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abnormal breath sounds.
The phase in the cardiac cycle in which the heart relaxes between contractions.
The point of lesser pressure on the arterial wall, which is recorded during diastole.
High Blood Pressure.
Low blood pressure.
sounds heard during the measurement of blood pressure that are used to determine the systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings.
An instrument for measuring pressure.
The curved surface on a column of liquid in a tube.
an instrument for measuring arterial blood pressure.
an instrument used for amplifying and hearing sounds produced by the body.
the phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract, sending blood out of the heart and into the aorta and pulmonary aorta.
The point of maximum pressure on the arterial walls, which is recorded during systole.
Blood Pressure measures:
measurement of force exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries in which it is contained.
Contraction and relaxation of the heart results in two different pressures, which are:
Blood pressure is measured by:
millimeters of mercury mmHg
Range of BP for healthy adult is:
BP should be taken during each office visit to allow the physician to compare the patient's reading over a period of time.
A single BP reading taken on one occasion does not characterize an individual's BP accurately.
Several readings, taken on different occasions are needed to provide a good index of baseline BP.
BP readings always should be interpreted using patient's baseline BP
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure)
95/60 mm Hg
Pulse pressure normal range:
between 30 and 50
Factors affecting BP:
3. Diurnal Variations
4. Emotional States
6. Body Position
Equipment needed to measure BP:
Two types of Sphygmomanometers:
The manometer must be placed in the correct position for proper viewing, and the medical assistant should not be farther than:
3 feet from the scale of the manometer.
3 different sizes of BP cuffs:
Child Cuff ( used for children and adults with small arms)
Adult Cuff (used for adults with averaged sized arms)
Thigh Cuff (used for the thigh or for adults with large arms)
The size of the limb determines what cuff is used:
If the cuff is too small the reading may be falsely high.
If the cuff is too large, the reading may be falsely low.
The cuff should fit snugly and should be applied so that the center of the inflatable bag is directly over the artery to be compressed.
5 Phases of Korotkoff sounds:
1. faint but clear tapping sound (systolic)
2. murmuring or swishing sound.
3. crispy and increased in intensity.
4. muffled sound.
5. sound disappears (diastolic)
Guideline for preventing errors in BP measurements:
1. Always use proper cuff size.
2. Never take BP over clothing.
3. Position patient's arm with palm facing upward.
4. Avoid extraneous sounds from the cuff and the stethoscope.
5. Compress the brachial artery completely.
6. Apply equal pressure over the brachial artery.
7. Position the ear pieces so the sounds can be heard clearly.
8. Properly position the chest piece of stethoscope.
9. Release the pressure at a moderate steady rate.
If you cannot obtain an accurate BP reading, wiat:
1 to 2 minutes before taking another measurement on the same arm.
Symptoms of High BP are:
headaches, dizziness, flushed face, fatigue, epistaxis (nosebleed), excessive perspiration, heart palpitations, frequent urination, and leg claudication (cramping in the legs when walking).
Some factors that cause High BP:
Lack of Physical Exercise
Guidelines of taking vital signs:
know normal ranges for all vital signs.
make sure all equipment is in proper working condition.
eliminate or minimize factors that affect vital signs.
use an organized approach when taking vital signs.
Normal vital signs:
temperature: 97ºF to 99ºF
Pulse 60-100 bpm
Blood Pressure 110-140/60-90