Equine Colic & Splinting

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HLW
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234607
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Equine Colic & Splinting
Updated:
2013-09-12 23:43:42
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Equine Colic Splinting
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Equine Colic & Splinting
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  1. What makes up boarders of the epiploic foramen?
    • Gastroepiploic fold
    • Caudate lobe of the liver
    • Portal vein
  2. What are the unique clinical signs/diagnostic findings associated with anterior enteritis?
    • High volume of reflux
    • Abdominocentesis: increased total protein, normal white blood cell
    • Increased heart rate that decreases after reflux
  3. What will you find on presentation of a patient that has a strangulating lesion
    • Reflux +/-
    • Distended small intestine with slugging
    • Increased total protein and WBCs on abdominocentesis
  4. What is the leading cause of ileal impactions?
    Coastal hay
  5. What can be done to decrease the risk of adhesions following surgery?
    • Anticoagulation medications – low molecular weight heprin
    • Plasmalyte lavage before closure (10L)
    • Good surgery technique – gentle handling of the intestines
    • Seprafilm (?)
  6. List the prokinetics and MOA?
    • Erythromycin – stimulate motlin receptors
    • Metoclopramide – dopamine agonist
    • Lidocaine
    • Cisapride
  7. What organism(s) are the cause of anterior enteritis?
    • Salmonella species
    • Clostridium species
    • What two findings indicate ileus?
    • Reflux
    • Distended small intestine
  8. Name the parasite that can cause colic (non-strangulating)
    S. vulgaris
  9. What are two predisposing factors for epiploic foramen entrapment?
    • Cribbing (wind sucking)
    • Small liver (anecdotal)
  10. Name three electrolyte abnormalities with small intestinal colic (all colic?)
    • Hyponatremia
    • Hypochloremia
    • Hypokalemia
  11. What complication can occur in repairing an epiploic foramen entrapment?
    Immediate death via laceration/rupture of the portal vein
  12. What two parasites can cause ileal impaction?
    • A. perfilata (adults)
    • Ascarids (foals)
  13. Name the indications to take a colicky horse to surgery
    • Increased WBCs and protein on abdominocentesis
    • Severe pain
    • Abdominal distension
    • No fecal output
  14. What do you find on abdominocentesis of a patient that has anterior enteritis?
    • Increased protein (greater than 2.5?)
    • Normal range of WBCs (greater than 5,000cells)
  15. In an adult horse which is the most common cause of scrotal hernia (direct or indirect)?
    Indirect
  16. Name three complications that can occur post abdominal surgery?
    • Adhesions
    • peritonitis
    • Jugular thrombosis
  17. What portion of the GI tract are more susceptible to adhesions? Treatment?
    • Small intestine
    • Treatment = resection or euthanasia
  18. Why is there delayed reflux with ileal impactions?
    Due to the large amount of dead space that must be filled (70 feet of small intestine) before reaching the stomach
  19. What breeds are predisposed to herniation?
    • Standardbreds
    • Draft breeds
    • Tennessee walking horse
  20. What breeds of horses are predisposed to strangulation lipomas?
    • Morgans
    • American quarter horses
    • Arabians
  21. What two findings are pathognomonic for intussusception?
    • Bull’s eye lesion on abdominal ultrasound
    • Along with normal abdominocentesis
  22. What are two ways to prevent ileal impaction?
    • Use anthelmentics
    • Do not feed coastal hay
  23. What three finds indicate the horse should not go to surgery?
    • Neutropenia
    • Diarrhea
    • Fever
  24. What are the parts of the intussusception?
    • Intussusceptum
    • intussuscipeins
  25. What is the least thrombogenic catheter?
    Mila
  26. What surgery technique is used to treat anterior enteritis?
    Strip the contents to the cecum
  27. What can Buscapan be used for?
    • Transrectal palpation
    • Spasmodic colic
  28. How do you stabilize a humeral fracture?
    • Bandage
    • Splint
    • Lateral floor to withers
    • Caudal – floor to just past the elbow
  29. Name the injuries of the proximal forelimb that cause lameness but are not fractures
    • Nerve paralysis
    • Luxation
    • Synovitis
  30. What is the most common cause of non-weightbearing lameness in horses?
    Foot abscess
  31. Why is the hindlimb hard to stabilize with splints?
    The reciprocal apparatus
  32. What is the most important component of fracture triage?
    • Stabilization (bandage and splinting)
    • Name the clinical signs of fractures
    • Lameness, crepitation, angular deviation, pain, swelling
  33. What is the name of the commercially available splint?
    • Kimnsey
    • What are the three steps in coapitation
    • Wound management, bandaging, splinting
  34. What type of tape should be used for wrapping/splinting?
    Non-elastic (duct tape or white tape)
  35. Fractures of which bones can lead to hemorrhage?
    • Pelvis – adult horses
    • Femur – foals
  36. What sedative is contraindicated in horses with fractures?
    Acepromazine
  37. How should a horse with a hind limb fracture be loaded? Forelimb fracture?
    • Hindlimb – foreward
    • Forelimb – backwards
  38. What is the appropriate diameter of a Robert Jones bandage?
    3x the bandaged limb
  39. What is the longest acting alpha 2 sedative?
    Romifidine
  40. Why are opioids contraindicated with fractures?
    Produce ataxia
  41. What is the difference between a type IV fracture in the forelimb and hind limb?
    • Can’t splint this type of fracture in the hindlimb
    • Can only splint to the elbow in the forelimb
  42. What can be used in recovery post surgery/anesthesia for a horse with a fracture/casted limb?
    • Head and tail ropes
    • Tilt table
    • Water recovery
    • Sling
  43. Ways in which the Robert Jones bandage can be applied?
    • Too tight or too loose
    • REVIEW THE SPLINTING OF FRACTURES HANDOUT!!!

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