Equine Colic & Splinting
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What makes up boarders of the epiploic foramen?
- Gastroepiploic fold
- Caudate lobe of the liver
- Portal vein
What are the unique clinical signs/diagnostic findings associated with anterior enteritis?
- High volume of reflux
- Abdominocentesis: increased total protein, normal white blood cell
- Increased heart rate that decreases after reflux
What will you find on presentation of a patient that has a strangulating lesion
- Reflux +/-
- Distended small intestine with slugging
- Increased total protein and WBCs on abdominocentesis
What is the leading cause of ileal impactions?
What can be done to decrease the risk of adhesions following surgery?
- Anticoagulation medications – low molecular weight heprin
- Plasmalyte lavage before closure (10L)
- Good surgery technique – gentle handling of the intestines
- Seprafilm (?)
List the prokinetics and MOA?
- Erythromycin – stimulate motlin receptors
- Metoclopramide – dopamine agonist
What organism(s) are the cause of anterior enteritis?
- Salmonella species
- Clostridium species
- What two findings indicate ileus?
- Distended small intestine
Name the parasite that can cause colic (non-strangulating)
What are two predisposing factors for epiploic foramen entrapment?
- Cribbing (wind sucking)
- Small liver (anecdotal)
Name three electrolyte abnormalities with small intestinal colic (all colic?)
What complication can occur in repairing an epiploic foramen entrapment?
Immediate death via laceration/rupture of the portal vein
What two parasites can cause ileal impaction?
- A. perfilata (adults)
- Ascarids (foals)
Name the indications to take a colicky horse to surgery
- Increased WBCs and protein on abdominocentesis
- Severe pain
- Abdominal distension
- No fecal output
What do you find on abdominocentesis of a patient that has anterior enteritis?
- Increased protein (greater than 2.5?)
- Normal range of WBCs (greater than 5,000cells)
In an adult horse which is the most common cause of scrotal hernia (direct or indirect)?
Name three complications that can occur post abdominal surgery?
- Jugular thrombosis
What portion of the GI tract are more susceptible to adhesions? Treatment?
- Small intestine
- Treatment = resection or euthanasia
Why is there delayed reflux with ileal impactions?
Due to the large amount of dead space that must be filled (70 feet of small intestine) before reaching the stomach
What breeds are predisposed to herniation?
- Draft breeds
- Tennessee walking horse
What breeds of horses are predisposed to strangulation lipomas?
- American quarter horses
What two findings are pathognomonic for intussusception?
- Bull’s eye lesion on abdominal ultrasound
- Along with normal abdominocentesis
What are two ways to prevent ileal impaction?
- Use anthelmentics
- Do not feed coastal hay
What three finds indicate the horse should not go to surgery?
What are the parts of the intussusception?
What is the least thrombogenic catheter?
What surgery technique is used to treat anterior enteritis?
Strip the contents to the cecum
What can Buscapan be used for?
- Transrectal palpation
- Spasmodic colic
How do you stabilize a humeral fracture?
- Lateral floor to withers
- Caudal – floor to just past the elbow
Name the injuries of the proximal forelimb that cause lameness but are not fractures
- Nerve paralysis
What is the most common cause of non-weightbearing lameness in horses?
Why is the hindlimb hard to stabilize with splints?
The reciprocal apparatus
What is the most important component of fracture triage?
- Stabilization (bandage and splinting)
- Name the clinical signs of fractures
- Lameness, crepitation, angular deviation, pain, swelling
What is the name of the commercially available splint?
- What are the three steps in coapitation
- Wound management, bandaging, splinting
What type of tape should be used for wrapping/splinting?
Non-elastic (duct tape or white tape)
Fractures of which bones can lead to hemorrhage?
- Pelvis – adult horses
- Femur – foals
What sedative is contraindicated in horses with fractures?
How should a horse with a hind limb fracture be loaded? Forelimb fracture?
- Hindlimb – foreward
- Forelimb – backwards
What is the appropriate diameter of a Robert Jones bandage?
3x the bandaged limb
What is the longest acting alpha 2 sedative?
Why are opioids contraindicated with fractures?
What is the difference between a type IV fracture in the forelimb and hind limb?
- Can’t splint this type of fracture in the hindlimb
- Can only splint to the elbow in the forelimb
What can be used in recovery post surgery/anesthesia for a horse with a fracture/casted limb?
- Head and tail ropes
- Tilt table
- Water recovery
Ways in which the Robert Jones bandage can be applied?
- Too tight or too loose
- REVIEW THE SPLINTING OF FRACTURES HANDOUT!!!
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