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The study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another is ________.
The study of the function of the body is ______.
How does anatomy and physiology relate to each other?
We cannot study one with out studying the other.
Atoms, tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules such as water and proteins describes what level of organization?
This level of organization is described as the ability for extremely complex functions to become possible.
Organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose describes what level of organization?
Organ System level
The sum total of all structural levels working together is called ______.
What are the 11 major organ systems?
What are the 5 survival needs?
- normal body temp.
- appropriate atmospheric pressure
What are the 8 life functions?
- maintaining bounderies
The ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions is _______.
________ is some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes.
________ determines the set point.
Input flows from the receptor to the control center along the afferent pathway. Would this action be approaching or exiting?
Information flows from the control center to the effector along the efferent pathway. Would this action be approaching or exiting?
________ provides the means for the control centers response to the stimulus.
When the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus it is called a ______ ______ ________.
negative feedback mechanism
When the result or response enhances the original stimulus it is called a _______ _______ ________.
positive feedback mechinism
The frontal section goes....
- up and down
- through the torso and arms
The median section goes....
- up and down
- through the middle of the body
- cuts it in half, long ways
The transverse section goes.....
- side to side
- cutting the body in half, top and bottom
Atoms that lose or gain electrons are called?
_____ _____ are made from ions.
Atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons are called ______ ______.
Electrons are not shared equally.
Electrons are shared equally.
_______ are negative, _______ are positive, and ______ are neutral.
Each element has its own unique number of ______ in its atoms.
Atoms that have vacancies in their outermost shell tend to ____ __, ______, or ______ electrons with other atoms.
A hydrogen atom taking part in a polar covalent bond bears a slight ______ charge.
When a hydrogen atom interacts with a ______ charged atom in a different covalent bond, a _______ bond is formed.
What are the 3 unique properties of water?
- the ability to resist temp. change
- displays internal cohesion
- has the ability to dissolve polar or ionic substances.
______ have a pH that is less than 7, and _____ have a pH that is greater than 7.
_______ systems maintain the pH of body fluids.
______ compounds are comprised mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
______ atoms bond covalently with up to 4 other atoms, often forming long chains or rings.
Name 4 types of organic compounds.
- nucleic acids
Carbohydrates are made up of subunits called _________ (sugars).
______ are greasy or oily compounds that tend not to dissolve in water but dissolve easily in ________ compounds.
Cell use _____ as major sources of energy and as structural materials.
A proteins _______ structure is a linear sequence of amino acids (a polypeptide chain).
Changes in a proteins structure may alter its ______.
When proteins change shape due to changes in pH, temperature, or exposure to certain chemicals it is called protein _________.
Nucleotides have a vital role in ________.
____ is the primary energy carrier in human cells.
_____ and _____ are nucleic acids, each composed of a sugar backbone and ___ kinds of nucleotide subunits.
______ reactions require the input of energy and they build up larger molecules from smaller ones.
_______ reactions are energy releasing and they break down larger molecules into smaller ones.
______ are ______ catalysts that greatly enhance the rates of specific reactions.
Every chemical reaction requires that a certain amount of energy, called _______ energy, be absorbed to prime the reaction.
Most human cells have a ______ membrane, ________, and a _______.
Cell membranes consist mainly of ______ and ________.
The active components in cell membranes are _______.
The lipid _______ prevents water-_______ substances from freely crossing the membrane.
Cell _______ form structural and ________ connections between cells in various tissues.
3 types of junctions are
- tight junctions
- gap junctions
Substances tend to move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration- this is called
Rate of diffusion is influenced by the steepness of the concentration _______, ______ _____, and _________.
- molecular size
Some molecules require the assistance of _______ proteins to enter or leave the cell.
________ diffusion is a passive process where either a ______ protein or a _______ protein will allow the diffusion of substances down its concentration gradient.
_______ is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.