Ch 2 Psy

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jskunz
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234251
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Ch 2 Psy
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2013-09-12 14:15:53
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Psy
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Biology of mind
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  1. Biological psychologists
    • study links btwn our biology and our behavior
    • also call themselves: behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologist, or biopsychologist
  2. neurons
    • a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
    • Each has cell body and dentrite
  3. dendrite
    • Receives impulses
    • the neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
  4. axon
    • sends impulses away from cell... can be very long
    • the neuron's extension that passes messages through it's branching terminal fibers that form junctions with other neurons, muscles, or glands.
  5. Axons ______, Dentrites ______
    speak, listen
  6. action potential
    a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
  7. threshold
    the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
  8. synapse
    • the junction btwn the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. 
    • the tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft 
  9. neurotransmitters
    • chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps btwn neurons
    • When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
  10. reuptake
    a process in which the sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters
  11. acetylcholine
    • (ACh) ~ one of the best understood neurotransmitter
    • enables muscle action, learning and memory
    • is the messenger at every junction btwn a motor neuron and skeletal muscles
    • if blocked (like with anesthesia), we are paralyzed. 
    • Malfunctions: alzheimers disease, ACh-producing neurons deteriorate
  12. endorphins
    "morphine within" - natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
  13. dopamine
    • neurotransmitter
    • influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
    • Excess linked to schizophrenia, insufficient amount linked to Parkinsons
  14. serotonin
    • affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
    • insufficient linked to depression. prozac is one that will rise levels
  15. norepinephrine
    • helps control alertness and arousal
    • undersupply can depress mood
  16. agonist
    • molecules which may be similar enough to neurotransmitter to bind to receptor and mimic it's effects
    • some opiate drugs are agonists and produce a temporary "high" by amplifying normal sensations of arousal or pleasure
  17. antagonist
    molecules which bind to receptors but their effect is instead to block a neurotransmitter's functioning.
  18. nervous system
    the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
  19. central nervous system
    • CNS ~ brain and spinal cord. 
    • the body's decision maker
  20. peripheral nervous system
    • PNS ~ the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
    • responsible for gathering info and transmitting CNS decisions to other body parts
    • two components: somatic and autonomic
  21. nerves
    bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
  22. 3 types of neurons
    sensory, motor, and interneurons
  23. sensory neurons
    neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord for processing
  24. motor neurons
    neurons that carry outgoing info from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
  25. interneurons
    • neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene btwn the sensory inputs and motor outputs
    • process info
  26. somatic nervous system
    • VOLUNTARY CONTROL
    • the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
    • Also called skeletal nervous system
  27. autonomic nervous system
    • involuntary; auto-piolet
    • the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart)
    • it's sympathetic division arouses; it's parasympathetic division calms
  28. sympathetic nervous system
    division of autonomic nervous system; arouses and spends energy
  29. parasympathetic nervous system
    division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving it's energy
  30. neural networks
    work groups of clusters of brain neurons
  31. spinal cord
    information highway connecting the peripheral nervous system to the brain
  32. reflexes
    a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as a knee-jerk
  33. adrenal glands
    a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress
  34. pituitary gland
    • most influential endocrine gland
    • under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
    • sort of master gland
  35. lesion
    • tissue destruction
    • a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
  36. EEG
    electroencephalogram ~ an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
  37. PET
    • positron emission tomography scan ~ a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
    • sugar glucose is the brains chemical fuel
  38. MRI
    • magnetic resonance imaging ~ a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. 
    • shows brain anatomy
  39. fMRI
    • functional magnetic resonance imaging ~ a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
    • show brain function
  40. medulla
    the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
  41. brainstem
    • oldest and innermost region, begins where the spinal cord swells slightly after entering the skull (slight swelling is medulla)
    • is crossover point, where most nerves to and from each side of the brain connect with the body's opposite side
  42. pons
    just above the medulla, helps coordinate movements
  43. thalamus
    • sits at top of brainstem, egg shaped. receives info from all senses except smell
    • the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
  44. reticular formation
    "netlike" ~ a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

