Dr Mo AOC

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alvo2234
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Dr Mo AOC
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2013-09-14 14:29:59
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Antimicrobials exam I
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  1. MOA of nitrofurantoin
    acetyl CoA inhibitor
  2. MOA of bactroban
    isoleucyl tRNA synthase inhibitor
  3. MOA of methenamine
    converted to NH3 and formaldehyde which is cidal
  4. MOA of Ketek
    50s inhibitor
  5. MOA of tygecycline
    30s inhibitor
  6. drug to drug interactions of synercid
    • CCBs
    • PI
    • NNRTIs
    • vinca alkaloids
  7. drug to drug interactions of macrolides
    • ACED---- ORAP therapy to treat tourettes
    • ACE  ---- PPIs (decrease effectiveness)
    • CE    ---- anticoag (decr biotrans), rifampin,    
    •               buspar
  8. clinical uses of furoxone
    diarrhea associated with typhoid, tourista, giardiasis due to lamblia
  9. clinical uses of tetracyclines
    • rickettsia
    • acne
    • mycoplasmodia pneumonia (PPLO)
    • siadh
    • amebiasis
    • chlamydia
    • HGE
    • antienzymatic (periodontitis)
    • anthrax
    • apthous
    • Lyme
    • PUD
    • Malaria
    • Meningitis
    • Saborrhea
    • Tourista
    • STDs
    • Bacillary infections
  10. clinical uses of teflaro
    • SSSI (7-14)
    • CAP (5-10)
    • infection caused by staph, strep, h.flu, e.coli, kleb
  11. clinical uses of linezolid
    • bacteriemia caused by VRE (faecalis, faecium)
    • pneumonia (CAP, Nosicomal)
    • SSSI (complicated or uncomplicated)
    • VISA
  12. Zyvox is reserved for what conditions and at what doses are they given
    • severe infections like VRE
    • 600 mg q 12h (usually)
    • 400 mg q 12h (uncomplicated SSSI)
  13. clinical uses of Gentamicin
    • osteomyelitis
    • septicemia
    • brucellosis
    • burns
    • severe UTI
    • meningitis
    • Pneumonia
  14. clinical uses of azithromycin
    • Upper and lower RTI
    • STDs
    • SSSI
    • babesiosis
    • Eye
  15. ADME of Nitrofurantoin
    • ROA: PO
    • t1/2: 20 min
    • Metabolism: liver, body tissue to inactive
    • Excretion: 20-50% unchanged in GF and TS
  16. ADME of doxycycline
    • ROA: PO, IV
    • T1/2: 15-25 hrs
    • PPB: 60-90%
    • Very lipid soluble
    • Can be administered with food (include milk)
    • Excretion: feces almost exclusively
    • Distribution: CSF, amniotic fluid, ocular
  17. ADME of Clindamycin
    • ROA: HCL, palmitate-PO
    •          Phosphate- IV, IM, Top
    • Distribution: wide except CSF
    • PPB: > 90%
    • Metabolism: N-demeth and sulfoxide (both inactive agents
    • Excretion: mainly renal, sometimes biliary
  18. ADME of chloramphenicol
    • ROA- Palmitate- PO; Succinate- IV, Top
    • Wide distribution-- also into CSF
    • t1/2: 4 hrs
    • Metabolism: glucoronyl transferase
    •                    transformed- tubular secretion
    •                    untransformed- GF
  19. AE of cephalosporins
    • GI, black furry tongue
    • hepatic- increase liver enzymes
    • hypersensitivity
    • hematopoetic
    • CNS
    • Alcohol intolerance--disulfuran like effect
    • Renal
    • Pain at injection site
  20. AE of polymxin B
    • Neurotoxicity
    • Nephrotoxicity
  21. AE of aminoglycosides
    • pseudomembraneous colitis
    • malabsorption syndrome (neomycin)
    • scotomas (streptomycin)
    • hypersensitivity
    • ototoxicity
    • nephrotoxicity
    • neuromuscular blockage
  22. 2nd generation cephalosporins antibacterial spectrum that they cannot treat
    G+ aerobic bacilli
  23. name the G- aerobic cocci  and the cephalosporins used to treat them
    • moraxella
    • Neisseria gonorrhea
    • treated with cefuroxime
  24. name the G- aerobic bacilli and the cephalosporin used to treat it
    • h.flu, paster, e.coli, proteus, providencia, Yersinia pestis, and enterobacter
    • treated with cefuroxime
  25. name the G+ anaerobic organisms and the cephalosporins used to treat them
    • clostridium, pepto, peptostrepto
    • treated with cefuroxime and cefamycins; cefotetan, cefoxitin, cefmetazole
  26. name the G- organisms and the cephalosporins used to treat them
    • bacteriodes, fusobacterium
    • cefamycins used to treat; cefotetan, cefoxitin, cefmetazole
  27. which cephalosporin is used to treat G+ anaerobic organisms but not G- anaerobic organisms
