8. Setting
    The physical surroundings of a communication event
  9. Participants
    The people interacting during communication
  10. Message Creation
    Transmitting ideas and emotions via signs and symbols.
  11. Encoding
    Taking ideas and converting them into messages
  12. Decoding
    Receiving messages and interpreting its meaning
  13. Channels
    The means through which a message is transmitted
  14. Noise
    Any stimulus that can interfere with, or degrade, the quality of a message
  15. Feedback
    The response to a message
  16. Field of Experience
    The education, life events, and cultural background that a communicator possesses
  17. Ethics
    Standards of what is right and wrong, good and bad, moral and immoral
  18. Communication Ethics
    The standards of right and wrong that one applies to messages that are sent and received
  19. Expectancy Violation Theory
    Theory explaining how individuals respond to and interpret communication behavior when it violates their expectations.
  20. Theories
    Sets of statements that explain a particular phenomenon.
  21. Rhetoric
    The art of persuasion.
  22. Sophists
    The people who taught persuasive speaking skills in the Greek city-states.
  23. Orator
    A public speaker
  24. Renaissance
    An era of tremendous intellectual, artistic, and scientific achievements in Europe spanning the 14th to 17th centuries.
  25. Humanism
    The belief that science and reason were the pathways to human enlightenment and human nature and its potential were to be celebrated.
  26. Enlightenment
    18th century belief in human rationality as the answer to human problems.
  27. Behaviorism
    The belief that actual behavior is the only event worthy of study.
  28. Elocution
    The mechanics of public speaking, including proper pronunciation, posture, and grammar
  29. Methodology
    An accepted set of methods for developing new knowledge about a subject.
  30. Social Science Approach
    Contemporary term for the behaviorist approach.
  31. Interpretive Approach
    Contemporary term for humanistic (rhetorical) study.
  32. Paradigm
    Belief system that represents a particular worldview.
  33. Methods
    The specific ways that scholars collect and analyze data, which they then use to prove or disprove their theories.
  34. Naturalistic
    Relating to everyday, real-life situations, such as a classroom, cafe, or shopping mall.
  35. Quantitative Methods
    Methods that convert data to numerical indicators, and then analyze these numbers using statistics to establish relationships among the concepts
  36. Qualitative Methods
    Methods in which researchers study naturally occurring communication rather than assembling data and converting it to numbers
  37. Ethnographic
    Relating to research in which researchers actively engage with participants.
  38. Rhetorical analysis
    Used by researchers to examine texts or public speeches as they occur in society with the aim of interpreting textual meaning.
  39. Critical approach
    An approach used not only to understand human behavior but ultimately to change society.
  40. Textual analysis
    Similar to rhetorical analysis; used to analyze cultural products, such as media and public speeches
  41. Postmodernism
    A broad intellectual and social movement of the late 20th century
  42. Modernism
    The belief that through rational thinking, humans can advance and discover universal truth
  43. Postmodern approach
    An approach in which reality is subjective, and power is an important issue.
  44. 7 Function of language
    • 1. Instrumental
    • 2. Regulatory
    • 3. Informative
    • 4. Heuristic
    • 5. Interactional
    • 6. Personal
    • 7. Imaginative
  45. Instrumental
    Use of language to obtain what you need or desire
  46. Regulatory
    Use of language to control or regulate the behavior of others
  47. Informative
    Use of language to communicate information or report facts
  48. Heuristic
    Use of language to acquire knowledge and understanding
  49. Interactional
    Use of language to establish and define social relationships
  50. Personal language
    Use of language to express individuality and personality
  51. Imaginative
    Use of language to express individuality and personality
  52. Components of language
    • Phonology
    • Syntax
    • Semantics
    • Pragmatics
  53. Phonology
    The study of sounds that compose individual languages and how those sounds communicate meaning
  54. Syntax
    The rules that govern word order (grammar)
  55. Semantics
    The study of meaning (Denotative and Connotative)
  56. Denotative meaning
    The dictionary, or literal meaning of a word
  57. Connotative meaning
    The affective or interpretive meanings attached to a word
  58. Pragmatics
    Field of study that emphasizes how language is used in specific situations to accomplish goals.

    • Speech Act Theory
    • Locutionary
    • Illocutionary
    • Perlocutionary
  59. Speech Act Theory
    Branch of pragmatics that suggests that when people communicate, they do not just say things, they also do things with their words
  60. Locutionary
    Describes what is said, or the act of saying something.
  61. Illocutionary
    Describes what one does with one's utterance; what the utterance accomplishes.
  62. Perlocutionary
    Describes the effect an utterance has.
  63. Dialect
    A variation of a language distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation
  64. Lexical choice
  65. Cohort Effect
    The influence of shared characteristics of a group that was born and reared in the same general period
  66. Ebonics
    A version of English that has its root in West Africa, Caribbean, and US slave language
  67. Jargon
    The specialized terms that develops in many professions
  68. Nominalists
    Those who argue that any idea can be expressed in any language and that the structure and vocabulary of the language do not influence the speaker's perception of the world
  69. Relativists
    Those who argue that language serves not only as a way for us to voice our ideas but is itself the shaper of ideas, the guide for the individual's mental activity.
  70. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    Idea that the language people speak determines the way they see the world (a relativist perspective)
  71. Co-Cultural theory
    Explores the role of power in daily interactions
  72. Disconfirming Communication
    Comments that reject or invalidate a positive or negative self-image of our conversational partners.
  73. Confirming Communication
    Comments that validate positive self-image of others
  74. Four Stages of listening
    • 1. Sensing
    • 2. Understanding
    • 3. Evaluating
    • 4. Responding
  75. Sensing
    The stage of listening most people refer to as hearing; when listeners pick up the sound waves directed towards them.
  76. Understanding
    Interpreting the messages associated with sounds or what the sounds mean.
  77. Evaluating
    Assessing your reaction to a message
  78. Responding
    Showing others how you regard their message
  79. Nonverbal behavior
    All the nonverbal actions people perform
  80. Nonverbal communication
    Nonverbal behavior that has symbolic meaning
  81. Nonverbal codes
    Distinct organized means of expression that consist of symbols and rules for their use

