Exceptionalities Ch 1-4

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Exceptionalities Ch 1-4
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  1. Pennsylvania Association for Retard Children (PARC) v Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    • Guaranteed special education to children with intellectual disabilities
    • Signaled a new era for special education
  2. Mills v Board of Education of the District of Columbia
    • extended the right to special education to all children with disabilities
    • right of all children to a free and public education
  3. Rowley v Hendrick Hudson school district
    • FAPE
    • schools must provide those services that permit a student with disabilities to benefit from instruction
  4. Honing v Doe
    • Exclusion from school
    • students whose misbehavior is related to their disability cannot be denied education
    • you have to create a Behavior Management Plan
  5. Doe v Withers
    • FAPE
    • Teachers are responsible for the implementation of accommodations specified in individual students' IEPs.
    • All teachers are responsible for all students learning.
  6. PL 94-142
    • Education for all handicapped children act (EHA)
    • Guarantees FAPE in the LRE
    • requires each student to have an IEP
  7. PL 101-476
    • individuals w/ disabilities education act (IDEA)
    • changed name of the law
    • adds transition plans
    • adds autism as a special education category
    • adds traumatic brain injury as a category
  8. PL 101-336
    • American with disabilities act (ADA)
    • Bars discrimination in employment, transportation, public accommodations, and telecommunications.
    • Implements principles of normalization
    • requires phased-in accessibility of school buildings
    • insists on the removal of barriers inhibiting access and participation in society.
  9. PL 108-364
    • Assistive Technology Act (ATA) (reauthorized)
    • supports school-to-work transition projects
    • continues a national web site on assistive technology
    • assists states in creating and supporting device loan programs, financial loans
  10. PL 108-446
    • IDEA (reauthorized)
    • requires special education teachers to be highly qualified
    • requires that all students participate annually in state or district testing w/ accommodations or in alternative assessments
    • changes identification procedures
    • Now aligned with NCLB
  11. Why is it important to teach cultural and linguistic diversity to students in the classroom?
    any positive answer
  12. What benefit comes with teaching cultural and linguistic diversity on a regular basis?
    Increasing the frequency makes the students realize it is something that they should want to do, not absolutely need to do.
  13. IEP Team
    • at least 1 gen. ed. teacher
    • at least 1 spec. ed. or related service provider (in the area of suspected disability)
    • a representative of the school district (principle, assistant principle, counselor, director or assistant of special ed.)
    • someone to interpret the assessment results
    • a parent
    • the student (usually determined by the parent)
    • other people whom the school or parent invite
  14. People first language
    • put people first
    • do not make the person equal the disability
    • disabled is not a noun
    • people w/ disabilities are neither a victim nor wheelchair-bound
  15. Disability
    condition or impairment
  16. Handicap
    challenges and barriers
  17. 2 keys to services extended to students w/ disabilities
    • FAPE
    • LRE
  18. 6 common features of interventions
    • validated
    • individually determined
    • explicit
    • strategic
    • sequential
    • accountable
  19. Education progress is measured:
    • directly on skills of concern
    • systematically
    • consistently
    • frequently
  20. PBS
    Positive Behavior Support
  21. RTI
    • Response to Intervention
    • multitiered prereferral method to increasingly intensive interventions; used to identify "non-responders" or students w/ learning disabilities
  22. Differentiated Instruction
    approach that allows all students to learn the same content, but w/ different methods applied to match their different learning needs.
  23. Differentiated Instruction accomplished in 4 ways:
    • Instructional activities
    • Instructional content
    • Instructional delivery
    • Instructional materials
  24. Instructional activities
    different types of instruction provided to small groups
  25. Instructional content
    chunking lesson's content into small amounts of information
  26. Instructional delivery
    flexible groupings, different pacing
  27. Instructional materials
    fewer practice items, graphic organizers, manipulatives
  28. Accommodations
    simple changes that do not change the standard or outcome of learning
  29. Modification
    Change or alter the standard for learning (when accommodations are insufficient)
  30. Purpose of IEP
    • receives FAPE
    • provided education in LRE
    • specific to the student
    • provided services w/ expectation of outstanding results
  31. IFSP
    • Individualized Family Service Plan
    • (birth- age 3)
    • reevaluated every 6 months
  32. IEP
    • Individualized Education Plan
    • ages 3-21
    • evaluated annually
  33. BIP
    • Behavior Intervention Plans (under IDEA)
    • students can be removed from current placement for up to 45 school days
  34. Manifestation determination
    process where educators determine whether the disability caused the infraction.
  35. FBA
    • Functional Behavioral Assessment
    • process used to clarify the behavior and determine the function of their behavior
  36. High Stakes Testing
    • required by NCLB and IDEA
    • alternate assessments: for students not participating in the general education curriculum (approx 1%)
    • modified achievement standards: those who are participating but at a slower pace
  37. CBM
    • Curriculum Based Measurement (authentic assessment)
    • evaluating performance by collecting data frequently and directly on academic tasks.
  38. Challenges of diversity
    poverty, limited healthcare, homelessness, dropping out of school, etc.
  39. Cultural diversity
    students whose backgrounds differ from mainstream American society.
