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What are the four goals of psychology?
- Description (What are they doing?)
- Explain (Why are they doing it?)
- Prediction (When would it happen again?)
- Control (How can it be changed?)
- Studying how the mind allows people to function in the real world - how people work, play and adapt to their surroundings
- The why
- William James
- Heavily influenced by Charles Darwin
This psychologist was heavily influenced by Charles Darwin
- William James
- Father of functionalism
- Every experience could be broken down into its individual emotions and sensations
- Edward Titchener
- The what
Father of psychology?
- Willhelm Wundt
- objective introspection (objectively examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities)
Mary Whiton Calkins
- Denied Ph.D. by Harvard because she was a woman
- First female president of APA
- Student of James
Those who follow this perspective buy into "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
- Gestalt psychology
- Max Wertheimer
early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perceptioon of patterns and whole figures
the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud
- focuses on observable behavior (something that could be directly seen and measured) only
- John Watson
- Influenced by Pavlov and his conditioning
Who was responsible for Little Albert?
- baby conditioned to fear rats (stimulus/response relationship)
In the definition of psychology, behavior means:
a. internal, covert processes
b. mental processes
c. outward or overt actions and reactions
d. only human behavior
outward or overt actions and reactions
Dr. Edwards designs a special behavior program for children diagnosed with autism to learn to communicate with others. Dr. Edwards is most interested in which goal?
Cheryan et al. tested for the reason why there are so few women in the computer science field. What goal does this most clearly illustrate?
Which of the following early psychologists would have been most likely to agree with the statement, "The study of the mind should focus on how it allows us to adapt to our surroundings?"
- William James
Which early perspective would have been least like to agree with the structuralists?
Who among the early African American psychologists eventually became president of two universities?
Dr. Robert Prentiss Daniel
modern version of pyschoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than sexual motivations
- voluntary behavior is learned through operant conditioning
- BF Skinner
- focuses on people's ability to direct their own lives
- people have free will, the freedom to choose their own destiny and they strive for self-actualization
- a reaction to psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism
focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving and learning
study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking
perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones and the activity of the nervous system
- focuses on the biological bases for universal mental characteristics that all humans share
- wants to explain general mental strategies and traits such as why we lie, how attractiveness influences mate selection, why fear of snakes is so common
watching people or animals in their own environment
people tend to behave differently when they're being observed
observers tend to see what they expect to see
the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings and behavior of an individual
changing one's own behavior to match that of other people
Asch's study on conformity
- the comparison lines
- participants conformed to the group answer a little more than 1/3 of the time
- conformity increased with each new confederates
- conformity decreased if one confederate gave the right answer
Do women tend to show more conformity in private than men?
No. But in public they do.
changing one's behavior as a result of the other people directing or asking for the change
asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment
foot in the door
asking for a large commitment and being refused, then asking for a smaller commitment
door in the face
getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment
assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return
norm of reciprocity
changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure
a tendency to respond positively or negatively to a certain idea, person, object or situation
affective component of an attitude
- the way a person feels toward the object, person or situation
- i like country music, it's fun and uplifting
behavior component of an attitude
- the action a person takes in regard to that person, object or situation
- i buy country music cds, i only listed to a country music radio station
cognition component of an attitude
- the way a person thinks about the person, object or situation
- i think country music is better than any other kind of music i hear on the radio
elaboration likelihood model
people either elaborate based on what they hear, or they do not elaborate at all, preferring to pay attention to the surface characteristics of the message
people attend to all the content of a message
a style of info processing that relies on peripheral cues such as the expertise of the message source, the length of the message, etc.
a sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's behavior does not correspond to that person's attitudes
what can a person do to reduce cognitive dissonance?
- 1. change the behavior to match the attitude
- 2. change the current conflicting cognition to justify the behavior
- 3. form new cognitions to justify the behavior
the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people whom one has had experience in the past
a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category
sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits and actions are related to each other
implicit personality theory
example of implicit personality theory
happy people are also friendly people and people who are quiet are shy
fundamental attribution error suggests
you'll make a dispositional attribution for others and a situational attribution for yourself
realistic conflict theory
increasing prejudice and discrimination will be increased between groups that are in conflict over a limited resource
the effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior
the tendency of one's expectations to affect one's behavior in such a way as to make the expectations more likely to occur
What factors govern attraction and love?
