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Since the _____ viral enteritis has become recognized as one of the most common causes of infectious diarrhea in dogs dying than 6 months.
3 important viruses causing enteric disease in the canine world
- Canine parovirus (CPV-1 and 2)
- canine coronavirus (CCV)
- canine rotaviruses (CRVs)
Canine parvovirus is a mutation of __________ which is a parvo virus
In ____ – 1st Canine Parvo Type 1 (CPV-1) also called the __________ was isolated from the feces of __________. Physical and chemical properties of CPV-1 are typical of parvo virus.
- “Minute Virus” of canines MVC)
- military sentry and scout dogs
Based on genetic analysis, canine parvovirus is most closely related to ___________.
In ____ a 3rd strain called CPV – Type 2c which was an adaptation. CPV – Type 2c is common in __________. This was originally isolated on from ________, but has now been isolated in domestic cats and dogs. 1st report in this country of the CPV2c (originally reported in Europe) was in ______________________ in _____.
- cats and dogs
- leopard cats
- Oklahoma State Diagnostic Laboratory of Oklahoma City, OK
Canine Parvovirus Enteritis (indicate year)
_____ – Canine Parvo Type 1 (CPV-1) Isolated from military sentry and scout dogs.
_____ – Canine Parvo Type 2 (CPV-2)
_____ – Canine Parvo Type 2a (CPV-2a)
_____ – Canine Parvo Type 2b (CPV-2b)
_____ – Canine Parvo Type 2c (CPV-2c) Isolated in Germany and Italy
_____ – CPV-2c first isolated in the US at the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab.
Incubation Period – _______ CPV-2 (2a&2b = ________)
- 20-90% Animals less than 6 mo. & less than 20lbs can have a higher morbidity
- 7-14 days; 4-6 days
- Oral/Nasal Route (primarily feces)
- bloody diarrhea
- Feline Panleukopenia
The Parvo incubation period to be _______ normally and as short as _____ occasionally, be aware that death can occur as early as ____ after onset of illness in dogs under 20lbs and is often associated with ________________.
- 7-14 days
- 4-6 days
- 2 days
- gram-negative sepsis or DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation – animal unable to distribute thrombocytes normally, so all platelets/thrombocytes go to one area leaving the rest of the body devoid of clotting elements), or both.
Canine parvovirus is a common cause of infectious enteritis in the dog. The disease is caused by a single-stranded, __________ virus and is closely related to the virus that causes __________.
- non-enveloped DNA
- feline panleukopenia (feline distemper).
The Parvo virus is one of the most resistant viruses known, often surviving for months/years in contaminated environments. Type 2 Isolated in _____ (Type 1 having appeared first in ____), it was associated with the outbreak of hemorrhagic enteritis during the late seventies caused by the _________.
Canine Parvo virus CPV-1, CPV-2a, and 2b have been reported in _________.
CPV-2c has been reported in ___________.
CPV-2c is now found in ___ states in the US. Includes TX
- virtually all countries throughout the world
- North America, South America, Asia, Europe, as well as Australia
CPV of all types divide and multiply in the ____.
CPV-2c does not react to ____ field test readily like the other strains; however they can if tested more than once.
Post mortem for CPV-2c require not only a portion of the ________ but also ______.
CPV-2c can infect ____ causing vomiting.
_________ vaccine will protect cats from CPV-2c.
There are an additional __ strains of the strain CPV-2c; however only __ are lethal to the dog
- fat cells of the gastro-intestinal tract.
- small intestines (duodenum & jejunum); tongue
- Feline Panleukopenia
- 20; 3
List the Two commercial parvo vaccines in the US have been found to be effective in preventing CPV-2c.
There have been reports that _____ vaccines will protect against CPV-2c since they use the CPV strain 154.
- 1. Galaxy vaccines (CPV-2b) produces CPV-2c antibodies
- 2. Continuum vaccines (CPV strain 154)
- Sherring - Plough
Acute CPV-2 enteritis can be seen in dogs of ANY breed, age, or sex. List 7 animals that appear to have an increased risk.
Note: ALL Canidae are susceptible.
- pups bet 6 wks and 6 mo of age, esp if under 20lbs
- Doberman pinchers
- Labrador retrievers
- American Staffordshire terriers
- German shepherds
- Alaskan sled dogs
7 Common Symptoms of Parvovirus
- Pyrexia Fever normally around 104o F
- Lethargy and Anorexia
- Diarrhea – soft to watery with a distinctive odor and bloody orange to red color)
- Dehydration is mild even with emesis and diarrhea (#1 sign) - PCV = 60-70%
- Lack of Appetite
- Pronounced Leukopenia - clinically WBC = 2,000 (#1 clinical sign)
What is the #1 symptom of canine parvovirus? What is the #1 clinical sign?
- leukopenia WBC = 2,000
CPV-2 infection has been associated with two tissues:
List 2 other areas that can also be affected.
- 1. GI tract (puppies and older animals)
- 2. Myocardium, (mainly puppies under 3 months of age)
- skin and nervous tissue can also be affected
Although myocarditis is not as common as GI tract infections CPV-2 myocarditis can develop from __________ or in pups younger than ______. All pups in the litter are affected, and will usually die or succumb after a short episode of dyspnea, crying, and retching. Myocarditis has been known to present itself as ___________ in a pup or may appear weeks or months later as a cause of death in the dog.
