devpsych

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misss_berry
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23453
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devpsych
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2010-06-14 14:39:27
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developmental psychology
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developmental psychology flashcards
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  1. At what age do children generally undergo a sudden explosion in language acquisition?
    Two years old
  2. What are the 3 major issues in developmental psychology?
    1. Nature vs nuture 2. Continuity vs discontinuity 3. Domain general vs domain specific
  3. Type of study which takes groups of people of different ages, and compare in terms of their group performance on the variable of interest
    Cross sectional design
  4. Type of study which tracks the ability of different individuals over time, with repeated measures
    Longitudinal design
  5. Type of study which starts with groups of different ages and then follows up on these people and tests them and re-tests them
    Longitudinal sequential designs
  6. Type of study which involves testing the same children repeatedly over a short period of time to study the impact of an intervention or education programme
    microgenetic design
  7. type of study prone to practice effects, historical event effects, selective sampling and attrition
    longitudinal design
  8. type of study prone to cohort effects, and loss of interesting individual results due to averaging
    cross sectional design
  9. what you can be said to have when you understand the concept that objects still exist even when they can't be directly perceived
    object permanence
  10. According to Piaget, at what age does object permanence gradually occur
    18months-2yrs
  11. At what age do babies typically display the A not B error of stage 4?
    8-12months
  12. Which factors other than object permanence, have been shown to affect babies ability to avoid the A not B error?
    short-term memory and spatial-location memory
  13. Contempory methods for studying infant cognition involve measuring certain responses.. What are these?
    physiological responses, sucking rate, facial gestures, simple motor responses, visual preference and attention
  14. a popular method for measuring visual attention in babies?
    habituation/dishabituation
  15. What was the youngest age that babies were shown to express surprise at unexpected displays of impossible events such as the moving screen task?
    5months
  16. Which principle says that babies learn concepts according to their experience with the environment?
    generalised learning principle
  17. What is the theory proposed by Baillargeon that says that babies brains are already prepared in some way for learning about the correct ways in which objects in the world behave?
    specialised learning system
  18. What was the type of study in which Baillargeon found the best evidence for her theory of specialised learning systems by showing that even after hundreds of trials it is very dificult to habituate 5month olds to events which violate basic physical principles?
    the study of support relationships
  19. Thread-like structures which contain DNA, and exist in every cell?
    chromosomes
  20. A single cell formed by the fertilisation of an ovum by a sperm (and containing 46 chromosomes)?
    zygote
  21. How many allele's does each gene contain?
    two
  22. What is the term that desribes a gene with two allele's that are the same?
    homozygous
  23. What is the term that desribes a gene with two allele's that are different?
    heterozygous
  24. the genetic make-up of an individual?
    genotype
  25. the way the genotype expresses itself as a characteristic (physical or behavioural) of the individual?
    phenotype
  26. What are the two factors which may interact with, and affect the way a particular gene variation is expressed?
    environment and also other genes
  27. What is the first prenatal period, and when does it occur?
    germinal period (0-14 days)
  28. What is the second prenatal period, and when does it occur?
    embryonic period (3-8wks)
  29. what is the third prenatal period, and when does it occur?
    fetal period (9-38wks)
  30. what are the changes that occur in the embryonic period?
    basic organs are formed and heart begins to beat
  31. what are the changes that occur in the germinal period?
    the zygot undergoes rapid cell multiplication and travels to the uterus as the blastocyst
  32. At what age does the fetus begin to respond to light and other things outside the womb?
    around 6months
  33. At what age does the fetus become viable?
    around 22-28wks
  34. What does the term limited fetal viability refer to?
    the limited ability of the fetus to survive outside the womb
  35. What is the birth age at which babies are considered preterm?
    36wks and earlier
  36. what is the weight at which babies are considered to be of low birth weight?