  40. Linguistic diversity
    students whose native language at home is not english
  41. Diversity, poverty, and disability
    • diversity does not cause disability
    • poverty places students at a higher risk of disability
    • diversity places students at a higher risk of poverty
  42. Multicultural education
    connected to students' background and cultures, contextualized instruction in which culture is linked in a meaningful way
  43. Instructional Accommodations BICS + CALP
    • Basic Interpersonal Conversation Skills: Conversational English 2-3 yrs
    • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: Classroom English 5-7 yrs
  44. Cooperative learning
    structured, guided small- group work
  45. Long Term effects of speech impairments
    aggressive behavior, withdrawal, denial of disability
  46. Communication
    the process of exchanging knowledge, ideas, opinions, and feelings through the use of verbal or nonverbal language
  47. Language
    is a rule-based method of communicating ideas and information involving the comprehension and use of signs and symbols.
  48. Speech
    the vocal production of language
  49. CSR
    Collaborative Strategic Reading
  50. AAC
    Augmentative and alternative communication
  51. IEP Process
    • Prereferal
    • Referral
    • Identification
    • Eligibility
    • Development of the IEP
    • Implementation of the IEP
    • Evaluation and reviews
  52. Prereferal
    identifying and implementing a plan for the student's problem
  53. referal
    learning more about the student's problems
  54. Identification
    testing and monitoring progress to be sure a disability exsists
  55. Eligibility
    determining whether the student qualifies for an individualized education.
  56. Development of the IEP
    specifying and individualized program
  57. Implementation of the IEP
    delivering services
  58. Evaluation and reviews
    continuing the cycle
  59. Disability
    result of conditions or impairments
  60. Due process hearing
    non-court proceeding before an impartial hearing officer used if parents and school personnel disagree on a special education issue
  61. Section 504
    First law to outline the basic civil rights of people with disabilities
  62. Normalization
    making available ordinary patterns of life and conditions of everyday living
  63. universal design
    barrier-free architectural and building designs that meet the needs of everyone, including people with physical challenges
  64. prevalance
    total number of cases at a given time
  65. Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard
    father of special education
  66. evidence- or data-based practices
    thoroughly researched, validated, proven effective through evidence or years of clinical practices
  67. procress monitoring
    systematically and frequently assessing students' improvement directly on the skills being taught
  68. Universal design for learning (UDL)
    Typically by using technology increases access to the curriculum and instruction for all students.
  69. National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS)
    assists states in providing accessible or e-versions of textbooks to students with disabilities; called out in IDEA
  70. pull-in programming
    special education or related services delivering exclusively in the general education classroom.
  71. co-teaching
    general and special education teachers team teaching
  72. consulting teacher
    special education teachers serving as a resource to general education teachers
  73. collaboration
    professionals working in partnerships to provide educational services
  74. explicit instruction
    directly instructing on the topic on concern
  75. pull-out programs
    providing special services outside the general education classroom
  76. noncatergorical or crosscategorical special education
    special education services delivered by students' needs, not by their identified disability
  77. multitiered approach
    approaches that provide levels of more and more intensive services to prevent or intervene early
  78. itinerant
    working in different locations
  79. self-determination
    behaviors that include making decisions, choosing preference, and practicing self-advocacy needed for independent living
  80. self-advocacy
    expressing one's rights and needs
  81. Interim alternative educational setting (IAES)
    special education placement to ensure progress toward IEP goals, assigned when a serious behavioral infraction requires removal from current placement
  82. Stay-put provisions
    prohibits students w/ disabilities from being expelled b/c behavior associated w/ their disabilities
  83. cross-cultural dissonance
    when the home and school cultures are in conflict
  84. culturally responsive
    curriculum that includes multiple perspectives
  85. mutual accommodation
    acceptance and use of students' language and culture within the classroom, while also teaching them the expectations and culture of the school
  86. Composition idex
    a tool for measuring disproportionate representation in which the percentage of students from a particular racial group receiving special education services is compared w/ their percentage in the overall school population
  87. overrepresentation
    too many students from a diverse group participating in a special education category, beyond the level expected from their proportion of students.
  88. underrepresented
    insufficient presence of individuals from a diverse group in a special education category; smaller numbers than would be predicted by their proportion of students
  89. disproportionate representation
    unequal proportion of group membership; over-or under-representation.
  90. Fidelity
    instruction or intervention is implemented effectively and is consistent w/ the methods outlined by the program's instructions
  91. Phonology
    the rules within a language used to govern the combination of speech sounds to form words and sentences
  92. morphology
    rules that govern the structure and form of words and comprise the basic meaning of words
  93. syntax
    rules that govern word endings and order of words in phrases and sentences
  94. symantics
    the system within a language that governs content, intent, and meanings of spoken and written language
  95. pragmatics
    the appropriate use if language in social contexts
  96. receptive language
    understanding information that is received, either through seeing, hearing, or touching
  97. expressive language
    the ability to convey thoughts, feelings, or information
  98. What are the four areas in which speech impairment occurs
    • Articulation
    • Fluency
    • Voice
    • Language
  99. What is the main piece of information that the IEP assessment panel looks at when determining whether the student with a speech impairment qualifies for special education
    the student's educational history

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