N250 Terms ch 13, 15, 16-18

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N250 Terms ch 13, 15, 16-18
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  1. Homeostasis
    • conditions that keep the body as normal as possible.
    • Keeping the body in balance
  2. Homoeostatic mechanisms
    Control mechanisms to prevent changes in body that deviate from normal
  3. Extracellular fluid
    the fluid outside the cells (1/3 of body water), includes interstitial space, blood, lymph, done, and connective tissue water.
  4. Intracellular fluid
    fluid inside the cells (2/3 of body water)
  5. Interstitial space
    included in the ECF, fluid between cells, sometimes called the third space
  6. Transcellular fluids
    are the fluids in special body spaces and include cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and pleural fluid.
  7. Solvent
    water portion of fluids
  8. Solute
    are the particles dissolved or suspended in water
  9. Filtration
    • movement of fluid through a cell or blood vessel membrane because of hydrostatic pressure differences on both sides of the membrane.
    • Occurs because of differences in water volume pressing against the confining walls of the space.
  10. Hydrostatic pressure
    pressing of water molecules against the confining walls (water pushing pressure, it is the force that pushes water outward from a confines space through a membrane)
  11. Viscous
    thicker
  12. Permeable



    porous
  13. Equilibrium
    hydrostatic pressure is the same in both fluid spaces
  14. Disequilibrium
    hydrostatic pressure not the same on both sides
  15. Gradient
    graded difference (one space has a higher hydrostatic pressure than the other)
  16. Pores
    large spaces
  17. Edema
    tissue swelling with fluid collection in third space
  18. Diffusion
    free movement of particles (solute) across a permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration (down a concentration gradient)
  19. Impermeable
    Membranes not open to certain particles
  20. Facilitated diffusion (facilitated transport)
    diffusion across a cell membrane that requires the assistance of a membrane-altering system
  21. Osmosis
    movement of water only through a selectively permeable (semi-permeable) membrane
  22. Osmolarity
    the number of milliosmoles in a liter of solution
  23. Osmolality
    is the number of milliosmoles in a kg of solution
  24. Isotonic (isosmotic/normotonic)
    when all body fluids have the same gradient
  25. Hypertonic (hyperosmotic)
    fluid with osmolarities greater than 300 mOsm/L, they have greater osmotic pressure
  26. Hypotonic( hypo-osmotic)
    fluids with osmolarities of less than 270 mOsm/L, they have lesser osmotic pressure
  27. Solubility
    how well a particle type dissolves in water.
  28. Lymph
    fluid similar to flood plasma, but contains far less protein
  29. Obligatory urine output
    the minimum amount of urine per day needed to excrete toxic waste products is 400-600m
  30. Insensible water loss
    water loss from the skin, lungs, and stool
  31. Aldosterone
    hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex whenever sodium level in the ECF is decreased. Prevents both water and sodium loss
  32. ADH
    or vasopressin, acts directly on kidney tubules and collecting ducts making them more permeable to water. More water is reabsorbed
  33. Natriuretic peptides
    hormones secreted by special cells that line the atria of the heart and ventricles of the heart. They are secreted in response to increased blood volume and BP. Have effects opposite of aldosterone
  34. Dehydration
    fluid intake is less than what is needed to meet the body’s fluid needs, resulting if a fluid volume deficit.
  35. Hypovolemia
    circulating blood volume is decreased and leads to inadequate tissue perfusion
  36. Orthostatic Hypotension
    hypotension is more severe with the patient in a standing position than with the patient in the sitting or lying position
  37. Hypoxia
    body has decreased oxygen levels
  38. Hemoconcentration
    increased osmolarity or concentration of the blood
  39. Fluid overload (overhydration)
    excess of body fluid
  40. Hemodilution
    excessive water in the vascular space
  41. Electrolytes (ions)
    are substances in body fluids that carry an electrical charge
  42. Sodium (Na+)
    a mineral, is the major cation in the ECF and maintains ECF osmolarity
  43. Hyponatremia
    is a serum sodium level below 136. Often occur with fluid volume imbalances because the same hormones regular both sodium and water balance
  44. Hypervolemia
    fluid overload
  45. Hypernatremia
    serum sodium level over 145
  46. Excitability
    more sodium is present to move readily across cell membranes during depolarization, making excitable tissues more easily excited.
  47. Hypokalemia
    is a serum potassium level below 3.5
  48. Hyporeflexia



    decreased response to deep tendon reflex stimulation
  49. Paralytic Ileus
    absence of peristalsis
  50. Hypoxemia
    decreased blood oxygen levels
  51. Hypercapnia
    increased arterial carbon dioxide levels
  52. Hyperkalemia
    serum potassium level higher than 5.0
  53. Ectopic beats
    as serum potassium levels rise, heartbeats generated outside the normal conduction system in the ventricles
  54. Paresthesia


