Geology Test 1

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ijm915
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234568
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Geology Test 1
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2013-09-12 22:05:29
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DeHon
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Test 1 Geology, DeHon
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  1. Fool's Gold (Pyrite), like gold, is soft and malleable
    False
  2. The Earth is uniform in composition (all the same stuff) from the center to the surface
    False
  3. The minerals in igneous rocks all crystallize out of the melt at the same time an temperature
    False
  4. Minerals are always crystalline solids
    True
  5. Basalt is the most common intrusive igneous rock
    False
  6. The "discontinuous series" of Bowen's Reaction series consists of dark colored minerals
    True
  7. Rubies and sapphires are composed of exactly the same chemicals
    True
  8. Present Day geologic processes are very different than those of the distant past
    False
  9. The texture of igneous rocks is determined by the cooling rate of the magma
    True
  10. There are more oxygen atoms in the crust of the earth than in the atmosphere
    True
  11. Ocean crust is formed mostly of...
    Basalt
  12. Rubies and sapphires are gem quality varieties of...
    Corundum
  13. Earth's core is inferred to be...
    Mostly iron
  14. The premise that present day processes have operated throughout geologic time is known as the principle of...
    Uniformitarianism
  15. Ocean - Ocean convergence zones are marked by the occurrence of...
    Volcanic Island Arcs
  16. Dark minerals in igneous rocks are...
    Iron-Magnesium silicates
  17. Continental crust...
    is composed and thickened at converging plate margins
  18. The steps to the library are made of...
    Granite
  19. The mid-oceanic ridges are sites of...
    Sea floor spreading
  20. A rock composed of olivine and pyroxene that's similar to the composition of the mantle
    Peridotite
  21. Calcite is composed of...
    Calcium Carbonate
  22. Thin, sheet-like, disconcordant igneous intrusions are...
    Dikes
  23. The tendency for some minerals to break along smooth, flat surfaces is known as
    Cleavage
  24. The Earth is estimated to be ___ years old?
    4.6 billion
  25. Most abundant mineral group in the crust is...
    Feldspar
  26. Cooling of magma results in a fine-grained texture called...
    Aphanitic
  27. Igneous rocks that have a ___ texture have grains that can be seen with the naked eye
    Phaneritic
  28. A natural glass formed by rapid cooling of lava is called...
    Obsidian
  29. Basalt has the same mineral and chemical composition as...
    Gabbro
  30. The mineral assemblage of quarts, K-Feldspar, Na-Plagioclase, with minor biotite or hornblende, would be recognized readily by you as the minerals found in the rock known as...
    Granite
  31. Dark, rock-forming minerals are rich in...
    Fe and Mg
  32. The early-formed light colored mineral in a melt [magma] is...
    Plagioclase
  33. Pyroclastic rocks are formed by...
    Violent, explosive volcanic eruptions
  34. Phrenocrysts are evidence of...
    Two periods of cooling
  35. Vesicles (holes) form in igneous rock (such as scoria and vascular basalt) from...
    Escaping gas
  36. The common lava extruded from stratovolcanoes is...
    Andesite
  37. Shield volcanoes have low, angle slopes because they are composed of...
    Fluid basaltic lava
  38. Steep-sided, classic, "volcano-shaped" cones are called
    Stratovolcanoes
  39. Mt. St. Helen is an excellent example of a...
    Explosive caldera
  40. Rugged, blocky lava flows are called...
    Aa
  41. A volcanic rock that floats is...
    Pumice
  42. Which one of the following minerals can be scratched with your fingernail?
    Gypsum
  43. An igneous rock possessing a combination of mineral grains with markedly different grain sizes is...
    A porphyry
  44. Mt. Fuji (Fujiyama) in Japan and Mt. St. Etna on Sicily are classic examples of...
    Stratovolcanoes
  45. The mid-oceanic ridges are
    Sites of new oceanic material
  46. All plate margins are characterized by...
    High earthquake activity
  47. Mid-oceanic ridges are sites of ___ plate boundaries
    Divergent
  48. Rocks composed on only pyroxene and olivine may form by...
    Crystal settling
  49. Which one of the following groups do most minerals in the Earth's crust belong?
    Silicates
  50. Which one of the following groups do most minerals in the Earth's crust belong?
    Silicates
  51. Enchanted rock is...
    An exposed portion of a granite batholiths
  52. Dikes and sills are probably emplaced in the crust by...
    Injection of magma into fractures
  53. The first minerals of crystallize out of a magma are
    Ca-Plagioclase and olivine
  54. ___ is composed of minerals found in the mid-range of Bowen's Reaction series
    Diorite
  55. What minerals are in the rock Diorite?
    Augite, horneblende and plagioclase
  56. The minerals in igneous rocks that is rich in aluminum are...
    Mica and felspar
  57. The rock cycle implies that...
    Any rock type can form from any other rock type
  58. The bright regions of the moon are made up of the rock ___
    Anorthosite
  59. Forty percent of the near side of the moon consists of smooth, dark plains made up of...
    Basalt
  60. If you had to find K-Feldspar where it occurs naturally in the state of Texas, one place that you would be certain to find it is...
    Enchanted Rock
  61. Plagioclase...
    Glassy, clear or translucent grains
  62. Amphibole (Horneblende)
    Dark, brown to black grains with 60 - 120 degrees cleavage
  63. Olivine
    Glassy, green grains
  64. Quartz
    Glassy, clear or translucent grains
  65. Biotite (mica)
    Dark brown sheets
  66. Abundant fossils begin to show up in rocks that are...
    545 million years old
  67. The recognition that the lithosphere is divided into rigid plates that move over the asthenosphere forms the foundation of the...
    Plate tectonics theory
  68. Rocks that form at the surface from materials originating in other rocks are...
    Sedimentary
  69. The principle that the various living organisms living at any particular period of time in the past are unique to that time is called
    Faunal Succession
  70. The outer core is ___ and it's made up of ___
    Liquid,