- infection in-utero; 8 weeks
- congestive heart failure
One of the first actions of the canine parvovirus is to ____________ in the bone marrow. This virus essentially turns the ________ off before making its deadly way to the _____________.
- inhibit white blood cell division
- immune system
- gastrointestinal tract
Since __% of the puppies maternal antibodies come from transplacental transfer while __% is absorbed from the colostrum, it is essential that all puppies nurse during the first _______.
What is the IDEXX Parvo test kit called
Probe-Canine Parvovirus Antigen test kit
List 4 ways to Diagnose Parvo
- a. Positive fecal ELISA test (CPV-2a & 2b) thru 1.) CITE or 2.) IDEXX (Probe-Canine Parvovirus Antigen test kit) Note: may have to test more than once for CPV2c
- b. CBC: leukopenia with lymphopenia & neutropenia and possible high PCV
- c. Fecal examination to rule out hook worms
- d. Serology – high titer 1 (antibody):10,000 (antigens) for CPV
Parvo has been seen in ________ animals and in animals whose owners _____________.
- older vaccinated
- buy vaccines at the co-op.
The ____________ has become the most common test for parvovirus in canines. This test is very sensitive in its ability to detect the actual presence of the virus in the stool. What can cause a negative test result?
- Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay (ELISA)
- recent vaccination with a modified live virus could interfere with the test results; and
- puppies could be infected but no longer shed the virus in the stool.
A large amount of virus can be found in the feces and tissues during the acute viremic period; however, detectable parvovirus usually disappears from the feces in about ________.
Some other test now being used through State Labs are
- 7 – 9 days
- direct and indirect fluorescent antibody methods, electron microscopy, antibody titers, tissues cultures, etc.
List Five avenues for support for parvo:
- 1. IV fluids – to rehydrate the vomiting and diarrhea lactated ringers or saline (0.9%) for dehydration
- 2. Antibiotics – to prevent secondary infection due to the reduced WBC count - any with anti-viral effects – for suppressed immune system – low WBC count
- 3. antiemetic drugs – control the vomiting and nausea – Centrun or Cerenia
- 4. pain killers like Banamine not approved for dogs (approved for equine only) – Dr. Y has used for years - 1ml p/10lbs
- 5. withhold food and water – preventing agitation of the GI tract. Can give something mild like cottage cheese that won’t upset the GI tract.
Preventatives of Parvo -
2 rule approach:
- 1. minimize exposure
- 2. vaccination
______ immunity results from absorption of maternal antibodies following ingestion of 1st milk (colostrum) during the 1st 24-48 hours of birth. In 48 hours titers on parvo and the nursing puppies is equal to that of the bitch
Titers greater than ______ appear to prevent infection.
New Recommendations When Vaccinating for Parvo
Large Breeds (75 pounds up) – start parvo at ____ of age and continue every two to three weeks until 16-20 weeks of age.
Middle Breeds (20-75 pounds) - start parvo at ____ of age and continue every two to three weeks until 16-20 weeks of age.
Small Breeds (less than 20 pounds) – start parvo at ____ of age and continue every two to three weeks until 16-20 weeks of age.
In a typical vaccine program, puppies should be vaccinated for CPV at 3 wks intervals starting as early as ______ of age (depending upon the overall size of the adult animal) and continuing up to _______.
why so long?
- 4-6 wks
- 18-22 wks of age
- because of the extended maternal immunity
Both an ____________ form of CPV vaccine is available. According to many authorities vaccines should include a modified live attenuated CPV-2 strain, this because the
- inactivated (killed) and a modified live
- immunity develops more rapidly and has a longer duration in dogs following vaccination of modified live vaccines compared to the killed product
Modified live vaccine is better for parvo because they have a
higher titer and it has a tendency to overcome the maternal immunity and produce increased antibody levels
Why Continue Vaccinations Longer for Parvo Vaccines Than Others?
The immune system response of puppies following vaccination depends on the amount of maternal antibodies present, high levels of antibodies block the immune response from exposure or vaccination as the puppy ages the level of maternal antibodies decrease until the puppy becomes susceptible to canine parvo infection. Unfortunately levels of maternal antibodies which are too low to prevent infection with virulence, canine parvovirus may still be high enough to block the response to vaccinations.
The duration of immunity of dogs following survival of an infection w/virulent canine parvovirus (CPV) is generally believed to be long lived. Dogs that has recovered from natural infection and held in isolation maintained CPV high titers for about ____ and were resistant to subsequent virulent challenges around ____ and ____ after recovery - but were not immune for life as with distemper virus recoveries
- 20 months
- 12- 20
- 24 months
List one virus that following recovery the animal is immune for life
What Information (6) should you share with Clients about Parvo - same for coronavirus (CCV)
- 1. Make sure you have your new puppy vaccinated on a proper schedule.
- 2. Many puppies can survive parvovirus infection with proper treatment. Some clinics now report an 80% to 90% success rate treated early.
