Excretion and Metabolism

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rica_ross
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234298
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Excretion and Metabolism
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2013-09-24 19:37:26
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Biology GRE
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Biology GRE
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  1. Metabolic wastes
    Co2, Urea, Ammonia, Mineral salts
  2. Cnidarians Waste
    Waste removed via passive diffusion
  3. Playthelmenthies Excretion
    Excretory system transports waste with series of tubes called Protonephridia
  4. Protoneohredia
    Hollow tubes that allow for excretion of dilute, urine and reabsorption of salts in flat worms
  5. Annelid Excretion
    • Co2 excretion takes place through moist skin
    • Specialized cells known as nephridia excrete mineral salts and urea
  6. Nephridia
    Specialized cells excrete mineral salts and urea in annielids (round worms)
  7. Arthopods Excretion
    • Malphigan tubes are an out folding of digestion tract that absorbs water and nitrogen waste, and salts from hemolymph 
    • Water and salt are mostly reabsorbed at rectum and concentrated solid urine excreted
  8. Excretory System General Humans
    • Nitrogenous wastes produced during metabolism are in the form of urea
    • Made up of kidneys, urter, urinary bladder and urthera
  9. General Mammalian Excretion
    • Lungs, get rid of CO2 waste
    • Liver, process blood pigment -->urea
    • Skin, sweat and glands excrete salts
    • Kidneys, osomolarity of blood and glucose
  10. Kidney Divison
    • Cortex, outer
    • Medulla, inner
    • Renal Pelvis
  11. Renal artery and Vein
    Blood enters at renal artery and exits at renal vein
  12. Nephron
    Glomerous, bownans capsule, renal tube
  13. Bowman Capusule
    Blood enter and goes through capillary that is contained in this pouch, leads blood to functional unit of kidney
  14. Function Units of Kidney
    • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal convoluted tubule 
    • Collecting duct
  15. Loop of Henle Function General
    • Reabsorb water from filtrate, reducing filtrate volume and returning water to the blood stream
    • Establish a concentration gradient in the medulla, such that, as deeper and deeper regions of medulla are entered, the tissue becomes more and more concentrated salty
  16. Loop of Henle Complex
    • Dips down through medulla
    •  portion of a nephron that leads from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule
    • Water and salt are absorbed independently
    • Descending absorbs water only, impermeable to salt
    • ascending absorbs salt only, impermeable to water (so when salt leaves, water would usually follow, but it cannot)
    • By entering and exiting segments of the nephron tube you have increasing osmolarity from cortex to medulla, maximizes water conservation and makes the urine hypertonic
  17. Glomerus
    • Tiny ball of capillaries inside bowmans capsule
    • Blood stream drops off material at glomerus then doubles back to proximal and distal tube and loop of henle
  18. Concentration Gradient Kidney
    • Closness of blood to filtrate sets up a concentration gradient
    • much of material in filtrate will diffuse back into nearby blood
    • Selective permeability of tubules establishes an osmolarity gradient in surrounding interstitial fluid
    • By entering and exiting segments of the nephron tube you have increasing osmolarity from cortex to medulla, maximizes water conservation and makes the urine hypertonic
  19. From bowmans to collection duct
    Bowmans then proximal convoluted tubule then loop of henle then distal convoluted tubule then collecting duct
  20. Proximal Tubules
    Responsible for reabsorption of glucose, active transport
  21. Principle Cells
    • in conducting duct
    • Responds to various hormones to absorb more water or salt depending on how concentrated the filtrate is
  22. Aldosterone
    Produced in adrenal cortex and stimulates reabsorbing of sodium from collecting duct

    Sodium stimulates water reabsorbtion
  23. Aniotensin
    Produced when blood volume falls and retains water in order to increase volume
  24. ADH, anti  diuretic hormone
    • Controls concentration of urine and acts on cells lining loop of henle, collecting duct, and nephron
    • Causes the increase of water absorption and decrease urine output
  25. Vasopressin
    • Works by mainly opening active transport water channels called aquaporins
    • Causes water to leave filtrate and move into medulla and eventually blood stream
  26. Homeostatis
    Stable internal environment is maintained with in an organism
  27. Hypothalamus
    Brain region that acts to control the body tempurature
  28. Epinephrine
    • Thyroid hormone
    • Released by adrenal gland, can increase ones metabolic rate, and therefore heat production
  29. Endotherms/Homeotherms
    Regulate Internal Temperature
  30. Ectotherms
    Cold Blooded
  31. Two Laws that Regulate heat and body size
    • Bigger bodies produce less body heat per pound/in
    • Bigger bodies lose less body heat per pound/hr

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