Pharmaceutics I - Routes of Administration

Card Set Information

Author:
KHennessy
ID:
234442
Filename:
Pharmaceutics I - Routes of Administration
Updated:
2013-09-12 09:17:56
Tags:
Pharmaceutics
Folders:

Description:
Pharmaceutics I Card Set
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user KHennessy on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Routes of Administration
    • Oral
    • Topical
    • Parenteral
  2. The Oral Route
    • Drug absorption may take place at any point along the alimentary canal
    • Oral cavity
    • Stomach
    • Small intestine
    • Large intestine
  3. Advantages of Oral Route
    • Simple
    • Patients are accustomed to it
    • Manufacture is relatively low tech
  4. Disadvantages of Oral Route
    • Drugs subjected to digestive enzymes, pH, first pass metabolism
    • Limited to conscious compliant patients
    • Taste may be limiting
  5. Examples of Oral Route Dosage Forms
    • Solutions
    • Suspensions
    • Emulsions
    • Lozenges
    • Pastilles
    • Tablets
    • Capsules
    • Pills
    • Powders
  6. The Topical Route
    Application to the skin for local effects (antiseptics, anesthetic) or for systemic absorption (nicotine, dramamine, nitroglycerin)
  7. Advantages of Topical Route
    • Simple to use
    • Can be used in conscious or non cooperative patients
    • No first pass effect
  8. Disadvantages of Topical Route
    • May be difficult to ensure dosage uniformity
    • Pathological state of skin may be limiting
    • Some preparations may be "messy" and result in poor patient compliance
  9. Examples of Topical Route Dosage Forms
    • Topical solutions
    • Lotions
    • Creams
    • Ointments
    • Transdermal patches
    • powders
  10. The Topical Route - Oral
    • Use in the oral cavity for local or systemic effect
    • General oral solution for local effect (cleansing, refreshing, disinfecting)
  11. Buccal
    • Cheek Pouch - Oral Topical Route
    • Mucoadhesive for slow release of drug
  12. Sublingual
    • Below the tongue - Oral Topical Route
    • For quick dissolution
  13. Advantages of Topical Route - Oral
    • Rapid onset
    • Ease of administration
    • No first pass effect
  14. Disadvantages of Topical Route - Oral
    • Limited by taste and mouth feel
    • May not be suitable for children or non cooperative patients
  15. Examples of Topical Route Dosage Forms - Oral
    • Sprays
    • Gargles
    • Washes
    • Tablets
    • Oral gels
    • Lozenges
  16. The Topical Route - Otic/Aural
    Insertion into the ear canal largely for local effect (cleansing, disinfecting)
  17. Examples of Topical Route Dosage Forms - Otic/Aural
    Solutions
  18. The Topical Route - Nasal and Inhalation
    • For local or systemic absorption along the airway
    • Nasal mucosa or alveolae
  19. Advantages of Topical Route - Nasal and Inhalation
    • Rapid effect in some conditions
    • No first pass effect
    • Repeated administration
  20. Disadvantages of Topical Route - Nasal and Inhalation
    • Odor
    • Risk of infection
    • Critical need for patient education and compliance
  21. Examples of Topical Route Dosage Forms - Nasal and Inhalation
    • Nasal sprays (liquid or powder)
    • Inhalers
    • Aerosols
  22. The Topical Route - Ocular, conjunctive
    For local effects in the eye (cleansing, disinfecting, reduction of IOP, pupil stimulation)
  23. Advantages of Topical Route - Ocular, conjunctive
    • Overcomes poor vascularization
    • Delivery to the site of action
  24. Disadvantages of Topical Route - Ocular, conjunctive
    • Need for patient training
    • Not useful for non cooperative patients
    • Disease conditions limiting to self administration
    • Particle size, pH and need for sterility can be limiting
  25. Examples of Topical Route Dosage Forms - Ocular, conjunctive
    • Solutions
    • Gels
    • Ointments
    • Lenses
  26. The Topical Route - Vaginal and Urethral
    Primarily for local effects (anti infective, cleansing)
  27. Advantages of Topical Route - Vaginal and Urethral
    Direct delivery without need for systemic delivery
  28. Disadvantages of Topical Route - Vaginal and Urethral
    • Patient compliance and training might be necessary
    • Risk of infection or complications
  29. Examples of Topical Route Dosage Forms - Vaginal and Urethral
    • Douches
    • Pessaries
    • Vaginal suppositories
    • Creams
    • Gels
  30. The Topical Route - Rectal
    Insertion into lower GIT for local and systemic effect
  31. Advantages of Topical Route - Rectal
    • Reduced first pass effect
    • Quick onset
    • Can be used in unconscious patients
  32. Disadvantages of Topical Route - Rectal
    • Self administration may be difficult
    • Infection or complications from over/improper use
  33. Examples of Topical Route Dosage Forms - Rectal
    • Enema solutions
    • Emulsions
    • Suspensions
    • Suppositories
  34. The Parenteral (outside GIT) Routes
    • Injection using a needle or needle free device for some local but largely systemic effect
    • Intravenous
    • Intraarterial
    • Intracardiac
    • Intrathecal
    • Intraperitoneal
    • Subcutaneous
    • Intradermal
    • Intramuscular
  35. Advantages of Parenteral (outside GIT) Routes
    • Almost instant response
    • Sustained response
    • Suitable for non cooperative patients
  36. Disadvantages of Parenteral (outside GIT) Routes
    • Manufacturing cost
    • Specialized administration
    • Volume limitations
    • *Painful

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview