Bio. 205 Exam

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Shelby21
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Bio. 205 Exam
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2013-09-12 00:58:21
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Chap. 1,2,3
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  1. The study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another is ________.
    Anatomy
  2. The study of the function of the body is ______.
    Physiology
  3. How does anatomy and physiology relate to each other?
    We cannot study one with out studying the other.
  4. Atoms, tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules such as water and proteins describes what level of organization?
    Cellular level
  5. This level of organization is described as the ability for extremely complex functions to become possible.
    organ level
  6. Organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose describes what level of organization?
    Organ System level
  7. The sum total of all structural levels working together is called ______.
    organismal level
  8. What are the 11 major organ systems?
    • Integumentary
    • skeletal
    • muscular
    • nervous
    • endocrine
    • cardiovascular
    • lymphatic
    • respiratory
    • digestive
    • urinary
    • reproductive
  9. What are the 5 survival needs?
    • nutrients
    • oxygen
    • water
    • normal body temp.
    • appropriate atmospheric pressure
  10. What are the 8 life functions?
    • maintaining bounderies
    • movement
    • responsiveness
    • digestion
    • metabolism
    • excretion
    • reproduction
    • growth
  11. The ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions is _______.
    homeostasis
  12. ________ is some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes.
    Receptor
  13. ________ determines the set point.
    control center
  14. Input flows from the receptor to the control center along the afferent pathway. Would this action be approaching or exiting?
    approaching
  15. Information flows from the control center to the effector along the efferent pathway. Would this action be approaching or exiting?
    exiting
  16. ________ provides the means for the control centers response to the stimulus.
    effector
  17. When the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus it is called a ______ ______ ________.
    negative feedback mechanism
  18. When the result or response enhances the original stimulus it is called a _______ _______ ________.
    positive feedback mechinism
  19. The frontal section goes....
    • up and down
    • through the torso and arms
  20. The median section goes....
    • up and down
    • through the middle of the body
    • cuts it in half, long ways
  21. The transverse section goes.....
    • side to side
    • cutting the body in half, top and bottom
  22. Atoms that lose or gain electrons are called?
    ions
  23. _____ _____ are made from ions.
    ionic bonds
  24. Atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons are called ______ ______.
    covalent bonds
  25. Electrons are not shared equally.
    Polar
  26. Electrons are shared equally.
    non-polar
  27. _______ are negative, _______ are positive, and ______ are neutral.
    • electrons
    • protons
    • neutrons
  28. Each element has its own unique number of ______ in its atoms.
    protons
  29. Atoms that have vacancies in their outermost shell tend to ____ __, ______, or ______ electrons with other atoms.
    • give up
    • acquire
    • share
  30. A hydrogen atom taking part in a polar covalent bond bears a slight ______ charge.
    positive
  31. When a hydrogen atom interacts with a ______ charged atom in a different covalent bond, a _______ bond is formed.
    • negatively 
    • hydrogen
  32. What are the 3 unique properties of water?
    • the ability to resist temp. change
    • displays internal cohesion
    • has the ability to dissolve polar or ionic substances.
  33. ______ have a pH that is less than 7, and _____ have a pH that is greater than 7.
    • acids
    • bases
  34. _______ systems maintain the pH of body fluids.
    buffer
  35. ______ compounds are comprised mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
    Organic
  36. ______ atoms bond covalently with up to 4 other atoms, often forming long chains or rings.
    carbon
  37. Name 4 types of organic compounds.
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • lipids
    • nucleic acids
  38. Carbohydrates are made up of subunits called _________ (sugars).
    monosaccharides
  39. ______ are greasy or oily compounds that tend not to dissolve in water but dissolve easily in ________ compounds.
    • Lipids
    • nonpolar
  40. Cell use _____ as major sources of energy and as structural materials.
    lipids
  41. A proteins _______ structure is a linear sequence of amino acids (a polypeptide chain).
    primary
  42. Changes in a proteins structure may alter its ______.
    function
  43. When proteins change shape due to changes in pH, temperature, or exposure to certain chemicals it is called protein _________.
    denaturation
  44. Nucleotides have a vital role in ________.
    metabolism
  45. ____ is the primary energy carrier in human cells.
    ATP
  46. _____ and _____ are nucleic acids, each composed of a sugar backbone and ___ kinds of nucleotide subunits.
    • DNA, RNA
    • 4
  47. ______ reactions require the input of energy and they build up larger molecules from smaller ones.
    Synthesis
  48. _______ reactions are energy releasing and they break down larger molecules into smaller ones.
    Decomposition
  49. ______ are ______ catalysts that greatly enhance the rates of specific reactions.
    • Enzymes
    • biological
  50. Every chemical reaction requires that a certain amount of energy, called _______ energy, be absorbed to prime the reaction.
    activation
  51. Most human cells have a ______ membrane, ________, and a _______.
    • plasma
    • cytoplasm
    • nucleus
  52. Cell membranes consist mainly of ______ and ________.
    • lipids 
    • proteins
  53. The active components in cell membranes are _______.
    proteins
  54. The lipid _______ prevents water-_______ substances from freely crossing the membrane.
    • bilayer
    • soluble
  55. Cell _______ form structural and ________ connections between cells in various tissues.
    • junctions
    • functional
  56. 3 types of junctions are
    • tight junctions
    • desmosomes
    • gap junctions
  57. Substances tend to move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration- this is called
    simple diffusion
  58. Rate of diffusion is influenced by the steepness of the concentration _______, ______ _____, and _________.
    • gradient 
    • molecular size 
    • temperature
  59. Some molecules require the assistance of _______ proteins to enter or leave the cell.
    transport
  60. ________ diffusion is a passive process where either a ______ protein or a _______ protein will allow the diffusion of substances down its concentration gradient.
    • Facilitated
    • carrier
    • channel
  61. _______ is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
    Osmosis

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