What are the organizational patterns for a typical composition?
4. Work Cited
What is the 6th step to the 7 step plan?
What library skills were learned?
1. Database skills.
2. Stacks (books).
3. Reference books.
How to determine the research techniques used to write a paper from beginning to end.
1. After finding thesis statement, determine what is needed.
2. Search in all possible research avenues.
3. Begin compiling note cards with source and data.
What is the Toulmin Argument?
Court room (enthymemes)
What are the Literary Devices?
3. Character Development
4. Conflict - Opposition of two forces
5. Point of View
What is the 2nd plan in the 7 step plan?
What is the best way to choose a topic or thesis statement?
Choose something you know and care about. It should be of importance and controversial. It should be plausible and manageable. Take a position on one side or the other - can't take both.
What are the types of research sources?
1. Peer-reviewed journal articles.
2. Newspaper articles.
3. Periodicals (from creditable sources).
4. Websites (from creditable sources).
6. TV news.
7. Reference books.
8. Books (non-fiction).
What does Logos mean?
What should be on a bibliography (source) card?
It should contain the author, title, publisher, published date, city & state where published, and the internet address & download date if from the web.
What is plagiarism?
The practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own.
1. Don't hand in someone else's work.
2. Using information that is not common knowledge and failing to acknowledge the source.
3. Handing in the same paper for two different classes.
4. Using the exact language or expressions of a source and not using quotation marks or citing.
5. Rewriting a passage from source using minor substitutions and not crediting source.
Explain quotes, paraphrases, summaries and use of ellipses, [sic] and [ ].
1. Direct quotes should be in quotation marks, and if more than 4 lines, should be indented .5 characters; source cited as (qtd. in _____ ).
2. Paraphrases should be a acknowledged as being stated by author but not in quotation marks.
3. Summaries need source cited at the end of the paragraph summary.
4. Ellipses are the three dots (always three) that indicate you've left out a word, phrase or even a whole section of a quoted passage in beginning, middle or end [. . .].
5. If someone wrote a word differently than current spelling [sic].
6. If clarifying words in a direct quote [type the clarification].
What is the 7th step in the 7 step plan?
What are the differences between facts, opinions, and statements of facts?
FACT: proven to be true.
STATEMENT OF FACT: can be proven true or false.
OPINION: cannot be proven true or false.
What are the 3 types of opinion?
2. Should/Shouldn't do.
What 3 things make opinions creditable (validity of opinions)?
2. Based on fact
What are the 5 responses to writing?
1. Paraphrase (research by reading and paraphrasing - benefits: If you paraphrase, you have to know it)
2. Personal (likes/dislikes, opinions/judgmental - the emotional response to how it is written)
3. Judgmental (Intellectual - agree/disagree)
4. Analytic (discuss literary devices - how the language is used, etc)
5. Contextual (should be in political, moral, etc. context - must have impact. social/geographical/historical context)
What is the Rogerian Argument?
Compromise (Feminization of argument)
What is Colloquialisms?
A local or regional dialect.
What is inductive and deductive reasoning (and syllogisms)?
The ways we argue individual claims.
The major premise, [Mankind is mortal] minor premise [Socrates is humankind] and specific conclusion [Socrates is mortal].
Syllogism = an instance of a form of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn (whether validly or not) from two given or assumed propositions (premises), each of which shares a term with the conclusion, and shares a common or middle term not present in the conclusion (e.g., all dogs are animals; all animals have four legs; therefore all dogs have four legs).
How do you cite internal (parenthetical) documentation?
To cite a research source, place it at the end of a sentence (Author 12).
If you wish to add it in the middle of a sentence (Author 12), make sure it doesn't interfere with the flow.
**The author's name and the page number are separated by a space - not a comma - with the punctuation after the closed parenthesis.
Describe denotation and connotation.
Denotation = the literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests. (the true meaning of the words).
Connotation = an idea or feeling that a word invokes person in addition to its literal or primary meaning. (the emotional impact of the words).
What does Ethos mean?
What is Jargon?
What is the 1st step to the 7 step plan?
What are trite words?
Trite words are default words that are stale from over use. "Awesome, Great, Wonderful..."
What are cliches?
A phrase that is used quite often to describe something: Good things come to those who wait. Born with a silver spoon in his mouth. Dressed to kill. Good as gold.
What is Euphemisms?
Fat ---> Chubby, big boned, chunky, husky.
What is the Classical Argument?
Stock Issue (back up what you say)
What is enthymeme?
The informal method of reasoning typical of rhetorical discourse.
We cannot trust this man, for he has perjured himself in the past. -- In this enthymeme, the major premise of the complete syllogism is missing:Those who perjure themselves cannot be trusted. (Major premise - omitted) This man has perjured himself in the past. (Minor premise - stated) This man is not to be trusted. (Conclusion - stated)
What is mean by circumlocution?
The use of many words where fewer would do, esp. in a deliberate attempt to be vague or evasive. (Dancing around the subject).
What is gobbledygook?
Unclear words / jargon. Example: Tax increase is a revenue enhancement.
What is sexism in language?
Sexism in language is when you state a Mail Carrier as Mail Man.
What is the 4th step in the 7 step plan?
What are the two types of process analysis compositions?
What are three reader's attitudes toward writing?
1. Support (agreement)
2. Apathy (don't care)
3. Antagonistic (out to get you)
What is the difference between hierarchical vs. linear development?
Hierarchical development is where all writing points back to main topic. Linear is where the writing goes from one point to another without ever going back to main point.
What are the three characteristics of a successful and fully developed paragraph?
What is the Monroe Argument?
Proposal (problem & solution)
What are Aristotle's Three +1 Argumentative Appeals?
1. Ethos - meaning ethics (creditability)
2. Pathos - meaning emotions
3. Logos - meaning logic
4. Mythos - meaning cultural archetypes (things we value or embrace)
Name the methods of development.
1. Chronological - Order of time
2. Empathic - least powerful to most powerful emotion
3. Spatial - order of space
6. Stock Issue - several equal issues into logical pieces
Name some invention strategies.
1. The 7 step plan.
3. Free writing.
4. Clustering / Mind Mapping.
What does Pathos mean?
What is Slang?
Language used by a particular group of people.
What are the 3 types of Irony?
1. Situational - leads you to one conclusion and opposite happens.
2. Dramatic - believing something is true when reader knows better.
3. Tonal - says one thing and means the opposite (sarcasm/satire)
What is Parallelism?
Putting words together in a series (word, word and word)