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Geology is the scientific study of the Earth
Physical Geology is the study of Earth’s materials, changes of the surfaceand interior of the Earth, and the forces that cause those changes
List the four practical aspects of Geology
- 1.Understand your surroundings
- 2.Geologic hazards
- 3.Natural resources
- 4.Environmental protection
A geologic hazard is a natural geologic event that can endanger human lives and threaten human property.
Geologic Hazards occur when the ______ Time Scale and ______ Time Scale interact
Earthquakes and tsunamis are examples of geologic hazards.
Why should we balance Resource Extraction and Environmental Protection?
- b/c Earths environment has nonrenewable resources
- coal mining can release acids into water
List the four systems(spheres) of Earth's system
Describe the Atmosphere of Earth
it is the gases that envelop the Earth
Describe the Hydrosphere of Earth
has water on or near the Earth's surface
Describe the Biosphere of Earth
it is all living or once-living materials
Describe the Geosphere of the Earth
it is rock or other inorganic material that make up the bulk of the planet
What are the two types of heat engines for Earth?
The Earth's external heat engine gets its energy from _____.
The Earths internal heat engine gets its energy from ______.
the heat moving from the interior to the cooler exterior
List the 3 compositional layers of the Earths Interior
Describe one of the compositional layers of the Earths interior, the crust
- 3 to 70 km thick
- two types:
- Continental Crust-thicker and less dense
- Oceanic Crust-thinner and dense
Describe one of the Compositional Layers of the Earths interior, the mantle
- 2900 km thick
- it is a hot solid that flows slowly over time:
- Fe- Mg- Si- rich minerals
Describe one of the Compositional Layers of the Earths interior, the core
- 3400 km radius
- two types:
- Outer Core-metallic liquid; mostly iron(Fe)
- Inner Core-metallic solid:mostly iron (Fe)
List the 2 Mechanical Layers of the Earths Interior
Describe one of the Mechanical Layers of the Earths interior, Lithosphere
- 100km thick
- ridged/brittle outer shell of Earth
- composed of both curst and uppermost mantle
- makes up Earths tectonic plates
Describe one of the Mechanical Layers of the Earths interior, Asthenosphere
- the lower mantle
- plastic (capable of flow)
- the zone on which the lithosphere "floats"
What is the Continental Drift Hypothesis?
- the moving of the continents
- ex: pangea to n.america, s.america, africa,ect.
When was the Continental Drift Hypothesis proposed?
the early 20th century
why was the Continental Drift Hypothesis proposed?
to explain the "fit of the continents"; pangea
what is the plate tectnoics theory?
when the lithosphere is broken into plates that are in motion
when was the Plate Tectonics Theory proposed?
in the late 1960s