Chapter 6 & 16 Tes.txt

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Chapter 6 & 16 Tes.txt
2013-09-12 22:32:14

Clinicals Chapter 6 &16
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  1. Astigmatism:
    a refractive error that causes distorted and blurred vision for both near and far objects due to a cornea that is oval shaped.
  2. Audiometer:
    an instrument used to measure hearing acuity quantitatively for the various frequencies of sound waves.
  3. Canthus:
    the junction of the eyelids at either corner of the eye.
  4. Cerumen:
  5. Hyperopia:
  6. Impacted:
    wedged firmly together so as to be immovable.
  7. Instillation:
    the dropping of a liquid into a body cavity.
  8. Irrigation:
    the washing of a body canal with a flowing solution.
  9. Myopia:
  10. Otoscope:
    an instrument used to examine the external ear canal and tympanic membrane.
  11. Presbyopia:
    a decrease in the elasticity of the lens that occurs with aging, resulting in a decreased ability to focus on close objects.
  12. Refraction:
    the deflection or bending of light rays by a lens.
  13. Tympanic Membrane:
    a thin, semitransparent membrane between the external ear canal and the middle ear that receives and transmits sound waves. Also know as the eardrum.
  14. Anuria:
    failure of the kidneys to produce urine.
  15. Bilirubinuria:
    the presence of bilirubin in the urine.
  16. Bladder Catherterization:
    the passing of a sterile catheter through the urethra and into the bladder to remove urine.
  17. Diuresis:
    secretion and passage of large amounts of urine.
  18. Dysuria:
    difficult or painful urination.
  19. Frequency:
    the condition of having to urinate often.
  20. Glycosuria:
    the presence of glucose in the urine.
  21. Hematuria:
    blood present in the urine.
  22. Ketonuria:
    the presence of ketone bodies in the urine.
  23. Ketosis:
    an accumulation of large amounts of ketone bodies in the tissues and body fluids.
  24. Micturition:
    the act of voiding urine.
  25. Nephron:
    the functional unit of the kidney.
  26. Nocturia:
    excessive (voluntary) urination during the night.
  27. Nocturnal Enuresis:
    inability of an individual to control urination at night during sleep. (bedwetting)
  28. Oliguria:
    decreases or scanty output of urine.
  29. pH:
    the unit that describes the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
  30. Polyuria:
    increased output of urine.
  31. Proteinuria:
    the presence of protein in the urine.
  32. Pyuria:
    the presence of pus in the urine.
  33. Renal Threshold:
    the inability to empty the bladder. The urine is being produced normally but is not being voided.
  34. Specific Gravity:
    the weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal volume of a substance known as the standard. In urinalysis the specific gravity refers to the measurement of the amount of dissolved substances present in the urine compared with the same amount of distilled water.
  35. Supernatant:
    the clear liquid that remains at the top after a precipitate settles.
  36. Suprapubic Aspiration:
    the passing of a sterile needle through the abdominal wall into the bladder to remove urine.
  37. Urgency:
    the immediate need to urinate.
  38. Urinalysis:
    the physical, chemical, and microscopic analyses of urine.
  39. Urinary Incontinence:
    the inability to retain urine.
  40. Void:
    to empty the bladder.
  41. tympan/o:
  42. scope
    to view, to examine
  43. ot/o
  44. opia:
  45. meter
    instrument used for
  46. ism
    state of
  47. ic
    pertaining to
  48. hyper
    above axcessive
  49. audi/o
  50. a
  51. Function of lens:
    focuses light rays on the retina.
  52. Three layers of the eye:
    Outer Layer: Sclera

    Middle Layer: Choroid

    Inner Layer: Retina
  53. Ophthalmologist:
    Medical doctor specializing in diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the eye.
  54. Optometrist:
    Licensed primary health care provider who has expertise in measuring visual acuity and prescribing corrective lenses.
  55. Opticiian:
    Professional who interprets and fills prescriptions for eyeglasses and contact lenses.
  56. Snellen Test is used to:
    Test visual acuity. This test is usually performed at 20 feet.
  57. Snellen Big E eye chart:
    Used to test distance visual acuity in preschool children.
  58. Assessment of Near Visual Acuity:
    Cards similar to the snellen eye chart. The test card is available in a variety of forms, such as printed paragraphs printed words, and pictures. Card should be held at a distance of 14 and 16 inches.
  59. Ishihara Test:
    Used to test for color blindness and is an accurate method to detect total congenital color blindness and red-green color blindness by assessing an individual's ability to perceive primary colors and shades of color. The book contains a series of polychromatic plates of primary colored dots arranged to form a numeral against a background of similar dots of contrasting colors.
  60. Function of the ear:
    hearing and maintaining equilibrium.
  61. The Eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the:
  62. Eye Irrigation:
    washing the eye with a flowing solution.

    washes away foreign particles, ocular discharges, and harmful chemicals.

    Relieve inflammation through application of heat and to apply an antiseptic solution.
  63. Eye Instillation:
    Dropping of a liquid into lower conjunctival sac.

    Done to treat eye infections, soothe an irritated eye, dilate the pupil and to anesthetize during eye examination or treatment.

    Medications instilled in the eye may come in the form of a liquid drop or an ointment.
  64. Ear Irrigation:
    Washing of the external auditory canal with a flowing solution.

    Performed to cleanse the external ear canal and remove cerumen, discharge, and foreign bodies.

    Relieve inflammation by applying antiseptic solution and to apply heat to the ear.
  65. Ear Instillation:
    Dropping of a liquid into the external auditory canal.

    Performed to soften impacted cerumen, combat infection with antibiotic ear drops and relieve pain.