- 3. Treatment may be expensive and require a hospital stay of several weeks.
- 4. Older dogs in the house may become infected.
- 5. The virus can survive long term in environment.
- 6. Keep puppies free of intestinal parasites.
Husbandry for Parvo
Diluted ___________ with water should be applied to tolerable surfaces or used as a dip for animals leaving isolation facilities. Bleach should be added to washing of all utensils and bedding. The solutions require a ____ minimum exposure time. The shedding period is so short (under ________ following the onset of illness) that the environment is of major concern. The parvo virus (like many non-enveloped viruses) can persist for months to years away from __________.
- household bleach (1:30)
- 4 to 5 days
- sunlight and disinfectants
According to ________, studies have failed to find any evidence of human infection by CPV-2, even among kennel workers in heavily contaminated premises.
Remember _____ apparently can act as passive transport (mechanical vectors) vehicles for the virus between dogs. (fomites)
Note: According to the CDC, __% of diagnosed AIDS patients carry canine parvo antibodies
- Dr. Hoskins (Internal Medicine Diplomat)
Canine Coronavirus Enteritis
____ (not ____like parvo) virus (CCV)
Morbidity is ____ but Mortality is ____.
Treatment for CPV and CCV –
- RNA; DNA
- Mutation of Feline Corona or TGE (Transmissible Gastroenteritis) TGE 1st noted in pigs
- Clinical Signs: leukopenia & dehydration (#1 clinical sign)
- Morbidity is low/high but Mortality is low.
- Treatment for CPV and CCV – Supportive
- # x % dehydration x 500 = mL – wt of animal in lbs. x % dehydration
- 4% (.04) loss of skin turgidity
- 7% (.07), loss of skin turgidity and sunken eyes
- 10% (.10) = loss of skin turgidity, sunken eyes and animal in lateral recumbency (on side)
CCV is a member of the
Different coronavirus of this family infect a large number of species including
- humans, cattle, swine, dogs, cats, horses, poultry, rats and mice
________ = watery bloody diarrhea
Why is antibiotics not as imperative with Coronavirus (CCV) as with Parvovirus (CPV)?
Because the leukopenia is not as bad with CCV so you have WBCs as defense and with Parvovirus the virus attacks the WBCs
In ____, a CCV was isolated from feces of _____ that were suffering from enteritis. Incubation period =
- military dogs
- 1-4 days
Transmission of coronavirus (CCV) is through
fecal contamination of the environment
_______ are believed to be common and a significant source of the virus. Like parvo, the canine coronavirus rapidly reproduces within epithelial cells, accumulates in the cytoplasm on the intestinal cells. Again it approaches ____________________.
- Chronic carriers
- fat cells & simple columnar cells
Clinical Signs of Coronavirus (CCV)
- Diarrhea – clots of blood in bloody diarrhea
- Occasional vomiting but not a persistent sign
- *Dehydration is basically the primary clinical sign PCV is 70% not 55%
What is the main treatment for coronavirus (CCV)?
10lb dog with 7% dehydration and he is unable to drink, vomiting – unable to maintain fluids so we need to give fluids for the next 10 hours.
- # x% dehydration x 500 = ___ mL replacement. If not drinking, figure in maintenance replacement during rehydration therapy 1ML p/lb p/hr (20lbs or higher)/2mL p/lb p/hr (under 20lbs)
- 10 X .07 X 500 = 350 mL (replacement)
- 10lb dog X 2mL p/lb p/hr 2X10= 20 mL x 10hrs = 200 mL (maintenance)
- 350 + 200 = 550 mL
A 50 lb dog was 7% dehydrated with vomiting and diarrhea. The animal had lack of skin turgidity. We are replacing this dog with 1.75 Liters over 12 hr fluid drip
have to add 600 because he cannot drink, so add = 1750 (50 X .07 X 500) + 600 (1 X 50 X 12) = 2350 mL over 12 hrs. If you put ice cubes in a bowl to keep dog happy – you are not giving fluids, you still have to figure in maintenance.
Tentative DX of
- CPV= leukopenia w/watery bloody diarrhea & possible vomiting
- CCV = dehydration w/clotting bloody diarrhea & possible vomiting
What are the 2 types of coronavirus?
enteric & respiratory
Canine rotavirus is an ___ virus which will persist for prolonged periods in the environment. It is recognized as an important enteric pathogen of some animal species and in people. Sometimes it is referred to as a _____. Currently rotavirus is classified as distinct members of the Family ________. Canine Rotavirus is how it is listed under pathologies.
Necrosis of the rotavirus infected cell is most pronounced _____ after oral infection. Clinical signs results primarily from villous _______, leading to a mild to moderate ______________
- 18-48 hours
- atrophy (along the simple columnar cells that line the digestive tract)
- maldigestion and malabsorption w/diarrhea where the food is not digested properly
Treatment for canine rotaviruas is
supportive. Fluids for diarrhea to replace the fluids lost. These dogs can normally continue to drink on their own, so you normally don’t have maintenance replacement.
Is there a vaccine for canine rotavirus?
How do you clinically diagnose?
