ClinMedV:Diseases of the Digestive System (Liver to end of packet)

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heather.dundas
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234487
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ClinMedV:Diseases of the Digestive System (Liver to end of packet)
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2013-09-12 22:19:52
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  1. Major functions of the liver:MBFCB
    • metabolism
    • bile production
    • filters blood
    • clotting factor production
    • bilirubin production and excretion
  2. Causes of liver dz: IINMTC
    • infectious
    • idiopathic
    • neoplasia
    • metabolic
    • truama
    • congenital
  3. Acute liver dz is more severe with a worse prognosis what are some c.s.?AVDIAB
    • ADR
    • v/d
    • icterus
    • ascites
    • bleeding
  4. Chronic liver dz is vague and may be identified on routine screening. What are the 3 phases?
    • prehepatic
    • hepatic
    • post hepatic
  5. What are some causes of prehepatic dz?HJTIT
    • hemolysis
    • jaundize
    • toxin
    • immune disease
    • tick born dz
  6. What is post hepatic dz?
    • bilirubemia
    • gal bladder dz
  7. What does the CBC show for liver dz?
    anemic
  8. What does the clotting time do in liver dz?
    inc
  9. This is a very sensitive test for liver dz and these levels will be elevated
    serum bile acids
  10. Name some elevated enzymes in liver dz:AAAGBCA
    • ALT
    • ALKP
    • AST
    • GGT
    • bilirubin
    • cholesterol
    • ammonia
  11. What is another name for ALT?
    SGPT
  12. What is another name for AST?
    SGOT
  13. What liver enzyme is more sensitive for cats and dogs?
    ALT
  14. What will be decreased in liver disease?BG
    • BUN
    • glucose
  15. enlarged liver
    hepatomegaly
  16. small liver
    microhepatica
  17. dx liver dz:RUBE
    • radiograph
    • ultrasound
    • biopsy(gold standard)
    • exploratory sx
  18. What is the portosystemic shunt?
    shunt that bypasses liver
  19. With a portosystemic shunt blood carrying toxins from the GI tract don't go through what in the liver?
    detoxification
  20. What does a portosystemic shunt cause?
    hepaic encephalopathy
  21. c.s. portosystemic shunt:NVDS
    • nuerologic
    • v
    • d
    • stunted growth
  22. tx portosystemic shunt:PFLL
    • low protein diet
    • fluids
    • lactulose (read notes)***
    • ligation of shunt (referral sx)
  23. Who usually gets portosystemic shunts?
    yorkies
  24. tx liver disease:SSSINBAPAN
    • supportive
    • sx
    • IV fluids
    • nutrition
    • B vitamins
    • anti-emetics
    • prednisone
    • abx
    • nutraceuticals
  25. Name some neutraceuticals used to tx liver dz:SMVDM
    • SAM-e
    • milk thistle
    • vitamin E
    • denamarin
    • marin
  26. Causes of feline hepatic lipdosis:ODESI
    • obesity
    • diet
    • environmental change
    • stress
    • illness
  27. c.s. feline hepatic lipidosis: AVWI
    • anorexia
    • v+
    • wt loss
    • icterus
  28. dc feline hepatic lipidosis: BRUB
    • blood work
    • radiographs
    • ultrasound
    • biopsy
  29. tx feline hepatic lipidosis:PCFI
    • increase protien and calories in the diet
    • feeding tubes often needed
    • IV fluids
  30. Who gets anal sac disease?
    small breed dogs
  31. Causes of anal sac disease:IIAT
    • impactions
    • infx
    • abcess
    • tumor
  32. Name an infx that can cause anal sac disease?
    sacculitis
  33. tx anal sac dz:EASD
    • expression
    • abx
    • sx
    • dietary fiber
  34. Name a tumor that causes anal sac dz. What may there be an increase in?
    • adenocarcinoma
    • increase Ca
  35. What 2 things cause anal dz? PF,AF
    • perianal fistulas
    • anal furunculosis
  36. Who usually gets anal disease?
    large
  37. c.s. anal dz:TDIB
    • tenesmus
    • dyschezia
    • incontinence
    • bleeding
  38. tx anal dz:ASICPTH
    • abx
    • stool softeners
    • immune suppressants (cyclosporine,prednisone,tacrolimus)
    • hygiene
  39. Anal tumors are common in intact male dogs. What 2 are the most common? AA
    • adenomas
    • adenocarcinomas
  40. Who usually gets perianal hernias?
    intact male older dogs
  41. causes ofperianal hernia:WAH
    • weakening/atrophy of muscles (levator ani)
    • herniation of rectum and bladder
  42. c.s. of perianal hernia:RTDCOU
    • reducible perianal swelling
    • tenesmus
    • dyschezia
    • constipation
    • obstipation
    • urinary problems
  43. tx perianal tumors:SERC
    • stool softeners
    • enemas
    • sx repair
    • sx castration
  44. cholecystitis
    inflam of gallbladder
  45. choleithiasis
    gallbladder stones
  46. Name another condition of the gal bladder
    GB mucocele
  47. c.s.  gallbladder dz:IVLAFJ
    • inappetance
    • v
    • lethargy
    • abd pain
    • fever jaundice
  48. What enzymes will be increased in blood work for gallbladder dz?
    • liver
    • bilirubin
  49. GB mucocele resembles what on an ultrasound?
    sliced kiwi
  50. tx gallbladder dz:CSFAVS
    • cholecystectomy
    • supportive
    • fluids
    • abx
    • vitamin E
    • SAMe
  51. What 3 things can help dissolve bladder stones?UUA
    • ursodeoxycholic acid
    • ursodiol
    • actigall

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