minerals GEO 1

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minerals GEO 1
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2010-06-14 09:53:23
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minerals GEO
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minerals GEO 1
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  1. MINERALS CHARACTERISITCS
    • 1. Naturally occurring
    • 2.Inorganic
    • 3.Solid, never liquids or gases
    • 4. Narrowly defined chemical compostion
    • 5. Atoms are arranged in an orderly repating pattern
  2. ATOMS
    • A. Elements are composed of Atoms
    • B. Parts of an ATOM
    • 1. Nucleus
    • a.Protons-positive charge
    • b.Neutrons-no charge
    • 2. Electrons-negative charge
    • a. Orbit the nucleus in energy levels or shells
    • 3. Atomic number
    • a. Number of protons in the nucleus
    • EXAMPLE
    • i.Carbon is number six on periodic table
    • ii. Atoms of carbon always have 6 protons
  3. BONDING
    • ACompounds-two or more elements bonded together in definite proportions
    • B. Bodning involves the electron in the outermost energy level
    • C. Types of bonds
    • 1.Ionic bonding
    • a.Atoms gain or lose one or more electrons
    • b. Ex:Halite (NaCl)
    • 2.Covalent Bonding
    • a.Atoms share electrons
    • b.Example-Diamond
  4. Mass Numbers and Isotopes
    • A. Mass number
    • 1.Sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
    • 2. Isotopes
    • a.Varities of same element tha thave different numbers of neutrons
    • b.Example
    • i.C12-6 protons, 6 neutrons
    • ii.C14-6 protons, 8 neutrons
  5. Properties of Minerals
    • A. There are about 3500 known minerals
    • 1. Most minerals are compounds-composed of two or more elements bonded together
    • B. Minerals have different properties due to the elements present and the way the elements are bonded together
    • C. Crystal shape
    • 1. The external shape of mineral crystal is a reflection of the arrangement of the elements
    • 2. Crystals form when there is enough space for well shaped crystals to form
    • 3.Crystal faces- flat surfaces
    • 4.Quartz-crystals are six sided pillars with pyramids on the ends
    • 5. Halite-cubic crystals
    • 6.Calcite-rhombohderal crystals
  6. Luster
    • 1. Appearance or quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral
    • 2. Types of luster
    • A. Metallic Luster
    • i.Only a limited number of minerals have metallic luster
    • B.Nonmetallic luster
    • i.A large number of minerals have non metallic luster, so there are different subcategories such as vitreous and earthy
  7. Color
    • 1.Some minerals are color specific
    • 2. Many minerals, such as quartz , occur in a variety of colors
  8. STREAK
    • 1. Color of a mineral when powdered
    • 2. Use a streak plate
  9. Hardness
    • 1. How resistant a mineral is to abrasion
    • 2. Mohs hardness scale
    • a.Scale of relative hardness
    • b.Talc-1, diamond-10
    • 3. Use objects of known hardness to assess hardness of mineral
    • a. fingernail-2, copper penny-3.5, glass-5.5
    • 4. NOTE- ALWAYS PUT THE COPPER PENNY AND GLASS ON A SOLID SURFACE WHEN TESTING HARDNESS
  10. CLEAVAGE
    • 1. Tendency of mineral to break along weak bonds in the atomic structure
    • a. Produces flat planes on the mineral
    • 2.Count the number of directions of cleavage and the angle between the cleavage planes
    • a. One directioin of cleavage
    • b. Two directions of cleavage
    • c. Three directions of cleavage at right angles-halite
    • d. Three directions of cleavage NOT at right angle-calcite
    • e. four directions of cleavage
    • f.Six directions of cleavage
  11. FRACTURE
    • 1. Some minerals break unevenly
    • 2.Conchoidal Fracturee
    • a. Quartz breaks along smooth, curved surfaces
  12. Specific Gravity
    • 1. The ratio of the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water
    • 2. Most minerals have SG=2.5-3.5
    • 3. Some minerals have a high specific gravity and feel heavy -Galena
  13. Specific properties
    • 1. Calcite-effervesces in HCl
    • 2. Talc-feels soapy
    • 3.Halite-tastes salty
    • 4.Magnetite-magnetic
  14. Mineral Groups
    • A. Most abundant elements in the Earths crust
    • 1. Oxygen(O), silicon (Si), Aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na)
    • , potassium (K), magnesium (Mg)
    • B. Minerals grouped according to the elements they are composed of
    • C. Silicate Group
    • 1. Most abundant group of minerals
    • 2. Minerals in this group all have the silicon, oxygen tetrahedron (SiO4)-4, which is a complex ion
    • 3. Silicate minerals are constructed of silicon-oxygen tetrahedral joined together in silicate structures
    • a. Most tetrahedra are joined by sharing oxygen atoms with neighboring tetrahedra
    • 4. Silicates structure
    • a. Isolated tetrahedron
    • i. Linked to neighboring tetrahedral by positive ions
    • b.single chains
    • c. double chains
    • d. sheets- micas (muscovite, biotite)
    • e. Three dimensional networks-Quartz (SiO2)
  15. Carbonate Groupe
    • 1.Minerals in this group all have (CO3)-2 complex ion
    • 2.Calcite -CaCO3
  16. Halide Group
    • 1. Minerals in this group all have halide elements such as chlorine(Cl-1)
    • fluorine(F-1)
    • 2. Halite-NaCl
  17. Oxide Group
    • 1.Minerals in this group have oxygen (O-2) in their atomic structure
    • 2. Hematite-Fe2O3
  18. Sulfates (SO4)-2
    • 1.Gypsum-CaSO42H2O
    • 2. Used to make wallboard
  19. Native Elements
    • 1. Minerals that composed of only one element
    • 2.Native copper, silver and gold, diamond, graphite

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