microbiology 2 ch 3 bacterial cell structure

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mikepl103
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234583
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microbiology 2 ch 3 bacterial cell structure
Updated:
2013-10-28 20:29:38
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bacteria structure shape
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Bacterial Cell Structure
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  1. spherical (and give example)
    • coccus (cocci)
    • streptococcus pneumoniae
  2. rod-shaped (and example)
    • bacillus (bacilli)
    • escherichia coli
  3. spherical cells that form pairs
    diplococcus (diplococci)
  4. rigid, spiral-shaped (and example)
    • spirilla
    • spirillum volutans
  5. amphipathic
    having both a polar and non-polar region
  6. flexible spiral shape (and example)
    • spriochetes
    • treponema zuelzerae
  7. what are hopanoids?
    sterol-like molecules that are put into bacterial membranes which stabilize the membranes
  8. what is the cell envelope structure of gram positives?
    consists of cell membrane and 20-80 nm thick peptidoglycan layer
  9. what is the cell envelope structure of gram negatives?
    cell membrane, 2-7 nm thick peptido. layer, 7-8 nm outer membrane
  10. how are gram negatives cross-linked?
    direct cross-linking between the amino acids of the peptido.
  11. how are gram +s cross-linked?
    by peptide interbridge that connects the amino acids of two peptidoglycan strands
  12. comma shaped and example
    vibrio

    vibrio cholera
  13. What is the process by which a bacterium eliminates a plasmid?
    curing
  14. spherical bacteria that form chains
    streptococci
  15. What is a plasmid that can integrate itself into a larger chromosome called?
    an episome
  16. What is it called when a cell shrinks do to it being hypotonic to its environment?
    plasmolysis
  17. Which enzyme is able to cleave peptidoglycan?
    lysozyme
  18. In regards to the amino acids on each peptide coming off of a NAM molecule, the amino acid ______ is found on gram negative bacteria and _______ is found on gram +
    In regards to the amino acids on each peptide coming off of a NAM molecule, the amino acid DAP is found on gram negative bacteria and L-lysine is found on gram +
  19. What are the three capsule-enclosed bacteria that were discussed in Dr. Hirshfield's notes?
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Bacillus anthracis
    • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  20. What are the two genera of spore-forming bacteria and how do the obtain energy?
    Bacillus (aerobic)  and Clostridium(anaerobic).
  21. Which bacteria produces an incredibly harmful neurotoxin that can be found in food?
    Clostridium botulinum
  22. R plasmid
    carries antibiotic resistance gene
  23. What are the components of bacterial cell wall
  24. gram negatives stain _____ and gram + stain ____
    pink, purple
  25. which bacteria is more sensitive to penicillin and lysozyme
    gram +
  26. r plasmids
    carry antibiotic resistance
  27. virulence plasmids
    carry virulence genes
  28. col plasmids
    produce bacteriocins
  29. metabolic plasmids
    produce enzymes
  30. one (or more) flagella at opposite ends
    amphitrichous
  31. one flagella at one end
    monotrichous
  32. several flagella at one or both ends of the cell
    lophotrichous
  33. multiple flagella distributed randomly
    peritrichous
  34. endospore core has:
    high amounts of dipicolinic acid complexed with calcium ions, slightly acidic pH, and low water content
  35. bacteria and archaea have to ribosomal subunits ____ and ___ which combine to form ___
    50 S, 30 S, 70S
  36. The 50S ribosomal subunit contains ____ rRNA and the 30S ribosomal subunit contains ___ rRNA
    23S rRNA, 16S rRNA

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