- No vaccine is available for this virus, but some feel that vaccination for CCV and CPV may be of help in preventing the effects of the Rotavirus in the new born.
- Diagnosis does exist with ELISA systems available to private clinics.
Life Span of Irish Setter
12 –14 years
Canine Distemper virus (CDV) is a member of the Genus _________ of the Family _________ and is closely related to other viruses.
The CDV is an ___ construction, closely related to _________, CDV is an acute or subacute, contagious viral disease of
- measles in humans
- dogs and other omnivores and some carnivores.
List 3 disease in dogs with a high percentage of fatalities
- Canine Distemper (now ranks #3).
CDV is susceptible to _______ although ___________ help it from activation. Extreme susceptibility to heat & drying it is destroyed by temperatures greater than
- ultraviolet light
- protein and antioxidants
- 50 – 60o C for about 30 minutes
What is the the etiology of canine distemper?
List 4 Families and 1 species who are effected by Canine Distemper?
- Canidae – dog, fox, wolf and coyote
- Mustelidae – weasel, mink, skunk, badger, ferret
- Procyonidae – kinkajou, coatimundi, red panda, raccoon
- Felidae – cat, lion, leopard, tiger
- CDV is also seen in seals.
Who 1st discovered the canine distemper virus?
- Carre – 1st isolated in 1905
- Laidlaw & Dunkin – 1920
CDV Epidemiology - The natural host range includes all animals of the:
Candidae, Mustelidae, Felidae & Procyonidae.
What vaccine was once used in puppies to boost immunity?
What wild animal are susceptible to canine distemper (paramyxovirus) and feline distemper/canine parvo (parvovirus), and require two injections annually?
Canine Distemper virus (CDV) Virus shedding occurs by ______ post infection with CDV is most abundant in respiratory exudate and thus is commonly spread by _______ or droplet exposure; however it can be isolated from most other body tissue and secretions including urine. Virus can be excreted up to _______ post infection.
Attenuated CD vaccine does not spread the disease from dog to dog. Young dogs become susceptible to CDV when they lose their maternal antibodies between ________ of age but have been known to maintain levels of protection up to ______.
What is Canine distemper in older dogs called?
Old dog encephalitis
CDV Pathogenesis - Most believe there is seasonal prevalence, _________ being the peak times; however, distemper is reported in ______ of the year especially in _____.
- Spring AND Fall
- all 12 months
During natural exposure, CDV spreads ________ and contacts epithelium of the ___.
- aerosol droplets
- upper respiratory tract
Dogs with relatively good cell-mediated immunoresponsive systems will develop antibodies at _______ and the Distemper virus will be cleared from most body tissues as antibody titers increase.
Explain the Diphasic Curve
Incubation period at 102o F is where the animal breaths in the aerosol that lasts apx. 4-6 days. Then the temperature jumps to 105o F and the animal starts showing upper respiratory problems (runny nose, runny eyes, coughing, gagging). In about a week the temperature drops back down to 102o F dog appears to be back to normal eating, drinking again – BUT the virus has moved from the URI into the lymphatics and is spreading to the nervous system. Once it reaches the nervous system, the temperature goes back up apx. 103.5o F and the animal stops eating and drinking again. Animal starts developing injury to the brain matter and virus starts moving along the spinal cord which leads to chorea and “chewing gum fits” where animals has a seizures at interval time periods (apx 10 mins).
List symptoms of Phase 1 Canine Distemper
Cold symptoms like - pyrexia, cough, mucopurulent nasal and ocular discharge, pneumonia, anorexia, vomiting & diarrhea, dehydration, Eye lesions & ataxia.
List Terms Associated with Distemper Stage 2 Neurological and Post recovery stage
- Chorea (convulsions)
- Tic (neurological remains)
- hyperkeratosis of foot pads (Hard pads)
- Hyperreflective tapetum or
- Enamel hypoplasia
- Impetigo of the abdomen in puppies
Viral Isolation: here viruses are isolated from _____________ and from __________ from dogs with acute encephalitis stages
- nasal or conjunctival swabs
- cerebrospinal fluid
Inclusion Bodies: intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies are located from preparations of _________ – done by ___________.
- conjunctival or vaginal tissues
- skin scraping and staining slide.
Fluorescent Antibody Test – to detect the virus in epithelial cells collected from ________ Done by ____.
5 ways to Diagnose Canine Distemper
- 1. Viral Isolation: here viruses are isolated from nasal or conjunctival swabs and from cerebrospinal fluid from dogs with acute encephalitis stages
- 2. Inclusion Bodies: intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies are located from preparations of conjunctival or vaginal tissues – done by skin scraping and staining slide.
- 3. Physical examination and clinical signs
- 4. Fluorescent Antibody Test – to detect the virus in epithelial cells collected from mucous membranes Done by TVML
- 5. Serology: rising titers in serum samples
Why do most veterinarians institute treatment based solely on clinical signs?
ELISA test is available and can be done in the clinic – doesn’t require sending it off. It takes a while to get the results back and the animal could be dead by the time you get the results back.
- Coyote, dingo, raccoon dog, wolf, fox
- Ferret, marten, mink, otter, skunk, wolverine, badger, weasel
- Coatimundi, kinkajou, raccoon, red panda
- Binturong, fossa, linsand, civet
- Mongoose, meerkat
- Cheetah, lion, jaguar, margay, ocelot, tiger, leopard
Canine Distemper Information for Clients
- 1. A good vaccination program for all dogs is the only prevention.
- 2. The prognosis is guarded especially if neurologic signs are present.
- 3. CDV is the most common cause of seizures in dogs less than 6 months of age.
- 4. Neurologic signs may appear weeks to years after the actual infection.
Chronic distemper encephalitis (ODE), is a condition often marked by __ may occur in adult dogs without a history of signs related to systemic canine distemper. When they autopsy these dogs they find _________.
- ataxia, compulsive movements such a head pressing or continual pacing, and incoordinated hypermetria
_______ do not seem to occur with ODE. Although canine distemper antigen has been detected in the brain of dogs with ODE. ODE is not infectious.
Convulsions and neuromuscular twitching (chorea)
What are the most common research dogs in this country?
What is the difference between Upper Respiratory and Lower Respiratory
anything above the carina is upper respiratory and below the carina is lower respiratory
where the trachea bifurcates is called the
List 4 Canine Viral Respiratory Diseases of the Lower Respiratory Tract
- 1. Canine Herpesvirus & Reovirus 1
- 2. Canine Adenovirus Infection
- 3. Canine Parainfluenza CpiV2 Formally SV-5
- 4. Canine Corona virus (new kid on block)
Infectious Canine Hepatitis (ICH)
- Etiology: Canine Adenovirus Type 1
- Attack Location: Liver Cells
- Side Effect: Corneal Edema (blue eyes)
Canine Adenovirus Type 2 (CAV 2)
Why vaccinate with CAV2 only and not add CAV1 with the regimen?
Company that 1st developed the CAV2 vaccine was __________.
- 1. CAV-2 protects dogs completely against inoculation with lethal doses of both CAV - Type 1 & CAV - Type 2;
- 2. CAV -2 prevents the antibody reaction from CAV1 causing corneal edema
Where does the CAV-1 virus replicate?
CAV - Type 1 known as _____
10 days post infection we find it in the ____
How is it passed and for how long is it shed?
- in the parenchymal cells (functional hepatic cells) of the liver.
- kidneys and urine
- in urine for 6 - 9 months contaminating ponds and other water ways that dogs urinate
Parvo passed in
Corona passed in
Hepatitis passed in
Anterior uveitis involves inflammation in what 3 areas?
sclera, cornea & iris
Anterior uveitis is a result of what type of reaction?
antibody/antigen reaction. Antigen = CAV-Type 1 & Antibody is one of the IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE.
List 4 signs/symptoms of Infectious Canine Hepatitis
- 1. congestion of mucus membranes
- 2. severe depression
- 3. marked leukopenia,
- 4. prolonged bleeding
Why do you have prolonged bleeding with Canine Hepatitis?
hepatitis interferes with the liver where many of the 10 clotting factors originate and are involved in normal clotting. Damaged liver results in problems with clotting.
_________ is directly correlated with severity of illness in Canine Hepatitis. _________ signs are not seen in dogs with Infectious Canine Hepatitis (ICH) ____; however, ______ has been recovered from dogs with signs of infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough).
- clotting time;
- Canine Adenovirus - Type 1 (CAV-1)
List the four primary causes of tracheal bronchitis
- Corona, and
What is the best treatment for trachea bronchitis?
What is a concurrent disease often associated with this illness?
- Rest for a couple of weeks
- heart disease
What is the new type of hepatitis distinct from ICH and CAV-2?
What is the etiology?
- Canine Acidophil Cell Hepatitis (CACH)
- Suspected to be a virus, but it has yet to be isolated and positively identified.
Terminal clinical signs of Canine Acidophil Cell Hepatitis (CACH) include
The only laboratory abnormalities include
Where was it 1st reported?
- abdominal distention with ascites, episodes of seizures (due to liver involvement), mental status anomalies and coma
- episodic increases in ALT and ALP
- Great Britain
- alanine aminotransferase
- alkaline phosphatase
- Blood Urea Nitrogen
The Kennel Cough Complex includes what 4 etiologies?
- 1. Bordetella bronchiseptica (bacteria)
- 2. Canine Adenovirus Type 2
- 3. Canine Corona virus
- 4. Parainfluenza Virus CpiV-2
- 3 viruses and 1 bacteria
- D is for Distemper - a paramyxovirus;
- H is for hepatitis, but you are immunizing for CAV-1 (hepatitis) and CVA2 (kennel cough) – but we only use CAV2,
- L is for Leptospirosis - a bacteria
- P is for parainfluenza CpiV-2
- P is for Parvo
- Bb is for Bordetella bronchiseptica
This virus like the CAV-2 virus is highly contagious _____ infection in dogs. CPiV2 has been reported as the most common virus isolated from the respiratory tract of dogs with ________. CPiV-2 is a single stranded ____ virus belonging to the family _________ and is closely related to the _______.
- Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (ITB)
- simian virus 5
The CPiV-2 virus replicates in the _________ affecting the locomotive structure, ______.
