Pharm Exam 1
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Describe the "perfect" drug
effective, safe, selective, reversible action, predictability, ease of administration, minimal drug interactions, low cost, chemical stability, simple generic name
What is drug tolerance?
Larger dose of the drug needed to achieve the same effect
The study of drugs in humans is referred to as...
The study of drugs and their interactions with living systems is the definition of ...
... is defined as the use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy
Therapeutics or/and pharmacotherapeutics
Any chemical that can affect living processes is a ...
The three most important characteristics that any drugs can have are...
...effectiveness, safety and selectivity
The Greek word pharmakon is translated as ...
The objective of drug therapy is to provide ...
... max benefit with minimum harm
The four major pharmacokinetic processes are ...
... absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
Pharmacodynamics may be thought of as ...
... the impact of the drug on the body
This term refers to the ability of a drug to reach the systemic circulation from its site of administration.
A group of signs and symptoms associated with exposure to a particular substance or class of substances.
The study of how genes affect individual drug responses...
The study of drug movement through the body...
The therapeutic range of a drug lies between...
... the minimal effect and the toxic effect
The study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs and the molecular mechanisms by which those effects are produced...
The amount of drug we must give to elicit an effect is called...
The function of the transcription factors is to ...
...regulate protein synthesis
Molecules that activate receptors that mimic the action of endogenous molecules
Prevents receptor activation...
Binds reversibly by highest concentration
Binds irreversibly for the life of the cell
The study of drugs that alter the process controlled by the nervous system...
What are the only drugs that are proven to work by altering or decreasing axonal conduction?
Beta 1 Receptor responses:
heart stimulation, increase force of contraction
Beta 2 Receptor responses:
bronchodilation, relaxation of uterine muscle (slow labor)
Functions of the parasympathetic nervous system:
GI motility, slow HR, increase glandular and respiratory secretions, constrict bronchioles, constrict pupils
Functions of the sympathetic nervous system:
increase BP, HR, shunt blood from skin to organs at core, bronchial and pupil dilation, release stored energy
Alpha 1 Receptor responses:
vasculature, vasoconstriction, pupil dilation, ejaculation, contraction of bladder neck and prostrate
Alpha 2 Receptor responses:
located in presynaptic junction, minimal clinical significance
3 Neurotransmitters used by the peripheral nervous system:
acetylcholine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
3 Cholinergic Receptors:
- Nicotinic n (neuronal)
- Nicotinic m (muscle)
- Muscarinic (organs)
3 Muscarinic (muscle) subtypes:
- M1 - Salivary/CNS
- M2 - Heart
- M3 - Salivary, GI, Bladder and Eye
- Nictotinc N, M and Muscarinc
- Pupil constriction, increase GI motility & secretions, HR slow down, lungs increase secretions
What is the drug of choice for bradycardia?
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