Dimensional Analysis and Posology

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Dimensional Analysis and Posology
2013-09-22 17:32:13
Pharm Tox

Dimensional analysis and posology, pharm and tox
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  1. apothecary system
    oldest system, consists of dram, ounce, grain
  2. dram to milliliters
    4 mLs in 1 dram
  3. ounce to milliliters
    30 mLs in 1 ounce
  4. mgs to grain
    64.8 mgs in 1 grain
  5. gtt to mls
    15 drops = 1 mL
  6. mls in a T
    15mls in a tablespoon
  7. mls in a t
    5 mls in a teaspoon
  8. t in a T
  9. oz in a cup
    8 oz
  10. cups in a pint
    2 C
  11. quarts in a gallon
  12. pints in a quart
  13. units for chemo/body surface area calculations
    m2, use a chart
  14. grams in 1 dry oz
    28.4 g
  15. Dose
    The quantity of drug to be administered at ONE time (eg amoxicillin 100 mg)
  16. Dosage interval
    amount of time between separate doses (eg q12h)
  17. dosage (dosage regimen)
    the regimen of size (quantity), dosage interval and number of doses.  (eg, amoxicillin 100mg every 12 hours for 7 days)
  18. Elixir
    a hydroalcoholic solution containing a medication
  19. syrup
    a sugar and water solution containing a medication
  20. emulsion
    an oily substance disbursed in an aqueous medium
  21. Suspension
    • contains fine particles of an insoluble drug suspended or dispersed in a liquid vehicle (transporting agent for drug)
    • Particles can settle, so must be mixed
  22. luer-lock syringe and needle
    • luer lock tip is the screw-top.  Plunger has top and bottom ring (rubber)
    • Needle has hub, shaft and bevel
  23. loading dose
    generally a high dose of a drug given at the onset of drug therapy with the aim of rapidly achieving a certain, desired blood plasma concentration of the drug
  24. Maintenance Dose
    a dose of a drug given in a series of repetitive doses (or by continuous IV infusion) in order to maintain a certain, desired blood plasma concentration of the drug
  25. percent concentration
    weight of drug in grams per 100mL of solution
  26. To calculate mg/mL from % soln
    • multiply % concentration by 10.  
    • 1% solution = 1g/100mL or 10mg/mL
  27. to calculate % soln from mg/mL
    • divide mg/mL by 10
    • 10 mg/mL = 1g/100mL = 1%
  28. Suspension
    contains fine particles of insoluble drug suspended in a liquid vehicle.  Upon standing, settles.  Must be mixed thoroughly.
  29. Reconstitution
    • Adding a diluent to a drug in dry or powder form to make a liquid.  
    • Common diluents are sterile water, 0.9% NaCl and 5% dextrose (D5W).  
    • Vaccines and injectable antibiotics often reconstituted.
  30. Label reconstituted drug vial with (5)
    • date and time of preparation
    • strength of solution
    • date and time of expiration
    • storage directions
    • initials
  31. Percent solution formulas
    % soln = [g(100)] / mL

    g=weight dry drug in grams
  32. Dilution formula
    • V1C1=V2C2 
    • or 
    • (desired strength/available strength) = (amount to use/amount to make)
  33. IV fluid formula
    [volume of infusion in mL / time of infusion (min)] x drop factor (gtt/mL)