    Iron
  71. Under most conditions, in a stack of sedimentary rocks, the older rocks are on the bottom of the stack
    True
  72. New material is formed at the ___ boundary
    Divergent
  73. The trench-volcanic arc association is indicative of a ___ plate margin
    Convergent
  74. The Japanese islands are an example of ___
    An island arc at a convergent margin
  75. The ocean crust is formed mostly of...
    Basalt
  76. Rubies and sapphires are gem quality varieties of...
    Corundum
  77. Corundum is what on the hardness scale?
    9
  78. Which of the following groups do most minerals in the earth's crust belong?
    Silicates
  79. Most common carbonate rock is...
    Limestone
  80. Quartz is composed of...
    Silicon dioxide
  81. Groups of Feldspars are...
    Potassium Feldspar and Plagiclae Feldspar
  82. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) is the mineral...
    Calcite
  83. What is important about galena?
    Specific gravity
  84. What's important about sphalerite?
    An ore of zinc
  85. What is the cleavage of Mica?
    1 direction, Horizontal
  86. What is the cleavage of calcite?
    3 directions, not at right angles
  87. What is the hardness of calcite?
    3
  88. What is the cleavage of horneblende?
    2 directions - at 60 and 120 degrees
  89. What is the general color of the ferromagnesium minerals?
    Dark
  90. Which minerals are alumno-silicates
    Felspars
  91. Which is softer, calcite or feldspar?
    Calcite
  92. Which is harder, calcite or gypsum?
    Gypsum
  93. Which is harder, topaz or feldspar?
    Topaz
  94. What properties distinguish gold from iron pyrite?
    Gold has yellow streak, pyrite has black streak
  95. What properties distinguish gypsum from calcite
    You can scratch gypsum with your fingernail, you can't do that with calcite
  96. Divergent: Pulling apart, is also called...
    Rifting
  97. Convergent: Pushing, is also called...
    Subduction
  98. Transform: Sliding past, is also called...
    Strike-Slip
  99. TGCFAOQTCD
    The Girls Can Flirt And Quaint Things Can Do

    • Talc -1 
    • Gypsum -2
    • Calcite -3 
    • Fluorite -4
    • Apatite -5
    • Orthoclase -6
    • Quartz -7
    • Topaz -8
    • Corundum -9
    • Diamond -10
  100. What is the pink part in Granite?
    Potassium Feldspar
  101. What are the 4 C's?
    Color, cut, clarity, and carat

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