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1.that part of the solution present in the greater amount
2.A liquid in which substances (or solutes) are dissolved forming a solution.
1. Having equal tension.
2. Pertains to a muscular contraction in which the muscle remains to be in a relatively constant tension while its length changes, as in isotonic muscle.
The prefix Iso means "The same"
A solution that has higher osmotic pressure (or has more solutes) than another solution to which it is compared.
Causes cell to go into crenation causes cell to loose water shrivels blood cells
- refers to any solution which has a lower osmotic
- pressure than another solution (that has a lower concentration of solutes than
- another solution)
The lysis or the breaking open of red blood cell (erythrocyte) causing the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid.
- round shape bacteria these round shape bacteria reproduce by binary fission if they
- do it on one plane there is a couple of arrangements that take place.
two pairs stuck together still a round shape bacteria
still round stuck together when they keep reproducing
- If they are able to go through binary fission on more than one plan then they form
- a tetrad which means 4 but not in a chain but in a grouping
it makes grouping based on its ability to divide on three planes
is a rod shaped bacteria
a chain of bacilli still from one plane
1.a bacterial cell intermediate in morphology between a coccus and a bacillus; a very short bacillus
- bacillus rod is short and because it stays together its not as easy to detect
- as a rod
spiral shaped bacteria
same as a spirilla
- referred to as a solid curved rod
- is a layer that may be formed by a bacteria there are two types of glycocalyx
- it is a capsule with very distinct orders. It is firm gelatinous structure.
- The Functions of a capsule are to
- adhere the bacterium to surfaces. It also in some cases disguise itself from
- the immune systems.
- 1. the difference between the capsule and slime layer is the slime layer has irregular
- orders and it's more diffuse. It can also help the bacteria to adhere to
- certain surfaces. Glycocalyx may or may not be formed but if it does it will be
- a capsule or a slime layer
2.An irregular, diffuse, unorganized form of glycocalyx in bacterial cells, comprised mostly of exopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, and renders protection from dessication, loss ofnutrients, and chemical insult (e.g. antimicrobial action)
an increased ability of a microb organism to cause disease
1. bacteria that retain the stain or that are resistant to decolourisation by alcohol during grams method of staining. this,is a primary characteristic of bacteria whose cell wall is composed of a thick layer of peptidologlycan containing teichoic and lipoteichoic acid complexed to the peptidoglycan.
2.has peptidoglycan and teichoic acids phospholipids
1.outer membrane outer membrane lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycan, phospholipids periplasm is in between
- 1. is a pocket like structure that is formed when
- nutrients are abundant in the environment To be used when these nutrients become scarce
- hairlike structures that usually surround majority of the cell typically its going to number from the 10's to the 100's so their will be a variation of number. This is what
- helps adhere to living or non living surfaces.
1.In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm is that part of the cell between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope. It is the jelly-like substance in a cell that contains the cytosol, organelles, andinclusions, but not including the nucleus. In fact, the cytoplasm and the nucleus make up the protoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.
2.in a prokaroyotic cells refers to everything inside the cell itself.
- the location where proteins are formed or
- this is a long continuous circular thread of double stranded DNA chromosomes or
- genetic information of DNA
- 1. Its going to be up of DNA and is responsible for the forming of proteins that are associated or placed into the cytoplasmic
- membrane. So its distinctly different. It replicates separately from the
2.A linear or circular double-stranded DNA that is capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA
- is a long whiplike structure number wise it is
- usually 1 to 3 in number helps the cell move (locomotion)
- true nucleus the reason why its called a true
- nucleus is because it has a nuclear membrane its highly compartmentalize its organelles very well organized and structured. Most of them are specifically
- Contains enzymes to carry out cellular respiration's, to form energy information is just
- like a prokaryotic cell.