    cefuroxime
  28. how can bacteria become resistant to aminoglycosides
    • mutation at 30s ribosomal subunit
    • decrease uptake of aminoglycoside by organism
    •       -b-lactam synergism
    •       -O2 requirment
    • Enxymatic destruction
    •       -adenylase
    •       -acetylase
    •       -phosphorylase
    •       -amikacin is resistant to adenylase and
    •        phosphorylase
  29. how can bacteria become resistant to Synercid
    • Uptake/Efflux of dalfopristin (A)
    • enzymatic destruction
    •    -acetyltransferase (will degrade type A)
    •    -lactonase will degrade Type B
    •    -methylase prevents binding of type B
  30. What are the cephalosporins that can be administered PO
    • cephalexin
    • cephradine
    • cefadroxil
    • cefaclor
    • cefuroxime
    • cefproxil
    • cefpodoxime
    • loracabef
    • anspor
    • cefdinir
    • spectracef
    • dracef
    • vantin
  31. cephalosporins that reach therapeutic concentrations in the bones
    • anspor
    • precef
    • mandol
    • monocid
    • cefuroxime
    • ceftazidime
    • ceftizox
    • cefoperizone
  32. cephalosporins that penetrate the CSF
    • cefuroxime
    • rocephin
    • claforan
    • ceftizoxime
    • moxam
    • maxipime
  33. cephalosporins that are likely to cause hemorrhagic episodes
    • > 80% ppb and contain methylthiotetraole:
    • ancef
    • cefotetan
    • monacid
    • cefobid
  34. Nitrofurantoin
    • macrodantin
    • furadantin
    • macrobid
  35. bactroban
    mupirocin
  36. methenamine
    mendelamine
  37. ketek
    telithromycin
  38. tigecycline
    tygacil
  39. azithromycin
    zithromax
  40. clarithromycin
    biaxin
  41. erythromycin
    erythrocin, ery-tab
  42. dirithromycin
    dynabac
  43. furoxone
    furazolidone
  44. demecolycline
    demeclocin
  45. doxycycline
    adoxa, monodox
  46. minocycline
    minocin, dynacin, solodyn
  47. mecolocycline
    meclan
  48. teflaro
    ceftaroline
  49. zyvox
    linezolid
  50. gentamicin
    garamycin
  51. clindamycin
    cleocin
  52. chloramphenicol
    chloromycetin
  53. tobramycin
    nebcin inj
  54. amikacin
    amikin
  55. neomycin
    cortisporin
  56. humatin
    paramycin
  57. kantrex
    kanamycin
  58. trobicin
    spectromycin
  59. mandol
    cefamandole
  60. cefonicid
    monocid
  61. cefuroxime
    • ceftin
    • zinacef
  62. cefoxitin
    mefoxin
  63. cefmetazole
    zefazone
  64. cephalexin
    keflex
  65. cephradine
    velosef
  66. cefadroxil
    duricef
  67. cefador
    ceclor
  68. cefproxil
    cefzil
  69. cefpodoxime
    vantin
  70. loracarbef
    lorabid
  71. cefdinir
    omnicef
  72. spectracef
    cefditoren
  73. precef
    ceforanide
  74. ceftazime
    fortaz
  75. cefoperazone
    cefobid
  76. rocephin
    ceftriaxone
  77. cefotazime
    claforan
  78. moxalactam
    moxam
  79. maxipime
    cefepime
  80. altabax
    retapamulin
  81. aureomycin
    chlortetracycline
  82. humatin
    paromonomycin
  83. methenamine containing anticholinergics
    • UTA
    • prosed
    • urised
    • uroquid
  84. which agents can be used to treat impetigo
    • retapamulin
    • mupirocin
  85. which class of antibiotics can be used to treat seborrhea
    tetracyclins
  86. 2nd generation cephalosporin that would be effective in treating cellulitis caused by bacteriodes melaninogenicus
    • cefotetan
    • cefoxitin
    • cefmetazole
    • cefuroxime
  87. only 2nd generation that can used to treat Neisseria meningitits
    cefuroxime
  88. which is not a true antibiotic
    zyvox
  89. Fanconi syndrome is an AE of which class of drugs
    tetracyclines
  90. grey baby syndrome is an AE of which drug
    chloramphenicol
  91. ototoxicity is an AE of which drug class
    aminoglycosides
  92. aminoglycosides should not be used to treat which organisms
    • bacteriodes
    • fusobacterium
    • clostridium
    • peptostreptococcus
  93. how can resistance develop from chloramphenicol
    acetyltransferase
  94. chloramphenicol is universally effective against
    • anaerobes
    • compliment aminoglycosides
  95. AE of methinamine
    • abdominal cramping
    • n/v
    • dysuria
    • urgency of urination
  96. which drugs can produce a disulfiran like effect-alcohol intolerance
    • cefotetan
    • cefamandol
    • moxalactam
    • cefmetazole
    • moxam
    • cefobid
    • furoxone

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