Bio141 Test 1

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dennis.mcmorrow
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234464
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Bio141 Test 1
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2013-09-12 13:49:09
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anatomy physiology cell theory DNA chemistry
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McMorrow Bio141 Test 1
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  1. What is biology
    The study of life
  2. What are the universal characteristics of living things?
    • Responsiveness     *Movement
    • Digestion              *Adaptability
    • Respiration           *Excretion
    • Growth & reproduction  *Circulation
  3. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? What is the link between them?
    • Anatomy is the study body structure.
    • Physiology is the study of body function.
    • they are interrelated
  4. What is the relationship between anatomy and physiology?
    They are both interrelated
  5. What is the difference between gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy?
    Microscopic anatomy is the study of cells and structures that can only be seen with a microscope. Macroscopic or gross anatomy deals with larger structures that can be seen with the naked eye
  6. What are the levels of organization?
    Organ systems, Organ, Tissues, Cells, Molecules
  7. What are the thee basic principles of cell theory?
    • Cells are the structural building blocks of all plants and animals
    • Cells are produced by the division of existing cells
    • Cells are the smallest structural units that perform vital functions of the body
  8. What is histology?
    The study of tissues
  9. What are the four primary tissue types? How do you identify them?
    • Epithelial Tissue
    • Connective Tissue
    • Muscle Tissue
    • Neural Tissue
  10. What is the function of epithelial tissue?
    • Covers surfaces
    • Lines structures
    • Forms secretory glands
  11. What is the function of connective tissue?
    • Fills internal spaces
    • Provides structural support
    • Stores energy
  12. What is the function of muscle tissue?
    contracts to produce active movement
  13. What is the function of neural tissue?
    • Conducts electrical impulses
    • Carries information
  14. What are the 11 organ systems?
    • *Integumentary *Nervous       *Lymphatic
    • *Urinary            *Skeletal       *Endocrine
    • *Respitory         *Reproductive*Muscular
    • *Cardiovascular  *Digestive
  15. Integumentary System
    Skin
  16. Endocrine System
    Produces hormones
  17. Lymphatic System
    Fight pathogens
  18. Homeostasis
    A relatively constant internal environment
  19. Components of homeostatic regulation
    • Homeostasis
    • Receptors
    • Control Center
    • Effectors
  20. Negative feedback loop?
    Effectors work to bring the body back to homeostasis
  21. Positive Feedback Loop?
    Works to accelerate reaction. Like childbirth
  22. Prone Position
    Laying face down
  23. Supine
    Laying down face-up
  24. What are the essential functions of body cavities?
    Protect internal organs and allow them to change shape
  25. What are the two subdivisions of the ventral cavity?
    • Thoracic Cavity
    • Abdominopelvic Cavity
  26. What is an Atom
    Smallest stable unit of matter
  27. What are the parts of an atom?
    • Protons
    • Neutrons
    • Electrons
  28. What four elements make up most of the human body?
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxigen
    • Nitrogen
  29. What is an isotope?
    Variants of the same element; same number of protons, but different number of neutrons.
  30. What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy each of the first three electron shells of an atom?
    • 2, 8, 18
    • rule: 2n2
  31. Anion
    • An ion with an extra electron
    • has a net negative charge
  32. Cation
    • is missing an electron
    • has a net positive charge
  33. Three types of Bonds
    • Ionic Bond
    • Covalent Bond
    • Hydrogen Bond
  34. Ionic bond
    oppositely charged ions become attracted to one another
  35. Covalent Bond
    Atoms like carbon with 4 valence electrons wont gain or lose electrons, but can share.
  36. Hydrogen Bond
    When polar molecules like water bond with each other and other substances because of their unequal distribution of electrons.
  37. Three states of matter
    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas
  38. Solids
    Has fixed volume and fixed shape
  39. Liquid
    Has fixed volume, but random shape
  40. Gas
    random volume and random shape
  41. What 3 chemical reactions are important in human physiology?
    • Decomposition Reactions
    • Synthesis Reactions
    • Exchange Reactions
  42. Decomposition Reaction
    AB ⇀ A+B
  43. Synthesis Reaction
    A+B → AB
  44. Exchange Reaction
    AB+CD → AC+BD
  45. Catabolism
    Decomposition reactions of complex molecules within the body's cells and tissues.
  46. Anabolism
    The synthesis of new molecules within the body's cells and tissues.
  47. Hydrolysis
    AB+H2O→ A(H)+B(OH)
  48. What is so great about water
    • Lubrication
    • Reactivity
    • Heat Capacity
    • Soluability
  49. Exergonic Reaction
    Reactions that release energy
  50. Endergonic Reactions
    Reactions that require more energy to begin than are released during the reaction
  51. What is pH?
    • The relationship of H+ to OH- on a logarithmic scale.
    • 1 hast most H+ (acidic)
    • 14 has more OH- (basic)
  52. Buffer
    A substance that stabilizes pH by adding or removing hydrogen ions.