- epithelium of the respiratory tract
Viral Induced Tracheobronchitis or Laryngotracheitis is also known as
What should we tell the clients about Viral Induced Tracheobronchitis or Laryngotracheitis?
- 1. It is self-limiting and will take 2-3 wks.
- 2. Treatment is to treat symptoms. (cough syrup)
- 3. No Exercise for 2-3 weeks
- 4. In the future, make sure to vaccinate for lower respiratory diseases 2-3 weeks prior to boarding to prevent.
Lower Respiratory tract disease name and etiologies
Upper Respiratory tract disease name and etiologies
- Infectious Tracheobronchitis (ITB); Parainfluenza Virus/CPiV-2 and Bordetella bronchiseptica
- Infectious Laryngotracheitis; Canine Adenovirus Type 2/CAV-2 and lesser CAV-1
What are 3 synonyms for Infectious Tracheobronchitis or Laryngotracheitis?
- “kennel cough,”
- “canine cough,” and
- “canine croup.”
Why did they previous believe that B. bronchiseptica could not be included (nasal or parenteral vaccine) and it is one of the top four primary causes of Tracheal Bronchitis in the canine?
They believed that it was contraindicated to mix a bacteria (bacterin) with a virus in a single vial either nasal or parenterally
Bordetella disease is due to a __________ caused by ___________. The reaction in animals is similar to human ________ a respiratory pro-inflammation caused by _____________.
- pro-inflammation; Bordetella bronchiseptica
- “Whooping Cough”; B. pertusses
Nasal vaccine for Bordetella bronchiseptica produces an ____ response.
Parenteral injections produces a ___ response.
___ prevents attachment of Bordetella bronchiseptica to the mucous layers of nasal, pharynx and trachea
Canine Herpesvirus and Reovirus Type 1 - Although serological surveys in dogs have ranged from ___% to as high as ___% in some kennels, clinical disease may not be evident with the reovirus or the herpesvirus. Herpes is more common – one of the 11 causes of kennel cough
List 4 ways newborn puppies can acquire Canine Herpes Virus (CHV) infection
- in utero from passage through the birth canal
- from contact with infected litter mates
- from oronasal secretions of the dam or
- from fomites
Equine herpes virus that is almost identical to Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis is the
Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis in cats is an ____ herpes virus
Causes _______ in cats
Problems associated with herpes virus are
- Upper Respiratory and/or urogenital with abortions and failed pregnancy
What type of animals are susceptible to Rabies (viral-induced neurologic disease)?
The virus is spread through the _______ and may enter the body through _________.
Doesn’t affect _______
- all warm blooded animals
- saliva; open wounds or bites.
- birds and reptiles
In Harris County rabies was last documented in a dog in ____ and a cat in ___ . However rabies continues to be enzootic in our __________ population.
List 2 the most common sources for rabies in TX today
The ___ makes up ____% of all cases in Harris County.
Which species remains the most important source for human exposure to rabies?
domestic dogs and cats
2 facts as to why there are more cases of rabies reported in cats than dogs today
- 1) there are more cats owed as pets and
- 2) only a small portion of cats are vaccinated.
According to Eli Lilly in North America __% of all dogs that come in veterinary clinics are registered - Only __% of cats are registered.
List in order of frequency the 4 most frequently reported rabid wildlife species.
What is the most frequent in TX (Harris County)
- 1. Raccoons (36.5%)
- 2. skunks (23.5%),
- 3. bats (23.2%), and
- 4. foxes
In Harris County what are 3 primary most tested animals for rabies?
bats, cats and dogs
When and where was the last reported human case of rabies in Harris County.
Reservoir/Carrier was a
- May of 2006, Humble, TX
Descriptions of rabies has been found in writings as early as ________.
Where did the first virus begin and where did it spread?
It is believed that rabies was brought to the United States through _______.
What year and where was the first reported case of rabies in this country?
- 500 B.C
- Africa then spread to Europe and then Asia.
- European colonization
- 1753 in Virginia
Nickname for rabies is _________ and reason it is nicknames this?
- rabies caused the jaw to fix and saliva to flow out
What was the 1st and 2nd vaccine ever developed?
- 1st Anthrax
- 2nd Fowl Cholera
Pasteur embarked on a study of the rabies out-breaking raging in the French Streets. He obtained “street” virus from the _____ of rabid animals. Using ________, he was able to pass the virus through the brain tissue making it less virulent after each passage (total of 3) until it was safe to inject into the dogs.
- rabbit brain tissue
What year did Pasteur demonstrate the 1st successful immunization for rabies for animals?
When was the treatment of rabies used on a human boy?
What was the previous treatment regimen for injections for rabies?
How many injections are required today?
- 13-14 painful injections in the stomach
Viral Encephalitis is Always Fatal to what animals?
Which animals appear to be resistant
Viral Encephalitis should really be called _______ and why?
- Any Warm Blooded Animal
- Viral Encephalomyelitis because it affects the spinal cord
What is the Etiology of Rabies?
What usually kills the animal?
- Lyssavirus genus (Rhabdoviridae family)
- Hypoxia due to paralysis of the diaphragm resulting in inability to breathe
Dog-to-dog transmission is referred to as
Rabies in a dog as a result of a skunk is referred to as
- canine rabies
- skunk rabies in a dog.
Once introduced into the body rabies virus migrates through the ________ along the nerve pathways to the ______ and the ________. The virus is then transmitted to other mammalians through
- (blood) circulation
- CNS (brain and spinal cord)
- Salivary glands
- bites and contact of the open skin with saliva
3 avenues of transport are
- 1) circulation;
- 2) lymphatics;
- 3) nervous system.
1st references to rabies in Texas appeared in the mid-1800s from cowboys mentioning being attacked by ___________
The last skunk rabies epizootic in Texas occurred in
Gray fox rabies appeared in
When and where was the 1st case of domestic dog/coyote rabies
- rabid spotted skunks while sleeping on the ground
- North Central Texas from 1975 to 1985.
- Sabine County in 1946
- 1988; Starr County
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program that began in ____ for coyotes and ____ for gray foxes
What accounts for the majority of today’s human rabies cases exposed within the US.
How many dogs and cats test positive for rabies in Texas each year?
- 1995; 1996
- bats rabies
- 15 dogs and 15 cats
Along the eastern seaboard of the US, cats have become the most frequent rabid domestic animal (3 times more cats than dogs) because of the
spill over from the raccoon rabies epizootic in that area of the US.
When is “bat season” in this area?
late summer and early fall.
Rabies Epidemiology: 3 Methods of Transmission
- a. Saliva - saliva from bite wound (primary) saliva is only way epizootically that it will be passed
- b. Inhalation – associated with bats
- c. Oral – consumption
Incubation Period for Rabies is
What are the 3 Clinical Forms of Rabies
- 1. Prodromal Stage – characterized by changes in behavior and at this stage people are at greatest risk of exposure. Descending
- paralysis. Change in personality/behavior because of the movement of the virus out of the blood and into the nervous system
- 2. Furious/Dumb/Excitatory Stage intermixed because it has reached the nervous system and it either causes the animal to act in a furious fighting mode or just sit and stare – dumb mode. It depends on what area of the brain the disease is in.
- 3. Paralytic stage - animal experiences an ascending paralysis of the hind limbs eventually leading to respiratory paralysis and death
4 ways to Diagnose Rabies
- 1. Clinical Signs
- 2. Fluorescent Antibody Test
- 3. Negri Body Demonstration usually use the hippocampus area of the brain and you see the black pepper like spots in the cells that’s called Negri bodies
- 4. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) can be done without having to cut off the head of the animal
Why is incubation period for rabies so long?
It depends on Dosage, Virulence and Route of the inoculation. During incubation period the animal appears normal
Stares or star gazing is also called _______.
Another thing that causes an animal to stare or star graze is ________ which is also a _____.
Difference between Tetanus and Rabies
- auras in epilepsy
- tetanus; descending paralysis
- 3rd eyelid folds back (prolapsed) with tetanus. In Rabies the 3rd eyelid does not become paralyzed
The Rabies Prodromal Stage and the Excitatory Stage (furious/dumb rabies) is characterized by a ________ paralysis.
The Paralytic Stage which is characterized by an _________ paralysis of the hind limb eventually leading to respiratory paralysis and death due to _________.
The time for all 3 stages may be as short as
- ascending; hypoxia
- 1 week or less
List 2 agencies on Tx that you can call Concerning TX Rabies Rules
- Austin – Bureau of Laboratories – Tx Dept of Health – Austin TX
- Houston – City of Houston Health and Human Services
Most of the vaccines used today contain an inactivated rabies virus from tissue cultures. Before the vaccination of rabies in dogs began in the _______, there were about _____ human cases reported each year in Texas. By ____, human cases had decline to ________ each year in the state of Texas.
Rabies vaccines are available for what 5 animals?
dogs, cats, horses, cattle, and sheep
Which group of animals might a veterinarian recommend the annual rabies vaccine?
outdoor animals especially in areas with a high incidence of rabies
What is the Harris County Law regarding rabies
Harris county requires current rabies vaccination of all dogs and cats 3 months of age and older, and their second rabies vaccine within 12 months of their first rabies vaccine regardless of the animal’s age and the vaccine used.
Wild animals are the main cause of rabies in domestic animals. After several rabies epizootics in Texas in the _______, the Texas Department of health worked with Texas A&M Kingsville to develop the oral rabies vaccination program. This program involves _____________.
- early 1990s
- dropping a oral rabies vaccine for free-roaming coyotes and foxes to ingest
Animal rabies vaccine can only be sold or distributed to who?
Veterinarians cannot legally sell vaccine to _____.
Issuing veterinarian must ___ all certificates
- veterinarians legally in the State of TX
- their clients
- personally sign
The original Rule 573.51 Rabies Control required the vet or clinic to retain a readily retrievable copy of the certificate for a period of not less than _____ from the date of issuance. However in 2008 this was changed to ___________.
- five years
- not less than two years after the revaccination due date.
______ – a person or persons employed by HCPHES VPH (Harris County Public Health & Environmental Services through the Veterinary Public Health Division) to enforce county regulations.
Animal Control Officers
HCPHES VPH stands for
Harris County Public Health & Environmental Services through the Veterinary Public Health Division
_________ – a facility that keeps or legally impounds stray, homeless, abandoned or unwanted animals
_______ – acts by an animal that cause a person bodily injury
_____ – any abrasion, scratch, puncture, tear or piercing of the skin causes bleeding and is caused by or suspected of being caused by an animal
___________ – any dog or cat or other animal which has been bitten, has fought with or has consorted with an animal known or suspected to have rabies showing symptoms.
Exposed to rabies
What is the treatment for People bitten by rabid animals?
anti-rabies treatment should be administered in all cases of known or uncertain exposure.
Facility housing for Animals in Rabies Quarantine must provide
- a. absolute security
- b. isolation (no nose to nose)
- c. daily observation
What are 3 locations that can be used for Rabies Quarantine?
- a. animal shelter approved by Texas Department of Health (TDH)
- b. veterinary clinic operated by licensed Veterinarian.
- c. owner’s home if approved by Local Health Authority (LHA)
Who has the authority to grant home quarantine?
The Local Rabies Control Authority (LRCA)
What 4 criteria must be met in order for the LRCA to permit home quarantine
- 1. secure enclosure approved by LRCA,
- 2. animal currently vaccinated,
- 3. veterinarian or the local control authority must observe the animal on the first and the last day of quarantine, and
- 4. the animal must not be a stray at the time of the potential exposure.
What Information (5) do you tell clients about rabies.
- 1. Well vaccinated animals create a buffer zone against human infection.
- 2. Never handle wild animals that appear tame or friendly.
- 3. Avoid promoting visitation of wild animals by not leaving food out for them.
- 4. Avoid freezing animal tissue and/or injury to the brain when euthanizing a suspect. Put in refrigerator.
- 5. If your veterinarian vaccinated pet bites a person, it must be quarantined for 10 days. Contact the local Epidemiologist in your area.
What happens when a Known Rabid Animal bites an Animal Not Currently Vaccinated
Livestock Not currently/legally vaccinated
Dogs, cats and ferrets should be
- euthanized or vaccinated and isolated
If you vaccinate for rabies: Administer ___ rabies vaccine immediately and place in strict isolation for ____, giving booster vaccine during the ______ weeks of isolation.
What does PEP stand for
post exposure prophylaxis
When a Known Rabid Animal Bites a Currently Vaccinated Animal
The animal should be vaccinated with
Strict isolation for
Livestock can simply be observed, but the owner and the vet of record should be easy access to the animals for observation and disposition for _____. Livestock includes horses
- 1.0 mL of rabies vaccine immediately
- 45 days
- 45 days
Harris County defines currently vaccinated as
- 1. If the animal has been vaccinated within the last 12 months OR
- 2. If the animal has received 2 rabies vaccines within 12 month intervals of each other.
- The timing of the most recent vaccination must have been given in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
What steps should be taken When an Animal Bites a Person
- PEP (post exposure prophylaxis) Procedures.
- a. Identify and confine the biting dog or cat for observation
- b. While wearing gloves, wash the wound with soap and hot water immediately
- c. Call the family physician. If you cannot reach your personal physician go to the emergency room.
List 7 Low Risk animals for rabies
List 5 High Risk Rabies – most common in US
- Hamster, Guinea Pig, Rat, Mice, Gerbil, Rabbit, opossum
- Bat, raccoon, skunk, Fox, Coyote and other wild carnivores
Who is In-charge in Rabies Cases and what do they do?
- “Local Health Authority” (LHA)
- enforce the Rabies Control Act of Texas Health and Safety Code, including the Rules of the TX Board of Health and to enforce the local ordinances and/or rules pertaining to animal control
- investigate animal bites and for the proper management of the biting animal.
What Happens to the Animal that Bites a Person
Dogs & cats vaccinated –
Dogs & cats Not Vaccine –
- quarantine for 10 days
- euthanize or vaccinate and isolate for 90 days with boosters at 3 and 8 weeks
If the animal is to be quarantined the 10 day observation period begins when?
on the day the bite occurred.
The owned dogs or cats may not be euthanized until the ________ . If the dog or cat was infected at the time of the bite, signs of rabies in the animal will usually follow rather quickly and certainly within ___. If symptoms of rabies appear who do you notify?
- 1st clinical signs of rabies appear
- 10 days
- the physician consulted at the time of the attack
List 5 scenarios where Rabies testing of the bat is recommended
- 1. Bat crash lands into a person or pet and makes skin contact.
- 2. Bat is found inside a residence.
- 3. Bat is found in a room with a child or incapacitated person.
- 4. Bat is found in an area where a pet has had unsupervised access.
- 5. A pet is found with a bat.
What is the Texas Rabies Law?
The rabies vaccination must be given by a licensed veterinarian (or under the direct supervision) for animals between 3 months of age - but before 4 months of age. A 2nd rabies vaccination must be given within 12 months of the initial vaccination. Subsequent rabies vaccinations maybe be given on 1 year or 3 year intervals according the to the manufactures guidelines.