Arousal - Altered States

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Author:
gracebee101
ID:
234625
Filename:
Arousal - Altered States
Updated:
2013-09-13 04:46:46
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Psychology
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Description:
arousal and performance
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  1. arousal and performance (2)
    Factors affecting arousal (3)
    • too little or too much arousal interferes with performance
    • performance is best when arousal is moderate

    • task difficulty
    • task familiarity 
    • individual differences
  2. task difficulty (2)
    • for easy/simple tasks, high arousal is optimal 
    • complex tasks low arousal is optimal
  3. task familiarity (2)
    • if task is familiar, higher level of arousal will be optimal
    • eg know exam material well, can tolerate moderate arousal
  4. Individual differences (2)
    • differences in temperament 
    • eg 'thrill seekers' seem to need higher levels of arousal
  5. Jet lag (7)
    • body clock is still set at time zone in departure place
    • mismatch between internal timing and new destination
    • children cope quite well
    • adults and people with strict routine do not cope as well
    • biological rhythms adjust at about one hour per day
    • eg London 10 hours behind Adelaide, 10 hours to adjust
    • easier to fly westward than eastward
  6. Symptoms of Jet lag (4)
    • Irritability
    • Disorientation
    • Broken sleep
    • Poor concentration
  7. Insomnia (5)
    • often secondary to many medical problems
    • sometimes no apparent cause
    • Psychological elements regardless
    • not sleeping = worry about sleep = arousing
    • staying in bed longer to try increase sleep = bed becomes associated with wakefulness = increase likelihood of not sleeping
  8. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (5)
    • transition from autumn to winter = shortening of day
    • people can experience weight gain, tiredness and 'the blues'
    • more common in women and the aged
    • symptoms begin in autumn, peak in winter, resolve in spring
    • light therapy may resolve problems
  9. Social support - coping with stress (2)
    • people with good support structures = buffered from effects of stress
    • strong relationships with family, friends and co-workers beneficial
  10. Personality types - coping with stress (3)
    • Type A - competative, hostile = linked to heart disease
    • Type B - repress feelings = linked to cancer

    cognitive appraisal = how we asses situation
  11. food substances - coping with stress (6)
    • nicotine and coffee = stimulate sympathetic nervous system
    • make our system more reactive to stress = reduced performance and increased anxiety
    • essential vitamins depleted when going through stress:
    • thiamine
    • riboflavin 
    • vit C
    • can cause stomach upets, muscle weakness and insomnia
  12. Sugar and processed flour (5)
    • ingesting sugar and processed flours= require vitamin B complexes
    • Depletion of stores of cortisol = reduces body's ability to respond to stressors
    • hypoglycemia can develop
    • stress raises blood sugar levels
    • can affect body's ability to produce insulin
  13. Salt and cardiovascular disease and stroke (4)
    • salt forces body to retain fluid
    • increase blood pressure
    • increase risk of heart attack and stroke
    • harder for body to cope with stressors
  14. Ways to reduce stress through diet (3)
    • limit sugar intake
    • limit salt and caffeine intake
    • eat healthy food rich in Vitamin B complexes and Vitamin C
  15. Humor - Coping with stress (3)
    • laughter stimulates sympathetic nervous system briefly
    • leads to eventual reduction in activity to below baseline
    • produces state of relaxation
  16. Exercise - Coping with stress (6)
    • reduces risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke
    • improves functioning of lungs and lung capacity
    • strengthens heart muscle
    • reduces aging and cholesterol 
    • releases endorphins which make us feel relaxed and happy
    • yoga and pilates also beneficial
  17. Timing and length of work periods - social issues and growth (7)
    • fatigue levels highest around 3 - 5 am
    • performance levels also lowest at this time
    • night work conductive to high fatigue
    • inadequate sleep = more likely to 'doze off'

    • more time working on task = more fatigued person
    • 12 hour shifts very common in some indutries
    • when breaks are absent = more risk of incidents and accidents after 9 hours
  18. fatigue on the road - social issues and growth (6)
    • car accidents major cause of accidental death in Aus
    • fatigue major contributor to accidents
    • includes car, rail, air and marine
    • driving long times = boring = prone to sleepiness and fatigue
    • 20-30% of serious motor crashes in Aus caused by fatigue
    • more likely to crash at night or early mornings
  19. fatigue at work - social issues and growth (4)
    • major concern in industries requiring 24 hour operation
    • in US over 5 million work injuries per year, 30 - 90% occur due to human error
    • sleepiness and fatigue contribute to the occurrence of workplace accidents is estimated as high as 53%
    • many workers falling asleep during work
  20. Preventions of shift workers feeling fatigued (4)
    • Public transport/get a lift
    • eat food
    • get coffee
    • 15-20 min nap
  21. Fatigue counteractions (4)
    • improve sleep hygeine
    • napping strategies
    • strategic use of caffeine
    • foods that enhance/inhibit alertness
  22. Napping strategies (3)
    • improves alertness and performance
    • nap 10 - 20 mins pos effect for 3 - 4 hours
    • may make sleeping later difficult
  23. strategic use of caffeine (4)
    • can increase alertness, but people often abuse it
    • don't drink caffeine if not tired
    • avoid in morning and few hours before bed
    • effects last 3 - 4 hours
  24. Foods that enhance/inhibit alertness (6)
    • better to eat foods that release sugar slowly
    • low fat, high protein food can increase and maintain alertness
    • eat: lean meats
    • hard boiled eggs
    • fish
    • baked beans

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