    numbness in hands and feet and around the mouth
  55. Divalent cation
    having two positive charges (Ca2+)
  56. Hypocalcemia
    total serum calium level below 9.0 mg/dl or 2.25 mmol/L
  57. Hypercalcemia
    a total serum calcium level about 10.5mg/dl or 2.75mmol/L
  58. Hypophosphatemia
    a serum phosphorous level below 3.0 mEq/L
  59. Rhabdomyolysis
    weak skeletal muscle that progresses to acute muscle breakdown
  60. Hyperphosphatemia
    serum phosphorous level above 4.5 mEq/L
  61. Magnesium (Mg2+)
    mineral that forms a cation when dissolved in water
  62. Hypomagnesemia
    serum magnesium level below 1.3 mEq/L
  63. Hpyermagnesemia
    a serum magnesium level about 2.1 mEq/L
  64. Infusion Therapy
    delivery of parenteral medications and fluids through a wide variety of catheter types and locations using multiple procedures
  65. Infusate
    solution that is infused into the body
  66. Adverse drug events (ADE)
    immediate serious reactions
  67. Vascular access device (VAD)
    plastic tube placed in a blood vessel to deliver fluids and medications
  68. Peripheral IV Therapy
    IV medications given in veins
  69. Short Peripheral Catheters
    composed of plastic cannula built around a sharp stylet extending slightly beyond the cannula.
  70. Midline Catheters
    are 6-8 inches long and are inserted through the veins of the antcubital fossa
  71. Vesicant Medications
    drugs that cause severe tissue damage if they espace into the subcutaneous tissue
  72. Extravasation
    leaving into the subcutaneous tissue
  73. Central IV Therapy
    the VAD is placed in the central blood vessels, such as the superior vena cava
  74. Nontunneled percutaneous central catheters
    inserted by a physician through the subclavian vein in the upper chest or the jugular veins in the neck using sterile technique.
  75. Tunneled cetral venous catheters
    have a portion of the catheter lying in a subcutaneous tunnel, separating the points where the catheter enters the vein from where it exits the skin
  76. Implanted ports
    consist of a portal body, a dense septum over a reservoir, and a catheter
  77. Huber needles
    noncoring port access needles
  78. Turbidity
    cloudiness
  79. Piggyback set (second administration set)
    attached to the primary set at a Y-injection site and is used to deliver intermittent medications.
  80. Controller
    • stationary, pole-mounted electronic device that uses a sensor to monitor fluid flow and to deter when flow has been interrupted.
    • Rely completely on gravity create fluid flow.
  81. Pumps
    pump medication or fluid under pressure
  82. Syringe pumps
    use an electronic or battery powered piston to push the plunger continuously at a selected milliliter-per-hour rate
  83. Ambulatory pumps
    generally use for home care patients and allow them to reutn to their usual activities which receiving infusion therapy.
  84. Intraperitoneal (IP) Therapy
    the administration of chemotherapy agents into the peritoneal cavity
  85. Hypodemoclysis
    involves the slow infusion of isotonic fluids into the patient’s subcutaneous tissue
  86. Epidural
    space between the dura mater and the vertebrae
  87. Subarachnoid
    below the arachnoid space
  88. Intrathecal
    infused into the subarachnoid space closer to the spinal cord
  89. Intraosseous (IO) Therapy
    allows access to the rich vascular network located in the long bones
  90. Compartment syndrome
    • condition in which increase tissue pressure in a confined anatomic space causes decreased
    • blood flow to the area.
  91. Preoperative
    Before surgery
  92. Intraoperative
    During surgery
  93. Postoperative
    After surgery
  94. Inpatient
    a patient who is admitted to a hospital
  95. Outpatient and Ambulatory
    patient who goes to the surgical area the day of the surgery and returns home the same day
  96. Carboxyhemoglobin
    carbon monoxide on oxygen binding sites of the hemoglobin molecule
  97. Atelectasis
    collapse of alveoli
  98. Autologous donations
    patient donates own blood before scheduled surgery
  99. Morbidity
    serious problems
  100. Mortality
    deaths
  101. Dyuria/disuia
    painful urination
  102. Nocturia
    awakening during nighttime sleep because of a need to void
  103. Oliguria
    scant amount of urine, difficult to urinate
  104. Adipose
    fatty tissue
  105. NPO
    no eating, drinking, smoking (stimulates gastric secretions)
  106. Laser
    high powered beam of light that cuts tissue more cleanly than do scalpel blades (Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation)
  107. Endoscope
    a tube that allows viewing and manipulation of internal body areas
  108. Insufflation
    the act of injecting of gas or air into the cavity before the surgery to separate organs and improve visualization.
  109. Anesthesia
    induced state of partial or total loss of sensation,occuriring with or without loss of consciousness. Anesthesia blocks nerve impulse transmission, suppress reflexes, promote muscle relaxation and controlled level of unconsciousness
  110. Analgesia
    pain relief or pain suppression
  111. Amnesia
    memory loss of the surgery
  112. Emergence
    recovery from the anesthesia
  113. Myoglobinuria
    presence of muscle proteins in urine
  114. Local anesthesia
    applied to the skin or mucous membranes of the area to be anesthetized
  115. Regional anesthesia
    blocks multiple peripheral nerves in a specific body region
  116. Autologous blood
    transfusion
    reinfusing the patient’s own blood
  117. Absorbable sutures
    sutures that are digested over time by body enzymes
  118. Nonabsorable sutures
    encapsulated in the tissue during the healing process and remain in tissue until removed
  119. Postanesthesia care unit
    (PACU)
    recovery room
  120. Pulse deficit
    difference between the apical and peripheral pulses
  121. Dehiscence
    • partial or complete separation of the outer wound layers
    • “splitting open of the wound”
  122. Evisceration
    total separation of all wound layers and protrusion of internal organs through the open wound
  123. Debridement
    removal of the infected or dead tissue

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