- contains digestive enzymes and these digestive enzymes can be utilized to breakdown compounds within the cell for excretion however there are a couple of other rolls sometimes if a eukaryotic microb is under attack it can explode a
- lysosome. A lysosome can dissolve tails for tadpole'
The double-layered membrane surrounding the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, separating the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm.
Does contain chromosomes genetic information for the cells.
its inside the nucleus it contains RNA and some amino acids.
- its function is that it is a center that will package and ship things out of the
- cell such as proteins and lipids.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
lacks ribosomes. Its functions include lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, calcium concentration, drugdetoxification, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum-
acts as a circulatory system for this eukaryotic cell also has ribosomes on it. The presence of ribosomes gives rough endoplasmic reticulum its appearance
locations where proteins are assembled
Plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane
1. phospholipid bi layer its not as heavily guarded as the prokaryotic cell.
2.The cell’s outer membrane made up of a two layers of phospholipids with embedded proteins. It separates the contents of the cell from its outside environment, and it regulates what enters and exits the cell.
three parts of DNA
- DeoxyRibose sugar it is a 5 carbon sugar
- Phosphate group
- Nitrogen containing bases join together to form a step on the ladder
Mitosis 5 or 6 stages
- Prophase the nuclear membrane dissolves and the chromosomes which is basically the DNA become kind of bulky and bulk up. It make it more easily visible
- Metaphase during metaphase the replicated chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell.
- Anaphase - remember the word apart. So these duplicates are now being pulled apart to opposite polls of the cell.
- Telophase- is where the cell is going through a process of cytokinesis looks like a pinching of the cell.
- Daughter cells (interphase)
- Takes place in the
- mitochondria the coenzyme A is lost so all that left is the acytal group left
- Remember the name
- citrus acid this is all an enzyme
- All that is
- happening is we have a 6 carbon pyruvic acid
- takes place in the nucelus of
- the cell. It uses DNA to form three types of RNA.
- .little t RNA
- "t" stands for transfer
- 2.Little r RNA
- "r" stands for ribosomal RNA
- 3.Little m RNA
- "m" messenger RNA
- will temporarily open the DNA molecule. It is still going to open up hydrogen bonds
- between the nitrogen containing bases now its going to join or form RNA against
- the DNA strand
Takes place at the cytoplasm everything outside the nucleus is considered the cytoplasm in aeukaryotic cell. It uses the three types of RNA which have exited the cytoplasm and collectively they have linked together amino acids to form protein.
RNA is composed of
- Ribose sugar which has one
- more oxygen molecule than deoxyribose sugar
- RNA nucleotides
- Does not contain thymine
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA.An [[enzyme promoting the joining together of [[nucleic acids with one another.
The ittle "t" RNA
- has a crown on top which has a sequence of 3 nitrogen containing bases. Based on
- the order of those three it is able to pick up a specific amino acid
The little "r" RNA
goes to the ribosome and opens it up
The little "m" RNA
is now a single long strand
The four characteristics of enzymes.
- Are made up of proteins
- They act as a catalyst
- High specific to its substrate Enzyme has to highly specific to the substrate it has to be able to fit
- Sensitive to changes in PH sensitive to temperature, dehydrations and sensitive to chemicals
Two types of mteabolism
- Anabolism It’s a
- reaction where you taking smaller compounds and joining them together to form
- larger Molecules
- Catabolism- taking a
- larger compound or a very large molecule and splitting it apart into smaller
- A molecule that can fit or fill In the active
- site on the enzyme
A molecule fits into an allosteric site of an enzyme
changes the shape of the enzyems active site
is really based on a noncompetitive inhibitor
- And so in feed back
- mechanisms typically it can be a final product
- If higher
- concentrations builds up it can attach to the allosteric site
Oxidation reduction reactions
- always refereed to at the same time what this is related to is a electron, an electron
- is being removed or lost reduction is a gaining of an electron taking place the
- oxidation process typically produces energy
its going to utilizing glucose and breaks it down into a 3 carbon molecule a
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid