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What 2 things must happen for conception to occur?
ovulation and insemination
What is the rupture of the ovum from its follicle in the ovary?
What is the expulsion of semen from the male urethra into the female?
Evidence suggests that at least 50 million sperm are needed to secrete enough enzyme hyalurnidase to dissolve the __________________ that surrounds the ovum.
Once the ______________ is removed, a single sperm may enter the ovum.
When does the germinal stage take place?
Who provides screening and supervision during the entire pregnancy cycle, including birth?
What focuses on the family and works within traditional medical agencies?
What is an RN with advanced study in a specialty area called? They are the same as midwives except they do NOT deliver babies.
Who is the instructor of special courses for parents such as Lamaze and breast feeding techniques?
What is an obstetrical technician?
LPN with additional training
When is the embryonic stage of pregnancy?
10 days to 8 weeks
What carries the blood to the baby?
What takes the blood away from the baby?
umbilical arteries (there are 2)
What are the functions of the placenta?
- provides oxygen and nutrients
- removes waste products from baby's blood
- temporary endocrine gland: secretes hormones essential for maintenance of pregnancy
What are some presumptive (subjective) signs of pregnancy?
- amenorrhea (usually first sign she notices)
- breast changes (tenderness or tingling)
- urinary frequency
- excessive fatigue
- abdominal enlargement (usually noticed after 12 weeks)
What is quickening?
- perception of fetal movement by the movther, usually between 12-20 weeks.
- begins as a fluttering sensation and gradually gets stronger/more frequent
What is the condition in which the woman beleives so stongly that she is pregnant that she appears to hve all the early presumptive signs of pregnancy?
What are some common pregnancy discomforts?
- vaginal discharge
- varicose veins
- nasal stuffiness
- leg cramps
- edema of lower extremeties
The ability to procreate is called:
What is the term for the probable inability to procreate?
What is sterility and what are the some ways it could be possible to become sterile?
- absolute inability to procreate
- irradiation or surgical removal of reproductive organs
- ligation of the vas deferens or fallopian tubes
Sterility refers only to __________, not to hormone productions or sexual responsiveness.
Implantation occurs in the __________ stage.
After the blastula enters the uterine cavity and loses its outer membrane, it prepares to undergo the process of burying itself in the uterine lining. This process is called:
How does fertilization occur? (not sure if we have to know this or not?)
- Sperm travels to fallopian tubes
- Sperm secretes enzyme to dissolve the egg's outer barrier
- Ovum prevents more sperm from entering
- Sperm enters ovum, tail drops off
What are some probable signs of pregnancy?
- Goodell's sign (softening of cervix)
- Hegar's sign (softening of uterine isthmus)
- Chadwick's sign (bluish discoloration of vagina, cervix, and vulva)
- Uterine enlargement after 8th week, fundus palpable above umbilicus at 20 weeks
- Braxton Hicks contractions
- Increased pigmentation
- Pregnancy test
What is this sign called?: during the 4th or 5th month, if the fetus is pushed upward through the vagina or abdomen, the floating fetus rebounds against the examiner's fingers.
__________ sign is softening of the cervix.
__________ sign is softening of the uterine isthmus.
__________ sign is the purplish blue discoloration of the vagina, cervix, and vulva noted in the first 12 weeks.
What are the 3 positive signs of pregnancy?
- hearing the fetal heartbeat (10-12 weeks by doppler)
- visualization of the fetus
- examiner feeling fetal movement
What is the term used to describe the number of pregnancies, regardless of duration, including present pregnancy?
What is the term used to describe the number of deliveries (births) after 24 weeks gestation, whether infant was born alive or dead, or number of infants born?
What is the term used to describe a pregnancy between 38-40 weeks gestation?
What is the term used to describe a delivery after 24 weeks gestation but before 38 weeks?
What is the term used to describe a loss of pregnancy before age of viability (usually 20-24 weeks) (refers to induced or spontaneous)?
TPAL grading system:
never been pregnant
pregnant for the first time
has been pregnant before
never having delivered an infant after 20 weeks gestation
has delivered one after 20 weeks gestation whether alive or not
has delivered twice or more after 20 weeks gestation
delivery after 42 weeks gestation
Ways to determine EDD besides keeping track of periods:
- uterine size
- date of quickening
- date when the fetal heartbeat is heard
- ultrasound fetal measurements
Most common way to calculate EDD:
- Naegle's Rule:
- take date of first day of last menstrual pd, subtract 3 months, and add 7 days
How to determine fetal position using Leopold''s maneuvers:
- place client supine, knees bent
- examiner stand at pt's right side, facing pt's head
- 1st palpate: which fetal part is in fundus?
- 2nd move hands to sides of uterus: which side of the mother is the fetal back located?
- 3rd right hand above symphysis pubis: which is near symphysis pubis; head or buttocks?
Where should the fetal heartbeat be assessed?
- over the location of the fetal back
- record rate and quadrant where it was heard
What is the normal fetal heart rate?
What are some warning signs of pregnancy?
- sudden gush of fluid from vagina
- vaginal bleeding
- abdominal bleeding
- abdominal pain
- persistent vomiting
- epigastric pain
- edema of face and hands
- severe, persistent headache
- blurred vision or dizziness
- chills with fever over 100.4
- painful urination or reduced urine output
What are some pain relief measures?
- medications (Demerol/Morphine)
- partner support
What changes take place during puberty for a girl? What age does puberty occur?
- 10-15 years old
- growth in nipple and breasts
- growth of pubic and axillary hair
- broadening of the hips and pelvis
What changes take place during puberty for a boy? What age does this occur?
- 12-17 years old
- increase in size of penis and testes
- growth of pubic, facial, axillary, and chest hair
- broadening of the chest
- narrowing of the hips