Cardiac pharm.txt

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Cardiac pharm.txt
2013-09-12 15:08:38
Cardiac pharm

Cardiac pharm.txt
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  1. Thiazide
    A class of Diuretics
  2. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)
    Thiazide diuretic
  3. Most potent diuretics
    Loop diuretics
  4. furosemide (Lasix)
    Loop diuretic
  5. S/e of Lasix
  6. Normal K+ level
  7. What happens if pt has hypokalemia?
    Dysrhythmias (esp ventricular)
  8. Bumetanide (Bumex)
    Loop diuretic
  9. What are pts on loop diuretics ALSO often given?
    Vitamin K supplemetns (10-20mEq/day)
  10. S/e of potassium-sparing diuretics
  11. S/e of aldosterone receptor blockers
  12. For a pt in renal failure with high K+ (r/t metabolic acidosis), do not give:
    Any potassium-sparing diuretic
  13. spironolactone (Aldactone)
    Aldosterone receptor blocker diuretic
  14. S/e of ACE inhibitors
  15. S/e of Angiotensin-II blockers
  16. ACE inhibitors all end in _____
  17. Mechanism of ACE inhibitors
    Decrease conversion of a-I to a-II in lungs by blocking the enzyme that does that
  18. Most potent vasodilator that body produces
  19. Life-threatening semi-common side effect of ACE inhibitor
    Angiodema--swelling of face, tongue, airway
  20. Common, non-life threatning s/e of ACE inhibitors
    dry, hacking cough
  21. Location of a-1 receptors
    Arteries & veins
  22. adrenergic inhibitors mode of action
    Vasodilation to decrease SVR
  23. S/e of adrenergic inhibitors
    dry mouth
  24. Beta blockers all end in
  25. Mode of action of beta blockers
    Decrease SNS stimulation to decrease HE
  26. Complication of beta blockers
  27. B2 receptors are found in
  28. B1 receptors are found in
  29. Cardioselective beta blockers block only
    b1 receptors in the heart
  30. Name cardioselective b-blockers
    metaprolol (Lorpressor), esmolol (Brevibloc), atenolol (Tenormin), nebivolol (Bystolic)
  31. non-selective b blockers can cause ___ in pts with asthma
  32. S/e of b-blockers
    Erectile dysfunction and decreased libido
  33. s/e of angiotensin-ii blockers
  34. How long do angiotensin-ii blockers take to work well?
    Several weeks
  35. method of action of Ca-channel blockers
    Vasodilation to decrease BP to decrease SVR
  36. s/e of Ca channel blockers
  37. diltiazen extended release (Cardizem LA)
    Ca-channel blocker
  38. nicardipine (Procardia XL)
    Ca-channel blocker
  39. amlodipine (Norvasc)
    Ca-channel blocker
  40. mode of action of vasodilators
    Dilate BVs to decrease BP
  41. nitroglycerine (Tridil)
  42. Name vasodilator used in hypertensive emergencies
    nitroglycerine (Tridil) & sodium nitroprusside (Nipride). Can be given IV
  43. sodium nitroprusside (Nipride)
  44. aspirin
    antiplatelet; not as effective in women as Plavix
  45. clopidrogel (Plavix)
  46. Dosage of aspirin for pts at risk for CAD
    81 mg. Can be EC
  47. Dosage of aspirin for acute MI
    325mg. NOT EC. Can be chewable.
  48. When is clopidrogel (Plavix) rx?
    After stents put in, beacuse stents can reocclude
  49. What does clopidrogel (Plavix) do?
    Prevents excess growth * formation of thrombus.
  50. warfarin (Coumadin)
    anticoagulant (Vitamin K antagonist)
  51. s/e of Coumadin
    Bleeding disorders if too much; no effect if not enough
  52. How do we monitor therapeutic levels of Coumadin?
    INR--if elevated, too much Coumadin in body
  53. Antidote for Coumadin?
    Vitamin K
  54. What should pts on Coumadin void (food)?
    Green, leafy vegetables, as they contain Vit K
  55. heparin sodium
    Anticoagulat: unfractionated heparin
  56. How is heparin administered and to whom?
    SQ or IV; given to immobilized pts
  57. What does heparin do?
    Prevents (not break up) clots. Prevents conversion of fibrinofen to fibrin.
  58. APTT
    Test to monitor efficacy of heparin
  59. Determine correct dosage of heparin?
    If APTT is within normal range--need to INCREASE dosage of heparin to increase APTT
  60. Ideal APTT for pt on heparin
    1.5-2.5 times the normal APTT
  61. Antidote for heparin
    Protamine sulfate
  62. If pt is on heparin and starts bleeding out--
    administer protamine sulfate and stop heparin
  63. Signs that pt has too much heparin
    BP drops, HR increases, blood in urine/stool, altered LOC
  64. If pt is transitioning from heparin to Coumadin, when does Coumadin tx start?
    While still on heparin. Coumadin takes a few days to take effect.
  65. What tests will pt routinely need while on Coumadin?
    PT & INR
  66. Low molecular weight heparin
    A class of anticoagulants
  67. What does low molecular weight heparin do?
    Prevent embolisms
  68. How to admin low molecular weight heparin?
    SQ; do not expel air bubble
  69. S/e of heparin
    Low platelets
  70. enoxaparin (Lovenox)
    Anticoagulant: low molecular weight heparin
  71. daltemparin (Fragmin)
    Anticoagulant: low molecular weight heparin
  72. tissue plasminogen activator (Activase)
  73. What do fibrinolytics do?
    When given in first 6 hrs of CP, reak up clot
  74. s/e of fibrinolytic
  75. s/e of statins
    myopathy (muscle aches); can lead to rhabomyaltis then renal failure
  76. Statins
    Cholesterol lowering agents: HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors
  77. What do all HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors end in?
  78. What should we monitor when pt is on statins?
    liver enzymes, CK level if muscle aches occur
  79. s/e of Niacin
  80. ezetimibe (Zetia)
    cholesterol lowering agent: Cholesterol absorption inhibitor
  81. s/e of Zetia
    infrequent side effects
  82. pentoxifylline (Trevtal)
    PAD drug therapy
  83. cilostazae (Pletal)
    PAD drug therapy