  53. What is an organic Compound?
    a compound containing Hydrogen, Carbon, and usually Oxygen
  54. Functional Groups
    Groups of atoms that occur frequently across many different types of molecules. They greatly influence the properties of any molecule in which they occur.
  55. Four classes of bio-molecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acid
  56. Carbohydrates
    • monosaccharide
    • disaccharide
    • polysaccharide
    • Used for quick energy
  57. Lipids
    • Fatty Acids
    • Glycerol
    • Steroids
    • Long term storage & insulation
  58. Proteins
    • Peptides
    • Dipeptides
    • Polypeptides
    • Muscles structure, hair & nails, enzymes
  59. Nucleic Acids
    • Neuclotides
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • ATP
    • Storage of information, information transfer, and high energy
  60. Dehydration synthesis
    (A)H + (B)OH → AB + H2O
  61. Hydrophillic
    Attracts water
  62. Hydrophobic
    repels water
  63. Saturated Fat
    All carbon atoms of the molecule are filled with hydrogen atoms.
  64. Unsaturated Fats
    A lipid chain where one or more carbons along the chain have double bonds, and only one hydrogen linked. It causes a bend in the chain
  65. Cholesterol
    Used to maintain cell membrane, and are also important in cell division
  66. micelle
    A phospholipid like molecule with a hydrophillic head and hydrophobic tail
  67. Denaturation
    a temporary or permanent change in the three dimensional shape of a protein.
  68. Active site
    part of an enzyme that accepts substrates
  69. Substrates
    the reactants in enzymatic reactions
  70. Enzyme Specificity
    Enzymes only accept certain substrates. Dictated by size, shape, and charge.
  71. Differences between DNA and RNA
    • Function
    • Shape
    • Nitrogenous Bases (No U in DNA)
    • Number of neuclotides
    • Sugars
  72. What molecule provides energy for the vital functions in a cell?
    • ATP
    • adenosine triphosphate
  73. Cell theory
    • Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals
    • All new cells result from division of old cells
    • Cells are the smallest units that perform all vital physiological functions
  74. Cytoplasm
    The space between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
  75. Cytosol
    The fluid that fills the cytoplasm
  76. What does the Exoskeleton do?
    • Gives strength and support to the cell
    • facilitates movement of cellular structures and materials
  77. What are the five types of proteins found in the plasma membrane
    • Anchoring proteins
    • recognition proteins
    • receptor proteins
    • carrier proteins
    • channel proteins
  78. Three basic components of the cytoskeleton
    • Microfilaments
    • Microtubules
    • Intermediate filaments
  79. Functions of Cillia
    Propel fluids or solids across the cell surface
  80. Chromatin
    Loosely coiled DNA prior during interphase
  81. Chormosomes
    Tightly coiled sister chormatids in preparation for cell division
  82. Genes
    are functional units of heredity, a gene has all he nucleotides needed to produce a specific protein
  83. Dogma of Molecular Biology
    • Transcription from DNA to RNA to protein
    • Transcription copies of the DNA onto RNA, translation translates the information from nucleotide to nucleic acid form
  84. mRNA
    Transcribes genetic info from DNA and delivers it to the cytoplasm
  85. rRNA Ribosomal RNA
    directs translation of mRNA
  86. tRNA Transfer RNA
    Brings amino acids to the ribosomes that correspond to each codon of mRNA
  87. Genetic Code
    • Information stored in a sequence of base pairs.
    • T:A
    • C:G
    • U=T (No T in RNA)
  88. Active Transport
    Channel Protein requires ATP to move solutes across the plasma membrane
  89. Selective Permeability of Plasma Membranes
    Lipids, CO2, and O2 can pass through freely. Other particles must go through facilitated diffusion or active transport
  90. Diffusion
    The tendency of solutes to become evenly distributed
  91. Osmosis
    The tendency of water to move across a membrane towards the more concentrated solution.
  92. Isotonic
    solutes are equally concentration cell stays the same size
  93. hypertonic
    cell has greater concentration inside, and will swell as water comes in
  94. Hypotonic
    greater concentration outside the cell, the cell will shrivel
  95. Endocytosis
    The bringing of particles into the cell via a vesicle of plasma membrane
  96. Exocytosis
    Expelling of particles via a plasma membrane vesicle
  97. Phagocytosis
    the engulfment of a pathogen in a plasma membrane vesicle, before expelling it from the cell.
  98. Interphase
    time between mitosis, cell prepares for division
  99. Prophase
    • First stage of mitosis
    • Chromosomes form
    • Nucleus breaks down
    • Spindle apparatus forms
  100. Metaphase
    The stage of mitosis where chromosomes line up along the equator
  101. Anaphase
    The stage of mitosis where the chromatid pairs are separated and move towards the opposite poles of the cell
  102. Telophase
    • The final stage of mitosis
    • Spindle apparatus disappears
    • cellular membranes reappear
    • chromosomes disappear
    • completion of cytokinesis
  103. Cancer
    A disease characterized by mutations that influence cell division
  104. Metastasis
    Where the growth of a tumor accelerates and malignant cells begin to spread
  105. Benign Tumor
    tumors that remain in their point of origin

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