    • 1. Kinesics
    • 2. Paralinguistics
    • 3. Time & Space
    • 4. Haptics
    • 5. Appearance & Artifacts
  82. Kinesics
    Nonverbal communication sent by the body, including gestures, posture, movement, facial expressions and eye behavior

    • 1. Gestures
    • 2. Illustrators
    • 3. Adaptors
    • 4. Regulators
    • 5. Immediacy
    • 6. Relaxation
  83. Gestures
    Nonverbal communication made with part of the body, including actions such as pointing, waving, or holding up a hand to direct people's attention
  84. Illustrator
    Signals that accompany speech to clarify or emphasize the verbal message
  85. Adaptors
    Gestures used to manage emotions
  86. Regulators
    Gestures used to control conversation
  87. Immediacy
    How close or involved people appear to be with each other
  88. Relaxation
    The degree of tension displayed by one's body
  89. Paralinguistics
    All aspects of spoken language except the words themselves; includes rate, volume, pitch, and stress. (Voice qualities; vocalization)
  90. Voice qualities
    Qualities such as speed, pitch, rhythm, vocal range, and articulation that make up the music of the human voice
  91. Vocalization
    Uttered sounds that do not have the structure of language
  92. Time and Space
    Chronemics, and Proximics
  93. Chronemics
    The study of the way people use time as message (monochronically and polychronically)
  94. Monochronically
    Engaging in one task or behavior at a time
  95. Polychronically
    Engaging in multiple activities simultaneously
  96. Proxemics
    • The study of how people use special cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships, to communicate.
    • Intimate distance (0-18 inches); Personal distance (18 inches to 4 feet); Social distance (4-12 feet); Public distance (12-25 feet).
  97. Haptics
    • The study of the communicative function of touch
    • Professional touch; Social-polite touch; Friendship touch; Love-intimate touch; Demand touching
  98. Appearance and Artifacts
    Artifacts: clothing and other accessories
  99. Functions of Nonverbal Communication
    • Communicating information
    • Regulating interaction
    • Expressing and managing intimacy
    • Establishing social control
    • Service-task function.
  100. Communicating information
    Using nonverbal behaviors to help clarify verbal messages and reveal attitudes and moods
  101. Regulating interaction
    Using nonverbal behaviors to help manage turn-taking during conversations
  102. Expressing and managing intimacy
    Using nonverbal behaviors to help convey attraction and closeness
  103. Establishing social control
    Using nonverbal behavior to exercise influence over other people
  104. Service-task Function
    Using nonverbal behavior to signal close involvement between people in impersonal relationships and contexts
  105. Congruent
    Verbal and nonverbal messages that express the same thing
  106. Contradicting
    Verbal and nonverbal messages the send conflicting messages
  107. Symbolic Interaction
    Communication through symbols; people talking to each other
  108. Minding
    An inner dialogue used to test alternatives, rehearse action, and anticipate reactions before responding; self-talk
  109. Taking the role of the other
    The process of mentally imagining that you are someone else who is viewing you
  110. The Looking-Glass Self
    The mental self-image that results from taking the role of the other; the objective self; me
  111. "I"
    The spontaneous driving force that fosters all that is novel, unpredictable, and unorganized in the self.
  112. "Me"
    The objective self; the image of self seen when one takes the role of the other
  113. Generalized Other
    The composite mental image a person has of his or her self based on community expectations and responses
  114. Participant Observation
    A method of adopting the stance of an ignorant yet interested visitor who carefully notes what people say and do in order to discover how they interpret the world.
  115. Self-fulfilling prophecy
    The tendency for our expectations to evoke responses that confirm what we originally anticipated.
  116. Personal Space
    The invisible, variable volume of space surrounding an individual that defines that individual's preferred distance from others.
  117. Threat threshold
    The hypothetical outer boundary of intimate space; a breach by an uninvited other occasions fight or flight?
  118. Arousal, relational
    A heightened state of awareness, orienting response, or mental alertness that stimulates a review of the relationship
  119. 3 Components of EVT
    • 1. Expectancy
    • 2. Violation Valence
    • 3. Communicator Reward Valence
  120. Expectancy
    What people predict will happen, rather than what they desire
  121. Violation Valence
    The perceived positive or negative value assigned to a breach of expectation, regardless of who the violator is
  122. Communicator reward valence
    The sum of positive and negative attributes brought to the encounter plus the potential to reward or punish in the future
  123. Interaction adaptation theory
    A systematic analysis of how people adjust their approach when another's behavior doesn't mesh with what's needed, anticipated, or preferred.
  124. Interaction position
    A person's initial stance toward an interaction as determined by a blend of personal requirements, expectations, and desires (RED)
  125. Reciprocity
    A strong human tendency to respond to another's action with similar behavior
  126. Categorical Imperative
    Duty without exception; act only on that maxim which you can will to become a universal law.