- physical beauty
- reciprocity of like
Sternberg's types of love
the likelihood of someone observing an event and close enough to offer help to help someone in trouble decreases as the numbers of bystanders increase
diffusion of responsibility
a person fails to take responsibility for either action or inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
five decision points in helping behavior
- defining an emergency
- taking responsibility
- planning a course of action
- taking action
What parts of body does the central nervous system control?
Bran and spinal cord
What are the two parts of the peripheral nervous system?
- autonomic (automatically regulates stuff)
- somatic (carries sensory info and controls movement of skeletal muscles)
what does the peripheral nervous system do?
transmits info to and from the central nervous system
what are two parts of the autonomic nervous system
- parasympathetic (eat drink and rest)
- sympathetic (fight or flight)
what does the autonomic nervous system do?
automatically regulates glands, internal organs and blood vessels, pupil dilation, digestion and blood pressure
the specialized cell in the nervous system that receives and sends messages within that system
branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons
the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell
the tubelike structure that carries the neural message to other cells
support cells - these deliver nutrients, produce myelin, clean up waste products, influence information processing and - during prenatal development - influence the generation of new neurons
What type of cells make up 90 percent of the cells in the brain?
this is a fatty substance that wraps around the shaft of the axon to form a protective sheath, helps to speed up the neural messaging
bundles of myelin coated axons travel together in cables called
what happens to the myelin when someone has MS?
- the myelin sheath is destroyed
- this leads to the diminished or complete loss of neural functioning the damaged cells
the state of the neuron when it isn't firing a neural impulse
the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon
when a neuron is in resting potential phase, what is the charge of the ions inside the cell?
when a neuron is in action potential phase, what happens to the charge inside the cell?
- the charge becomes mostly positive
- electrical charge reversal starts at the part of the axon closest to soma
all or none
a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all
ends of the axon fan out into several shorter fibers that have swelling or little knobs on the end called
synaptic knobs or axon terminals
these reside within the synaptic knob - they're little blister like structures that hold neurotransmitters
chemical found in the synaptic vesicles, that, when released, has an effect on the next cell
- a fluid filled space between the snyaptic knob and the dendrite of another neuron
- this is where the neurotransmitters are released into
- sometimes known as the synapse
three-dimensional proteins on the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters
- a chemical substance that mimics or enhances the effects of a neurotransmitter
- black widow spider venom
first neurotransmitter identified?
- chemical substance that blocks or reduces the effects of a neurotransmitter
- curare - blow dart poison - is an agonist - their molecules are similar enough to fit into the receptor sites for acetylcholine
pain-controlling chemicals in the body (neurotransmitters)
function of acetylcholine
excitatory or inhibitory; involved in memory and controls muscle contractions
excitatory or inhibitory, involved in mood, sleep and appetite
inhibitory - involved in sleep and inhibits movement
excitatory, involved in learning, memory formation and nervous system development
excitatory, involved in arousal and mood
excitatory or inhibitory, involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasure
neurotransmitters are take back into the synaptic vesicles
what neurotransmitter is not taken back up through reuptake?
- it's responsible for muscle movement, and that happens quickly and repeatedly, so an enzyme comes along to degrade it
a long bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body and the brain and is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes
three types of neurons within the reflex arc
- afferent neurons (sensory, they "access" the spinal cord)
- efferent neurons (motor, they "exit" the spinal cord)
- interneurons (they link afferent and efferent together)
the ability to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in the brain in response to experience and trauma
what cells can become other cells?
this part of the nervous system is made up of all the nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
somatic nervous system is made up of what two pathways?
- sensory (carries messages from senses to the central nervous system)
- motor (carries messages from central to the voluntary, or skeletal, muscles of the body)
when people are walking, raising their hands in class, smelling a flower or directing their gaze toward the person they are talking to, they are using what nervous system?
involuntary muscles, such as the heart, stomach and intestines, together with glands, are controlled by what nervous system?
why is the sympathetic division called the flight or flight system?
- it allows people and animals to deal with stressful events
- decrease salivation, dilates pupils, dilates bronchi, decreases digestive function, inhibits bladder contraction
- part of the autonomic nervous system
why is the parasympathetic division called the eat-drink-rest system?
- it restores the body to normal functioning after stressful events end
- slows heart and breathing, constricts pupils, reactivates digestion and excretion
- it's also responsible for most of the ordinary day-to-day bodily functioning, like regular heartbeat and normal breathing
- part of the autonomic nervous system
why are endocrine glands different from sweat and salivary glands?
because they have no ducts and secrete their chemicals directly into the bloodstream
hormones are secreted by what glands?
