OB Lessons 1&2

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  1. What 2 things must happen for conception to occur?
    ovulation and insemination
  2. What is the rupture of the ovum from its follicle in the ovary?
  3. What is the expulsion of semen from the male urethra into the female?
  4. Evidence suggests that at least 50 million sperm are needed to secrete enough enzyme hyalurnidase to dissolve the __________________ that surrounds the ovum.
    corona radiata
  5. Once the ______________ is removed, a single sperm may enter the ovum.
    corona radiata
  6. When does the germinal stage take place?
    1-10 days
  7. Who provides screening and supervision during the entire pregnancy cycle, including birth?
  8. What focuses on the family and works within traditional medical agencies?
    maternal-child nursing
  9. What is an RN with advanced study in a specialty area called?  They are the same as midwives except they do NOT deliver babies.
    nurse practitioner
  10. Who is the instructor of special courses for parents such as Lamaze and breast feeding techniques?
    childbirth educator
  11. What is an obstetrical technician?
    LPN with additional training
  12. When is the embryonic stage of pregnancy?
    10 days to 8 weeks
  13. What carries the blood to the baby?
    umbillical vein
  14. What takes the blood away from the baby?
    umbilical arteries (there are 2)
  15. What are the functions of the placenta?
    • provides oxygen and nutrients
    • removes waste products from baby's blood
    • temporary endocrine gland:  secretes hormones essential for maintenance of pregnancy
  16. What are some presumptive (subjective) signs of pregnancy?
    • amenorrhea (usually first sign she notices)
    • n/v
    • breast changes (tenderness or tingling)
    • urinary frequency
    • excessive fatigue
    • abdominal enlargement (usually noticed after 12 weeks)
    • quickening
  17. What is quickening?
    • perception of fetal movement by the movther, usually between 12-20 weeks.
    • begins as a fluttering sensation and gradually gets stronger/more frequent
  18. What is the condition in which the woman beleives so stongly that she is pregnant that she appears to hve all the early presumptive signs of pregnancy?
  19. What are some common pregnancy discomforts?
    • nausea
    • vaginal discharge
    • fatigue
    • backache
    • constipation
    • varicose veins
    • hemorrhoids
    • heartburn
    • nasal stuffiness
    • dyspnea
    • leg cramps
    • edema of lower extremeties
  20. The ability to procreate is called:
  21. What is the term for the probable inability to procreate?
  22. What is sterility and what are the some ways it could be possible to become sterile?
    • absolute inability to procreate
    • irradiation or surgical removal of reproductive organs
    • ligation of the vas deferens or fallopian tubes
  23. Sterility refers only to __________, not to hormone productions or sexual responsiveness.
  24. Implantation occurs in the __________ stage.
  25. After the blastula enters the uterine cavity and loses its outer membrane, it prepares to undergo the process of burying itself in the uterine lining.  This process is called:
  26. How does fertilization occur? (not sure if we have to know this or not?)
    • Insemination
    • Sperm travels to fallopian tubes
    • Sperm secretes enzyme to dissolve the egg's outer barrier
    • Ovum prevents more sperm from entering
    • Sperm enters ovum, tail drops off
  27. What are some probable signs of pregnancy?
    • Goodell's sign (softening of cervix)
    • Hegar's sign (softening of uterine isthmus)
    • Chadwick's sign (bluish discoloration of vagina, cervix, and vulva)
    • Uterine enlargement after 8th week, fundus palpable above umbilicus at 20 weeks
    • Braxton Hicks contractions
    • Increased pigmentation
    • Ballottement
    • Pregnancy test
  28. What is this sign called?:  during the 4th or 5th month, if the fetus is pushed upward through the vagina or abdomen, the floating fetus rebounds against the examiner's fingers.
  29. __________ sign is softening of the cervix.
    Goodell's sign
  30. __________ sign is softening of the uterine isthmus.
    Hegar's sign
  31. __________ sign is the purplish blue discoloration of the vagina, cervix, and vulva noted in the first 12 weeks.
    Chadwick's sign
  32. What are the 3 positive signs of pregnancy?
    • hearing the fetal heartbeat (10-12 weeks by doppler)
    • visualization of the fetus
    • examiner feeling fetal movement
  33. What is the term used to describe the number of pregnancies, regardless of duration, including present pregnancy?
  34. What is the term used to describe the number of deliveries (births) after 24 weeks gestation, whether infant was born alive or dead, or number of infants born?
  35. What is the term used to describe a pregnancy between 38-40 weeks gestation?
  36. What is the term used to describe a delivery after 24 weeks gestation but before 38 weeks?
  37. What is the term used to describe a loss of pregnancy before age of viability (usually 20-24 weeks) (refers to induced or spontaneous)?
  38. TPAL grading system:
    • term
    • preterm
    • abortion
    • living
  39. GPA grading system:
    • gravida
    • para
  40. Nulligravida:
    never been pregnant
  41. Primagravida:
    pregnant for the first time
  42. Multigravida:
    has been pregnant before
  43. Nullipara:
    never having delivered an infant after 20 weeks gestation
  44. Primapara:
    has delivered one after 20 weeks gestation whether alive or not
  45. Multipara:
    has delivered twice or more after 20 weeks gestation
  46. Postterm:
    delivery after 42 weeks gestation
  47. Ways to determine EDD besides keeping track of periods:
    • uterine size
    • date of quickening
    • date when the fetal heartbeat is heard
    • ultrasound fetal measurements
  48. Most common way to calculate EDD:
    • Naegle's Rule:
    • take date of first day of last menstrual pd, subtract 3 months, and add 7 days
  49. How to determine fetal position using Leopold''s maneuvers:
    • place client supine, knees bent
    • examiner stand at pt's right side, facing pt's head
    • 1st palpate:  which fetal part is in fundus?
    • 2nd move hands to sides of uterus:  which side of the mother is the fetal back located?
    • 3rd right hand above symphysis pubis:  which is near symphysis pubis; head or buttocks?
  50. Where should the fetal heartbeat be assessed?
    • over the location of the fetal back
    • record rate and quadrant where it was heard
  51. What is the normal fetal heart rate?
  52. What are some warning signs of pregnancy?
    • sudden gush of fluid from vagina
    • vaginal bleeding
    • abdominal bleeding
    • abdominal pain
    • persistent vomiting
    • epigastric pain
    • edema of face and hands
    • severe, persistent headache
    • blurred vision or dizziness
    • chills with fever over 100.4
    • painful urination or reduced urine output
  53. What are some pain relief measures?
    • hypnosis
    • acupuncture
    • medications (Demerol/Morphine)
    • epidural
    • partner support
  54. What changes take place during puberty for a girl?  What age does puberty occur?
    • 10-15 years old
    • growth in nipple and breasts
    • growth of pubic and axillary hair
    • broadening of the hips and pelvis
    • menarche
    • ovulation
  55. What changes take place during puberty for a boy?  What age does this occur?
    • 12-17 years old
    • increase in size of penis and testes
    • growth of pubic, facial, axillary, and chest hair
    • broadening of the chest
    • narrowing of the hips
Card Set:
OB Lessons 1&2
2013-09-13 03:11:46

OB Test 1
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