    *experiment involving electrically stimulating this made a sleeping cat instantly awake & alert
  45. cerebellum
    • "little brain" at rear of brainstem;
    • functions include some nonverbal learning, processing sensory input, and coordinating movement output and balance
    • Ex: Helps us judge time, modulate our emotions, and discriminate sounds and textures, also coordinates voluntary movement
  46. cerebral hemispheres
    the two halves of the brain
  47. limbic system
    • neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) 
    • located below the cerebral hemispheres
    • associated with emotions (as fear and anger) and drives (as for food and sex)
  48. hippocampus
    • part of the limbic system
    • processes memory
  49. amygdala
    • part of the lumbic system, two lima-bean neural clusters
    • linked to emotions, influence aggression and fear
  50. hypothalamus
    • just below thalamus
    • directs several maintenance activities (hunger, thirst, body temp, sexual behavior)
    • also monitors blood chemistry & takes orders from other parts of brain (ex: hormones for sexual arousal)
    • helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland
    • linked to emotion and reward
  51. reward deficiency syndrome
    • a genetically disposed deficiency in the natural brain systems for pleasure and well-being that leads people to crave whatever provides that missing pleasure or relieves negative feelings
    • EX: addictive disorders such as alcohol, substance abuse, and binge eating
  52. what do older brain networks do?
    sustain basic life functions and enable memory, emotions, and basic drives
  53. cerebrum
    • the two large hemispheres which contribute 85% of the brain's weight
    • contain newer neural networks which form to specialized work teams that enable our perceiving, thinking and speaking
  54. cerebral cortex
    • a thin surface layer of interconnected neural cells
    • covers the two hemispheres of the cerebrum like bark on a tree
    • Is brains thinking crown, body's ultimate control and information processing center
  55. each hemisphere is divided into...
    four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal
  56. fissure
    "folds" on the brain which geographically subdivide each lobe
  57. frontal lobe
    • portion of cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead
    • involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
  58. parietal lobe
    • portion of the cerebral cortex laying oat the top of the head and toward the rear
    • receives sensory input for touch and body position
  59. Occipital lobe
    • portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head
    • includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
  60. temporal lobe
    • portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears
    • includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
  61. motor cortex
    • an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
    • discovered by 2 german physicians who elect. stimulated a dogs cortex; stimulating regions in left or right hemisphere caused body parts to move on opposite side of body
  62. Luckily for brain sugeons and pt's, the brain has no:
    sensory receptors
  63. body areas requiring precise control, such as finger and mouth...
    occupied the greatest amount of cortical space
  64. sensory cortex
    • area at the front of the parietal lobes, parallel to and just behind the motor cortex
    • specializes in receiving info from skin senses and from movement of body parts
    • the more sensitive the body region, the larger the sensory cortex area devoted to it
  65. association areas
    areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, speaking, and integrating info.
  66. aphasia
    impaired use of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
  67. Broca's area
    • area of left frontal lobe; 
    • damage disrupts speaking; would cause a person to struggle to speak works while still being able to sing familiar songs and comprehend speech
  68. Wernicke's area
    • area of left temporal lobe; involved in language comprehension and expression
    • damage would cause a person to speak only meaningless words; disrupts understanding
  69. angular gyrus
    • involved in reading aloud
    • receives visual info from visual area and decodes it to auditory form
    • leaves a person able to speak and understand, but unable to read
  70. Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking words
    • a) hearing words ~ auditory cortex and Wernicke's area
    • b) Seeing words ~ visual cortex and angular gyrus
    • c) speaking words ~ Broca's area and the motor cortex
  71. plasticity
    the brain's ability to modify itself.. to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
  72. neurogenesis
    the formation of new neurons
  73. lateralization
    hemispheric specialization; each side serves differing functions
  74. corpus callosum
    the wide band of axon fibers connecting the two hemispheres and carrying messages btwn them
  75. split brains
    a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
  76. information highway from eye to brain:
    • Info from L half of field of vision goes to the R hemisphere, which controls voluntary movement
    • Info from R half of field of vision goes to the L hemisphere, which controls speech

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