    less than 2500grams
  37. what percentage of births in Australia are 37wks or earlier
    5-10%
  38. What are the groups of mothers at higher risk of delivering preterm babies?
  39. indigenous mothers, mothers under 20yrs, mothers over 40yrs, multiple births, first time mothers
  40. What are the factors that precit the outcome of preterm babies other than gestational age?
    birth weight, gender, multiple or singleton, use of steroids to promote lung development
  41. What are the interventions used to try to aid the development of preterm babies?
    containment and lighting in the NICU, kangaroo care, tactile-kinesthetic stimulation
  42. What kind of benefits does kangaroo care offer preterm babies?
    accelerates the development of regulatory processes
  43. What kind of benefits does tactile-kinesthetic stimulation offer preterm babies?
    stimulates growth and decreses stress behaviours
  44. What are the benefits that Tiffany Field found massage-therapy stimulation to offer to mothers with pre-natal depression who are trained to administer it to their babies?
    mother-baby bonding and reduction of depressive symptoms in mother
  45. What is the age range in which babies experience a rapid improvement in visual acuity (from being about 30-times worse than an adults and having difficulty distinguishing bright colours)?
    0-4months
  46. What types of things do babies prefer looking at?
    patterned over plain, complex over simple, face over any other, red over other colours
  47. At what age do the inner ear bones which support auditory function, form?
    around 24wks gestation
  48. Are babies auditory systems fully formed prior to birth?
    yes
  49. By what age do babies show a preference for mothers milk over a strangers?
    6wks
  50. do newborns show a prefence for sweet or salty tastes?
    sweet
  51. do 4month olds show a preference for sweet or salty tastes?
    salty
  52. what is the term for the reflex where babies will turn their head to feed if cheek is brushed?
    rooting reflex
  53. what is perceptual narrowing?
    the narrowing to discriminatory perception of stimuli that babies have experience with
  54. what is the term that refers to the narrowing of discriminatory perception to stimuli that babies have most experience with?
    perceptual narrowing
  55. By what age doe babies lose the ability to disciminate between faces of other species (like monkey faces)?
    by 9months
  56. At what age do babies begin to lose the ability to discriminate between faces of other human races?
    by 6months has reduced, by 9months is lost
  57. what other stimuli (apart from face recognition/discrimination), do babies show an increased ability to discriminate for?
    language sounds/phonemes
  58. how do researchers tell if babies can disriminate between different language phonemes?
    seeing if they respond to contrasting phonemes which are present in their own language, versus only in other languages
  59. up until what age can babies discriminate between language phonemes not distinguished in their own language?
    10 months
  60. how else can babies disciminate between different languages, other than by sound?
    visual input (how the language looks)
  61. At what age do babies begin to lose the intersensory perception discriminatory ability (discriminating language by visual input only), when brought up in a monolingual environment?
    8months
  62. What is the term for the process babies undergo where synapses responsible for coding certain stimuli are pruned away due to
    lack of experience?
    perceptual narrowing
  63. What is the limiting factor that decides whether you are able to maintain a baby's language discrimination by exposing them to another language?
    the exposure must be live, and social
  64. What is the issue with using differnt measurement methods for different aged babies in studying their memory development?
    comparing results as having measured the same thing (and not some other development)
  65. What is the best task for comparing results of memory development tasks across different aged babies?
    operant conditioning
  66. methods used as indexes of memory in newborns?
    visual behaviour and sucking
  67. A method used as index of memory in 3-6month olds?
    mobile conjugate reinforcement task
  68. A memory indexing method used in babies over 6months old?
    deferred imitation
  69. How long do 2month old infants remember the mobile conjugate reinforcement task for?
    24hrs
  70. How long do 3month old infants remember the mobile conjugate reinforcement task for?
    1wk
  71. How long do 6month old infants remember the mobile conjugate reinforcement task for?
    2wks
  72. How would you interpret a baby looking at a novel stimuli longer than a familiar stimuli in the visual paired-comparison task?
    that they remember the familiar stimuli
  73. How would you interpret a baby looking at a novel stimuli for the same amount of time as a familiar stimuli in the visual paired-comparison task?
    that the baby has forgotten the familiar stimuli
  74. What does the deferred imitation task require a baby to do in order to imitate actions they saw demonstrated 24hrs earlier?
