conditions that keep the body as normal as possible.
Keeping the body in balance
Control mechanisms to prevent changes in body that deviate from normal
the fluid outside the cells (1/3 of body water), includes interstitial space, blood, lymph, done, and connective tissue water.
fluid inside the cells (2/3 of body water)
included in the ECF, fluid between cells, sometimes called the third space
are the fluids in special body spaces and include cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and pleural fluid.
water portion of fluids
are the particles dissolved or suspended in water
movement of fluid through a cell or blood vessel membrane because of hydrostatic pressure differences on both sides of the membrane.
Occurs because of differences in water volume pressing against the confining walls of the space.
pressing of water molecules against the confining walls (water pushing pressure, it is the force that pushes water outward from a confines space through a membrane)
hydrostatic pressure is the same in both fluid spaces
hydrostatic pressure not the same on both sides
graded difference (one space has a higher hydrostatic pressure than the other)
tissue swelling with fluid collection in third space
free movement of particles (solute) across a permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration (down a concentration gradient)
Membranes not open to certain particles
Facilitated diffusion (facilitated transport)
diffusion across a cell membrane that requires the assistance of a membrane-altering system
movement of water only through a selectively permeable (semi-permeable) membrane
the number of milliosmoles in a liter of solution
is the number of milliosmoles in a kg of solution
when all body fluids have the same gradient
fluid with osmolarities greater than 300 mOsm/L, they have greater osmotic pressure
fluids with osmolarities of less than 270 mOsm/L, they have lesser osmotic pressure
how well a particle type dissolves in water.
fluid similar to flood plasma, but contains far less protein
Obligatory urine output
the minimum amount of urine per day needed to excrete toxic waste products is 400-600m
Insensible water loss
water loss from the skin, lungs, and stool
hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex whenever sodium level in the ECF is decreased. Prevents both water and sodium loss
or vasopressin, acts directly on kidney tubules and collecting ducts making them more permeable to water. More water is reabsorbed
hormones secreted by special cells that line the atria of the heart and ventricles of the heart. They are secreted in response to increased blood volume and BP. Have effects opposite of aldosterone
fluid intake is less than what is needed to meet the body’s fluid needs, resulting if a fluid volume deficit.
circulating blood volume is decreased and leads to inadequate tissue perfusion
hypotension is more severe with the patient in a standing position than with the patient in the sitting or lying position
body has decreased oxygen levels
increased osmolarity or concentration of the blood
Fluid overload (overhydration)
excess of body fluid
excessive water in the vascular space
are substances in body fluids that carry an electrical charge
a mineral, is the major cation in the ECF and maintains ECF osmolarity
is a serum sodium level below 136. Often occur with fluid volume imbalances because the same hormones regular both sodium and water balance
serum sodium level over 145
more sodium is present to move readily across cell membranes during depolarization, making excitable tissues more easily excited.
is a serum potassium level below 3.5
decreased response to deep tendon reflex stimulation
absence of peristalsis
decreased blood oxygen levels
increased arterial carbon dioxide levels
serum potassium level higher than 5.0
as serum potassium levels rise, heartbeats generated outside the normal conduction system in the ventricles
numbness in hands and feet and around the mouth
having two positive charges (Ca2+)
total serum calium level below 9.0 mg/dl or 2.25 mmol/L
a total serum calcium level about 10.5mg/dl or 2.75mmol/L
a serum phosphorous level below 3.0 mEq/L
weak skeletal muscle that progresses to acute muscle breakdown
serum phosphorous level above 4.5 mEq/L
mineral that forms a cation when dissolved in water
serum magnesium level below 1.3 mEq/L
a serum magnesium level about 2.1 mEq/L
delivery of parenteral medications and fluids through a wide variety of catheter types and locations using multiple procedures
solution that is infused into the body
Adverse drug events (ADE)
immediate serious reactions
Vascular access device (VAD)
plastic tube placed in a blood vessel to deliver fluids and medications
Peripheral IV Therapy
IV medications given in veins
Short Peripheral Catheters
composed of plastic cannula built around a sharp stylet extending slightly beyond the cannula.
are 6-8 inches long and are inserted through the veins of the antcubital fossa
drugs that cause severe tissue damage if they espace into the subcutaneous tissue
leaving into the subcutaneous tissue
Central IV Therapy
the VAD is placed in the central blood vessels, such as the superior vena cava
Nontunneled percutaneous central catheters
inserted by a physician through the subclavian vein in the upper chest or the jugular veins in the neck using sterile technique.
Tunneled cetral venous catheters
have a portion of the catheter lying in a subcutaneous tunnel, separating the points where the catheter enters the vein from where it exits the skin
consist of a portal body, a dense septum over a reservoir, and a catheter
noncoring port access needles
Piggyback set (second administration set)
attached to the primary set at a Y-injection site and is used to deliver intermittent medications.
stationary, pole-mounted electronic device that uses a sensor to monitor fluid flow and to deter when flow has been interrupted.
Rely completely on gravity create fluid flow.
pump medication or fluid under pressure
use an electronic or battery powered piston to push the plunger continuously at a selected milliliter-per-hour rate
generally use for home care patients and allow them to reutn to their usual activities which receiving infusion therapy.
Intraperitoneal (IP) Therapy
the administration of chemotherapy agents into the peritoneal cavity
involves the slow infusion of isotonic fluids into the patient’s subcutaneous tissue
space between the dura mater and the vertebrae
below the arachnoid space
infused into the subarachnoid space closer to the spinal cord
Intraosseous (IO) Therapy
allows access to the rich vascular network located in the long bones
condition in which increase tissue pressure in a confined anatomic space causes decreased
blood flow to the area.
a patient who is admitted to a hospital
Outpatient and Ambulatory
patient who goes to the surgical area the day of the surgery and returns home the same day
carbon monoxide on oxygen binding sites of the hemoglobin molecule
collapse of alveoli
patient donates own blood before scheduled surgery
awakening during nighttime sleep because of a need to void
scant amount of urine, difficult to urinate
no eating, drinking, smoking (stimulates gastric secretions)
high powered beam of light that cuts tissue more cleanly than do scalpel blades (Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation)
a tube that allows viewing and manipulation of internal body areas
the act of injecting of gas or air into the cavity before the surgery to separate organs and improve visualization.
induced state of partial or total loss of sensation,occuriring with or without loss of consciousness. Anesthesia blocks nerve impulse transmission, suppress reflexes, promote muscle relaxation and controlled level of unconsciousness
pain relief or pain suppression
memory loss of the surgery
recovery from the anesthesia
presence of muscle proteins in urine
applied to the skin or mucous membranes of the area to be anesthetized
blocks multiple peripheral nerves in a specific body region
reinfusing the patient’s own blood
sutures that are digested over time by body enzymes
encapsulated in the tissue during the healing process and remain in tissue until removed
Postanesthesia care unit
difference between the apical and peripheral pulses
partial or complete separation of the outer wound layers
“splitting open of the wound”
total separation of all wound layers and protrusion of internal organs through the open wound