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What is biology
The study of life
What are the universal characteristics of living things?
- Responsiveness *Movement
- Digestion *Adaptability
- Respiration *Excretion
- Growth & reproduction *Circulation
What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? What is the link between them?
- Anatomy is the study body structure.
- Physiology is the study of body function.
- they are interrelated
What is the relationship between anatomy and physiology?
They are both interrelated
What is the difference between gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy?
Microscopic anatomy is the study of cells and structures that can only be seen with a microscope. Macroscopic or gross anatomy deals with larger structures that can be seen with the naked eye
What are the levels of organization?
Organ systems, Organ, Tissues, Cells, Molecules
What are the thee basic principles of cell theory?
- Cells are the structural building blocks of all plants and animals
- Cells are produced by the division of existing cells
- Cells are the smallest structural units that perform vital functions of the body
What is histology?
The study of tissues
What are the four primary tissue types? How do you identify them?
- Epithelial Tissue
- Connective Tissue
- Muscle Tissue
- Neural Tissue
What is the function of epithelial tissue?
- Covers surfaces
- Lines structures
- Forms secretory glands
What is the function of connective tissue?
- Fills internal spaces
- Provides structural support
- Stores energy
What is the function of muscle tissue?
contracts to produce active movement
What is the function of neural tissue?
- Conducts electrical impulses
- Carries information
What are the 11 organ systems?
- *Integumentary *Nervous *Lymphatic
- *Urinary *Skeletal *Endocrine
- *Respitory *Reproductive*Muscular
- *Cardiovascular *Digestive
A relatively constant internal environment
Components of homeostatic regulation
- Control Center
Negative feedback loop?
Effectors work to bring the body back to homeostasis
Positive Feedback Loop?
Works to accelerate reaction. Like childbirth
Laying face down
Laying down face-up
What are the essential functions of body cavities?
Protect internal organs and allow them to change shape
What are the two subdivisions of the ventral cavity?
- Thoracic Cavity
- Abdominopelvic Cavity
What is an Atom
Smallest stable unit of matter
What are the parts of an atom?
What four elements make up most of the human body?
What is an isotope?
Variants of the same element; same number of protons, but different number of neutrons.
What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy each of the first three electron shells of an atom?
- An ion with an extra electron
- has a net negative charge
- is missing an electron
- has a net positive charge
Three types of Bonds
- Ionic Bond
- Covalent Bond
- Hydrogen Bond
oppositely charged ions become attracted to one another
Atoms like carbon with 4 valence electrons wont gain or lose electrons, but can share.
When polar molecules like water bond with each other and other substances because of their unequal distribution of electrons.
Has fixed volume and fixed shape
Has fixed volume, but random shape
random volume and random shape
What 3 chemical reactions are important in human physiology?
- Decomposition Reactions
- Synthesis Reactions
- Exchange Reactions
AB ⇀ A+B
A+B → AB
AB+CD → AC+BD
Decomposition reactions of complex molecules within the body's cells and tissues.
The synthesis of new molecules within the body's cells and tissues.
What is so great about water
- Heat Capacity
Reactions that release energy
Reactions that require more energy to begin than are released during the reaction
What is pH?
- The relationship of H+ to OH- on a logarithmic scale.
- 1 hast most H+ (acidic)
- 14 has more OH- (basic)
A substance that stabilizes pH by adding or removing hydrogen ions.
What is an organic Compound?
a compound containing Hydrogen, Carbon, and usually Oxygen
Groups of atoms that occur frequently across many different types of molecules. They greatly influence the properties of any molecule in which they occur.
Four classes of bio-molecules
- Nucleic Acid
- Used for quick energy
- Fatty Acids
- Long term storage & insulation
- Muscles structure, hair & nails, enzymes
- Storage of information, information transfer, and high energy
(A)H + (B)OH → AB + H2O
All carbon atoms of the molecule are filled with hydrogen atoms.
A lipid chain where one or more carbons along the chain have double bonds, and only one hydrogen linked. It causes a bend in the chain
Used to maintain cell membrane, and are also important in cell division
A phospholipid like molecule with a hydrophillic head and hydrophobic tail
a temporary or permanent change in the three dimensional shape of a protein.
part of an enzyme that accepts substrates
the reactants in enzymatic reactions
Enzymes only accept certain substrates. Dictated by size, shape, and charge.
Differences between DNA and RNA
- Nitrogenous Bases (No U in DNA)
- Number of neuclotides
What molecule provides energy for the vital functions in a cell?
- adenosine triphosphate
- Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals
- All new cells result from division of old cells
- Cells are the smallest units that perform all vital physiological functions
The space between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
The fluid that fills the cytoplasm
What does the Exoskeleton do?
- Gives strength and support to the cell
- facilitates movement of cellular structures and materials
What are the five types of proteins found in the plasma membrane
- Anchoring proteins
- recognition proteins
- receptor proteins
- carrier proteins
- channel proteins
Three basic components of the cytoskeleton
- Intermediate filaments
Functions of Cillia
Propel fluids or solids across the cell surface
Loosely coiled DNA prior during interphase
Tightly coiled sister chormatids in preparation for cell division
are functional units of heredity, a gene has all he nucleotides needed to produce a specific protein
Dogma of Molecular Biology
- Transcription from DNA to RNA to protein
- Transcription copies of the DNA onto RNA, translation translates the information from nucleotide to nucleic acid form
Transcribes genetic info from DNA and delivers it to the cytoplasm
rRNA Ribosomal RNA
directs translation of mRNA
tRNA Transfer RNA
Brings amino acids to the ribosomes that correspond to each codon of mRNA
- Information stored in a sequence of base pairs.
- U=T (No T in RNA)
Channel Protein requires ATP to move solutes across the plasma membrane
Selective Permeability of Plasma Membranes
Lipids, CO2, and O2 can pass through freely. Other particles must go through facilitated diffusion or active transport
The tendency of solutes to become evenly distributed
The tendency of water to move across a membrane towards the more concentrated solution.
solutes are equally concentration cell stays the same size
cell has greater concentration inside, and will swell as water comes in
greater concentration outside the cell, the cell will shrivel
The bringing of particles into the cell via a vesicle of plasma membrane
Expelling of particles via a plasma membrane vesicle
the engulfment of a pathogen in a plasma membrane vesicle, before expelling it from the cell.
time between mitosis, cell prepares for division
- First stage of mitosis
- Chromosomes form
- Nucleus breaks down
- Spindle apparatus forms
The stage of mitosis where chromosomes line up along the equator
The stage of mitosis where the chromatid pairs are separated and move towards the opposite poles of the cell
- The final stage of mitosis
- Spindle apparatus disappears
- cellular membranes reappear
- chromosomes disappear
- completion of cytokinesis
A disease characterized by mutations that influence cell division
Where the growth of a tumor accelerates and malignant cells begin to spread
tumors that remain in their point of origin