    transform a mental representation into an imitated behaviour
  75. What is the general principle for encoding (regarding age), that you can apply across different memory tasks?
    older babies learn faster than younger babies
  76. What is the general principle for retention (regarding age), that you can apply across different memory tasks?
    older babies remember for longer than younger babies
  77. What is the general principle for retrieval (regarding age), that you can apply across different memory tasks?
    memory in older babies is less context specific than in younger babies
  78. What are the two equivilant operant conditioning tasks that can be used to compare learning and retention in younger babies (2-6months) and older babies (6-24months)?
    the mobile conjugate reinforcement task, and the train task
  79. What is the baseline ratio an index of?
    learning
  80. what is the retention ratio an index of?
    forgetting
  81. how is the baseline ratio calculated?
    # of kicks in the immediate test divided by # of kicks in the baseline period (immediate/baseline)
  82. how is the retention ratio calculated?
    # of kicks in the long-term retention test divided by # of kicks in the immediate test (retention/immediate)
  83. What does a baseline ration greater than 1 mean?
    baby has learned something about the contingency
  84. What does a baseline ratio of 1 mean?
    baby has learned nothing about the contingency, or simply forgot the initial learning
  85. What does a retention ratio of 1 mean?
    baby's retention of contingency learning is perfect
  86. What does a retention ratio of less than 1 mean?
    baby has forgotten something about the previous contingency learning
  87. Does the reactivation paradigm of the mobile conjugation reinforcement task show that teh 6month old baby's forgetting is a storage or a retrival problem?
    retrival because the context-specific reminder given after period of forgetting results in perfect retention in testing 24hrs later.
  88. What does the reactivation paradigm of the mobile conjugate reinforcement task tell us about the context limitations of memory of 6month old babies?
    that their memory is context-specific
  89. What are the time limitations of tv watching recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for children 2yrs or older?
    no more than 2hrs per day
  90. What are the time limitations of tv watching recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for children younger than 2yrs old?
    no tv at all
  91. Are infants able to use video/television as a learning medium, and why?
    No, because they have trouble converting 2d into 3d representation
  92. Is tv effective as an educational tool for children?
    only if the content is right, eg high language content
  93. Are children more or less likely to imitate aggressive behaviour seen on tv as compared to observed live?
    They are just as likely to imitate aggressive behaviour seen on tv
  94. How is the play of infants and toddlers affected by having TV playing in the background?
    shorter and less creative play
  95. Why might distractions to infant/toddlers play by background TV influence their later cognitive development?
    Because play is an index and predictor of later cognitive development
  96. What are two factors found in correlational studies to be associated with children who watch more than 2hrs of tv a day?
    1. less engagment in organised physical activity 2. lower likelihood to consume healthy snacks
  97. In a study in which children were shown either food or non-food ads prior to watching a short cartoon, which children were more likely to consume high sugar and/or high fat snacks?
    the children who watched the food ads
  98. In a study in which children were shown either food or non-food ads prior to watching a short cartoon, which children were more likely to consume a higher level of food in total and what was the finding regarding differences within body-type grouping?
    overweight and obese children cosumed the most, but within each body-type group the children who saw the food ads consumed more than those who saw the non-food ads
  99. In a study in which children were shown either food or non-food ads prior to watching a short cartoon, which children remember more of the food ads relative to non-food ads?
    the overweight and obese children
  100. When considering cognitive development, what type of thinking and representation is typical of preschool age children? and what is a basic example of this?
    symbolic repesentation, basic example is object permanence
  101. In what age range do children experience a language explosion which sees them adding an average of 10 words a day to their receptive vocabulary?
    1.5 to 10yrs old
  102. What are some examples of the types of changes children show with development of symbolic representation after 2-4yrs of age?
    language explosion, symbolic drawing and role-type/fantasy play
  103. What are the two types of cognitive limitations on children that Piaget identified as capturing the distinction between thinking and reasoning of younger (2-4yrs) & older (5-6yrs) children?
