Ex:4 Anatomy lab

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Kmagallon
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Ex:4 Anatomy lab
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2013-10-07 10:05:18
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cell anatomy division
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  1. cell
    The structural and functional unit of all living things.
  2. organelle
    "small organs" metabolic machinery of the cell, and they are highly organized to carry out specific functions for the cell as a whole.
  3. inclusion
    stored glycogen granules, crystals, pigments, and so on
  4. Define interphase
    the longer period during which the cell grows and carries out its usual activities.
  5. Define mitosis
    two daughter nuclei that are genetically identical to the mother nucleus, is nuclear division.
  6. Define cytokinesis
    is the division of the cytoplasm, which begins after mitosis nearly complete.
  7. Plasma membrane
    • external boundary of cell; regulates flow of materials into and out of the cell; site of cell signaling.
    • Separates cell contents from the cell’s environment. Consists of phospholipids & globular proteins. Provides a protective barrier for the cell; selective permeability; & aids in cell to cell interactions.
  8. Lysosome
    contains digestive enzymes of many varieties; "suicide sac' of the cell. 

    • Contain acid hydrolase enzymes that are capable of digesting old cell structures
    • and foreign substances within the cell. Also, known as the “suicide sacs” of the cell.
  9. mitochondria
    scattered throughout the cell; major site of ATP synthesis.

    Rod-shaped bodies with a double membrane wall, which the inner membrane forms folds or cristae. Produce ATP (energy) & known as “powerhouses of the cell”.
  10. Golgi apparatus
    membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles; packages protein for export.

    • modify proteins from rough ER (attaches sugar groups), segregates and packs the proteins into vesicles to be released from the cell or
    • become lysosomes.
  11. Nucleus
    • control center of the cell; necessary for cell division and cell life. 
    • Contains chromatin, the genetic material of the cell.Initiates protein synthesis.
  12. Centrioles
    two rod-shaped bodies near the nucleus; direct formation of the mitotic spindle. 

    Paired cylindrical bodies close to the nucleus that is composed of nine triplets of microtubules, which form the mitotic spindle during cell division. Also, form the basis of cell projections ⇒ cilia & flagella.
  13. Nucleolus
    dense, darkly staining nuclear body; packaging site for ribosomes.

    spherical body inside the nucleus. Composed of proteins & RNA and the site of ribosome synthesis.
  14. Microfilaments
    contractile elements of the cytoskeleton
  15. Rough ER or endoplasmic reticulum
    membranous system; involved in intracellular transport of proteins and synthesis of membrane lipids
  16. Ribosomes
    attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm; synthesize proteins.

    spherical bodies composed of RNA and protein. – May be attached to rough ER, or float freely. The actual sites of protein synthesis.
  17. Chromatin or Chromatin threads
    threadlike structure in the nucleus; contain genetic material (DNA)
  18. peroxisome
    site of free radical detoxification
  19. Cytoskeletal elements
    The lattice or internal framework of a cell composed of protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm, and has a role in controlling cell shape, maintaining intracellular organization, and in cell movement.
  20. intermediate filaments
    the intermediate filaments are not directly involved in cell movements. Instead, they appear to play basically a structural role by providing mechanical strength to cells and tissues.
  21. microtubules
    Microtubules are fibrous, hollow rods, that function primarily to help support and shape the cell. They also function as routes along which organelles can move. They are typically found in all eukaryotic cells and are a component of the cytoskeleton, as well as cilia and flagella.
  22. Meiosis (definition)
    A type of cellular reproduction in which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes, producing two haploid cells.
  23. Meiosis (function)
    sexual reproduction
  24. Meiosis (type of reproduction)
    sexual
  25. Meiosis (Occurs in)
    humans, animals, plants, fungi
  26. Meiosis (genetically)
    different
  27. Meiosis (crossing over)
    yes, mixing of chromosomes can occur.
  28. Meiosis (pairing of homologues)
    yes
  29. Meiosis (number of divisions)
    2
  30. Meiosis (Number of Daughter cells produced)
    4 haploid cells
  31. Meiosis (Chromosome Number)
    Reduced by half
  32. Meiosis (Steps)
    • Interphase
    • Prophase I
    • Metaphase I
    • Anaphase I
    • Telophase I
    • Prophase II
    • Metaphase II
    • Anaphase II
    • Telophase II
  33. Karyokenesis in Meiosis
    Occurs in Interphase I
  34. Cytokenesis in Meiosis
    Occurs in Telophase I & Telophase II
  35. Centromeres Split in Meiosis
    The centromeres do not separate during anaphase I, but during anaphase II
  36. Meiosis creates:
    Sex cells only: Female egg cells or Male sperm cells.
  37. Definition of Mitosis
    A process of asexual reproduction in which the cell divides in two producing a replica, with an equal number of chromosomes in each resulting diploid cell.
  38. Function of Mitosis
    Cellular Reproduction & general growth and repair of the body
  39. Mitosis is what type of reproduction
    Asexual
  40. Mitosis is what type of reproduction
    Asexual
  41. Mitosis occurs in
    ALL organisms
  42. Mitosis is genetically
    identical
  43. Mitosis "Crossimg over"
    No, crossing over cannot occur.
  44. Mitosis has pairing of homologues?
    No
  45. Mitosis (Number of divisions)
    1
  46. Mitosis (Number of Daughter Cells produced)
    2 diploid cells
  47. Mitosis (Chromosome Number)
    Remains the same
  48. Steps of Mitosis
    The steps of mitosis are Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Cytokinesis
  49. Karyokenesis (mitosis)
    Occurs in Interphase
  50. Mitosis (Cytokenesis)
    Occurs in Telophase
  51. Mitosis "Centromeres split)
    The centromeres split during Anaphase
  52. Mitosis creates
    Makes everything other than sex cells
  53. Meiosis
  54. Mitosis and the cell division
  55. cytoplasm
    consists of the cell contents outside the nucleus. Consist of cytosol, organelles and inclusions. Site of most activities carried out by the cell.
  56. nuclear pore
    located on the nuclear membrane. Pores allow passage of protein and RNA molecules.
  57. Nuclear plasma
    contains dissolved salts, nutrients, and other solutes essential for the cell.
  58. nuclear envelope
    lines the nucleus and is selectively permeable. Contains the pores that allow passage of RNA and protein molecules.
  59. vacuole
    is a mature vesicle that stores proteins or transports them out of the cell. Other vesicles mature into lysosomes.
  60. chromatin
    loosely dispersed genetic material in the nucleus. Coils & condenses into chromosomes during cell division.
  61. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    no ribosomes present. Catalyze reactions dealing with lipid metabolism & synthesis of cholesterol; steroid synthesis; absorption & synthesis of fats; detoxification of drugs.
  62. ribosomes
    spherical bodies composed of RNA and protein. – May be attached to rough ER, or float freely. The actual sites of protein synthesis.
  63. pinocytic vesicle
    transports of solutes (mostly dissolved molecules) from extracellular fluid into cell (infolding of plasma membrane).

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