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· Summarize why and where carbohydrates are commonly combined with other macromolecules.
o 1,000 glucose molecules would exert 1,000 times the osmotic pressure of a single glycogen molecule, causing water to enter the cells (see Concept 5.2). If it were not for polysaccharides, many organisms would expend a lot of energy expelling excess water from their cells.
· Summarize and predict commonalities and differences in lipid structure and function
o Saturation, configuration, length, number of fatty acid chains, head type
· Describe nonliving infectious agents and summarize how they operate to make you sick.
o Prion: comes from a mutated protein, no DNA, membrane, no RNA, or capsule, nonliving, each is one protein, prions deposits buildup and leads to neurodegenration and death
- Very small: 100th the size of bacteria; 1000th the size of Eukaryotic cell§
- Capsid: protein shell of a virus( helical, icosahedral, complex
- )§ Inside all viruses is some sort of genetic material, either RNA or DNA§
- Variety of shapes and sizes§
- Capsid proteins are used to attach to and gain entry into host cellsex: colds, flu, aids, messels, some cancers
· List the functions of membrane proteins.
- channels that permit the passage of selected ions through the membrane;carriers (or transporters) 'that ferry substances across the membrane by binding to them;o pumps that are carriers which can split ATP and use the energy derived for membrane transport of substrates;o receptors (located on the outside) which bind to specific molecules and send a chemical signal to the cell interior, initiating intracellular reactions;o enzymes, catalyzing reactions at the membrane surfaces - both outer and inner.
· Summarize the three types of passive movement across membranes.
- o Osmosis: the movement of water from high concentration to low concentration of water
- o Diffusion: uses the concentration gradient to move lipid soluble particles between the phsphlipids of the membrane
- o Facilitated diffusion: uses proteis to get across the membrane
· Summarize similarities and differences among diverse membrane lipids
Phospholipids can differ in terms of fatty acid chain length (number of carbon atoms), degree of unsaturation (number of double bonds) in the fatty acids, and the kinds of polar (phosphate-containing) groups present., and the amount of brabnching
o A membrane transport protein that carries a single substance in one direction.
o A membrane transport protein that carries two substances in the same direction.
o membrane transport protein that moves one substance in one direction and another in the opposite direction.