    1. perceived appearance vs inferred reality & 2. irreversibility vs irreversibility
  104. Name one example of the problem of perceived appearance vs inferred reality displayed by 2-4yr olds?
    conservation of volume & conservation of numbers
  105. Name 3 examples of the problem of reversibility vs irreversibility displayed by 2-4yr olds?
    egocentric thinking, the 3 mountains problem, collective monologue
  106. What are some of the problems with the studies which claim to show Piaget's 2 kinds of cognitive limitations on young children (perceived appearance & irreversibility)?
    the tasks may have set up performance barriers such as understanding the language used in the experiment questions & perceived demand characteristics of the questions
  107. Are young children able to show a greater understanding of number concepts (that what has previously been theorised by Piaget) once performance barriers are removed from testing situations?
    yes
  108. What are 4 important reasons for understanding the development of children's understanding of health & illness concepts?
    1. encouraging healthy behaviour in children; 2. understanding children's concepts of non-directly observable phenomena; 3. reducing treatment anxiety in ill children; 4. understanding children's concept of living vs non-living things
  109. What are the 3 features of preoperational thinking in children under 7's concepts of illness?
    1. understanding of contagion is overgeneralised; 2. understanding of contamination is undergeneralised; 3. immanent justice used as a causal mechanism
  110. What did Siegal's studies of young children's understanding of contagion & immanent justice find?
    That when children were not asked leading question & were provided with alternative illness causes, they were able to make correct causal judgments of illness & show greater comprehension of invisible causes of contagion/illness
  111. In regards to the 3 facts about early attachment, what have most babies shown by 12-18months of age?
    attachment to at least 1 figure
  112. In regards to the 3 facts about early attachment, what are the 2 facts regarding styles in attachment?
    1. children show different styles of attachment; 2. these styles are relatively stable over time
  113. What are the 4 different styles of attachment of children to parents?
    1. secure; 2. avoidant; 3. resistant; 4.disorganised/disoriented
  114. What are the features of secure attachment & what percentage of children exhibit this style?
    child sees parent as a secure base & seeks contact with parent after seperation. 65%
  115. What are the features of avoidant attachment & what percentage of children exhibit this style?
    child is non-responsive to parent & is slow to greet them after a seperation. 20%
  116. What are the features of resistant attachment & what percentage of children exhibit this style?
    child clings to parent & is angry with them following seperation. 10-15%
  117. What are the features of disorganised/disoriented attachment & what percentage of children exhibit this style?
    child shows a variety of confused & unexpected responses such as crying at unexpected times. 5-10%
  118. What are the 2 theories regarding the differences in attachment?
    1. parenting environment; 2. temperament
  119. What does the theory of parenting enviroment (as an explanation of differences in attachment) claim?
    That the degree of responsive/sensitive parenting governs the level of secure attachment displayed by the child (positively correlated)
  120. What does the theory of temperament (as an explanation of differences in attachment) claim?
    That attachment is governed by stable individual differences in early emotional expression & behaviour (like personality for babies)
  121. What are the two extreme temperament types proposed by Kagan (as a system for measuring infant temperament)?
    1. inhibited; 2. uninhibited
  122. What are the features of the inhibited temperament type proposed by Kagan (in his system for measuring infant temperament)?
    high emotional response & reactivity to novelty, high resting level of arousal in the amygdyla
  123. What are the features of the uninhibited temperament type proposed by Kagan (in his system for measuring infant temperament)?
    low emotional response & low reactivity to novelty, low levels of basal rate arousal in the amygdyla
  124. What are the differences in physiological reactions to novelty that are displayed by inhibited children in comparison to uninhibited children?
    higher heart-rate; higher levels of cortisol; pupil dialiation & blood pressure changes; differences in EEG (higher right side)
  125. According to longitudinal research, what % of babies display inhibited behaviour patterns, what % are v. comfortable with novelty, & what is the stability of these styles?
    20%, 40% and 30% retain these temperamental styles into preschool years
  126. In the study of 1-4yr olds by Fox, which group of children (grouped according to temperamental style) showed the least stability over the course of the study?
    Inhibited children. Half became less inhibited due to exposure to non-parental care (as opposed to exclusive parental care up until the age of 4yrs)

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