Bio Unit 1 b

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Author:
heather.hardincourt
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234710
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Bio Unit 1 b
Updated:
2013-09-14 00:09:39
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Bio Unit
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Bio Unit 1 b
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  1. what happens to a protein when it is denatured
    protein will lose its shape and its ability to function often high temps are to blame but various chemical treatments can be the cause. bonds will be broken
  2. various functions of proteins
    • - enzymes - catalysts for biochemical reactions
    • - structure - collagen
    • - movement - heart muscles within cells
    • - transport - hemoglobin, lipo proteins within cell
    • - chemical - messengers
    • - receptors - molecules, proteins on surface of cell
    •  - defense - immune system
  3. nucleic acid
    • least diverse
    • only 5 building blocks
    • 2 kinds of sugars
  4. monomer of nucleic acid is composed of what
    nucleotides have pentose (5C sugar), phosphate and nitrogenous base (DNA, RNA, nitrogen, skeleton)
  5. 2 polynucleotides
    DNA - genetic material double helix

    RNA - protein synthesis single strand
  6. 4 levels of protein structure
    • 1. Primary
    • 2. Secondary - helix, pleated sheet 2 main
    • 3. Tertiary
    • 4. Quaternary - must have 2 or more polypeptides
  7. 4 levels of protein structure examples
    • 1. transthyretin - globular blood protein transports vit. A and hormones through body
    • 2.
    • 3. hydrophobic interaction
    • 4. collagen
  8. protein confirmation and its importance
    environment and bonding structure determines function


    determined by set of amino acids assigned to it
  9. saturated fats
    • hard @ room temps
    • single bonds between carbons
    • most are animal fat
    • many hydrogen atoms bond to skeleton
  10. unsaturated fats
    • double bonds between carbons
    • usually liquids
    • mostly plants
  11. properties, structure, and function of fats, phospholipids, steroids.
    phospholipids - 2 fatty acids, glycerol, phosphate group, hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails, form bilayer in H2O, major component of cell membranes.

    Steroids - skeleton 4 fused carbon ring found in animal cell membranes, precursor of steroid hormones.
  12. properties, structure, and function of fats, phospholipids, steroids.
    Fats - glycerol bonded to 3 fatty acids for energy storage, insulation and padding
  13. carbon versatility
    • 4 covalent bonds
    • smallest atom
  14. skeleton
    • long, bending, double bonds where double bonds cannot bond to more than 4 bonds
    • can attach to other carbons and make other branches
  15. isomers
    • some molecular formula shaped differently
    • C5H10 molecular formula
    • geometric isomers only if double bonds are present
  16. Amino Acids
    carbon, hydrogen, carboxyl, antimer all have except glycine - no antimer
  17. monosaccharide
    • single monomer glucose fructose functioning energy for cells synthesizing other organic molecules
    • has CH2O in all formulas
  18. disaccharide
    • 2 linked monosaccharide's by a glycoside linkage, transporting energy
    • glucose, maltose, fructose, sucrose
  19. polysaccharides
    • large polymers
    • storage energy
    • starch - glucose polysaccharide of plants
    • glycogen - glucose polysaccharide of animals
  20. functions of macromolecules
    • lipids - monomer - fatty acids
    • proteins - monomer- amino acids
    • nucleus acid - monomer - nucleotides
    • carbohydrates - monomer - monosaccharide
  21. 4 major groups of organic molecules
    • 1. carbohydrate
    • 2. lipids
    • 3. proteins
    • 4. nucleic acid
  22. carbohydrate
    • exp.
    • glucose - short term energy source
    • glycogen - transport long term energy storage
  23. lipids
    • exp.
    • fats and oils -
    •                     functions
    • 1. components of membranes
    • 2. long term energy storage
    • 3. insolation
  24. proteins
    • exp.
    • enzyme - organic catalysts
    • sucrose and lactose - digestive enzyme
    • keratin - structural protein in hair
    • collagen - structural protein in skin
  25. nucleic acid
    • exp.
    • DNA - informative molecule
    • RNA - molecule of heredity
    • ATP - director of metabolism involved in protein synthesis immediate source of energy for cellular work
  26. hydrolysis
    proteins are broken down into organic monomers by hydrolysis. This process reverses dehydration reaction
  27. functional groups
    • 1. hydroxyl - polar -OH ethanol
    • 2. carbonyl - acetone simple ketone propanal aldehyde
    • 3. carboxyl - acetic acid vinegar taste
    • 4. amino - glycine (amino & carboxyl) amino acids
    • 5. sulfhydryl - cysteine sulfur containing amino acids
    • 6. phosphate - glycerol phosphate reactions in cells
    • 7. methyl - 3 methyl cytosine
  28. carbons 4 valence shells
    carbon has 4 valence electrons which enables it to share electrons with other atoms
  29. carbon skeltons
    vary in length and can be double bonded, branched, or arranged in close rings.

    some have double bonds which vary in # and location.  such variations in carbon skeletons is one important source of molecule complexity and diversity that characterizes living matter

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