- master gland
- controls or influences all of the other endocrine glands
- pregnancy stuff happens here
secretes melatonin, which helds track day length and seasons
secretes hormones that regulate growth and metabolism
controls the level of blood sugar in the body by secreting insulin and glucagons
if the pancreas secretes too little insulin, what disease
if the pancreas secretes too much insulin, what disease
adrenal glands are located where, and what do they do?
- one on top of each kidney, they release ephinephrine and norepinephrine when people are under stress
- the adrenal cortex produces over 30 different hormones that regulate salt intake and help initial and control stress reactions
Parts of the hindbrain?
- reticular formation
this brain part controls life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing and swallowing
- located in the hind brain
this brain part influences sleep, dreaming and arousal.
- the pons
- located in the hindbrain
this brain part is an area of neurons that is responsible for people's ability to selectively attend to certain kinds of info in their surroundings.
- reticular formation
- the reticular activating system brings drivers to full attention when someone pulls out in front of their vehicle and allows a mother hear baby crying in the night
- controls all involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement
- also coordinates voluntary movements that have to happen in rapid succeession, such as walking, diving, skating, gymnastics, dancing, typing...
what type of stuff is under the cortex?
limbic system - that includes the thalamus, hypothalumus, hippocampus, amygdala and the cingulate cortes
in general, the limbic system is involved in what?
emotions, motivations and learning
this is the triage nurse of the brain. it acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information
- it's part of the limbic system and is under the cortex
what is the only sense that cannot be affected by damage to the thalamus?
- there are neurons in the sinus cavity that go directly into special parts of the brain called olfactory bulbs.
this part of the brain regulates body temperature, thirst, hunger, sleeping and waking, sexual activity and emotions
- it's part of the limbic system and is under the cortex
this part of the brain is important to forming long-term (permanent) declarative memories that are then stored elsewhere in the brain.
electrical stimulation of this area on the brain may produce memory-like or dreamlike experiences
responsible for fear responses and the memory of fear
when monkeys had this part of their brain removed, they were completely unafraid of snakes and humans (normally fear-provoking stimuli)
much of their temporal lobes, including the amygdala
this is a limbic structure actually found in the cortex, it plays an important role in emotional and cognitive processing
this part of the brain has been shown to be active during cognitive tasks such as selective attention, written word recognition, and working memory. it's also been indicated in psychological and mental disorders such as adhd, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipoloar disorder
this is the outer portion of the brain, the wrinkly looking part we think of when we imagine brains in our mind
- wrinkles allow more cortical cells to exist in the small space inside the skull
this is a thick, tough band of neural fibers that connect the cerebral hemispheres. it allows the left and right hemispheres to talk to each other.
the corpus callosum
this is at the base of the cortex and processes visual information from the eyes
these lobes are at the top and back of the brain, and process info from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature and body position
these are found just behind the temples of the head, and contain the primary auditory cortex and the auditory association area. Also seems to process the sense of taste
the temporal lobes
this temporal lobe is particularly involved with language
these lobes are responsible for all the higher mental functions of the brain - planning personality, memory storage, complex decision making and areas devoted to language
a band of neurons located at the back of each lobe that control the movements of the body's voluntary muscles by sending commands out to the somatic division of the peripheral nervous system
these fire when an animal performs an action, but also when the animal observes the same action being performed by another
mirror neurons, which are part of the motor cortex
Damage to this area in the left front lobe causes a person to be unable to get words out in a smooth, connected fashion. It's named after a scientist.
If a person were able to speak fluently and pronounce words correctly, but the wrong words come out, what might this person have?
- Wernicke's aphasia
- "Oh that's so Saturday hard"
a person with damage to the right parietal and occipital lobes of the cortex will ignore everything in the left visual field. what is this condition called?
unilateral special neglect
if someone did their hair and makeup only on the right side, what condition might she have?
unilateral spacial neglect
some specializations of the left hemisphere
- controls the right hand
- spoken language
- written language
- mathematical calculations
- logical thought processes
- analysis of detail
some specializations of the right hemisphere
- controls the left hand
- visual-spatial perception
- music and artistic processing
- emotional thought and recognition
- processing of the whole
- pattern recognition
- facial recognition
which hemisphere breaks things down into small parts or performs analysis?
which hemisphere processes things as a whole?