APSC vocab

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  1. Animal Science
    The combination of disciplines that together comprise the study of domestic animals
  2. Avian
    Pertaining to poultry and/or foul
  3. Barrow
    A castrated male hog
  4. Biometry
    The application of statistics to topics in biology
  5. Boar
    An intact male hog.
  6. Broiler
    A chicken of either sex produced and used for meat purposes. also called fryer
  7. Buck
    Intact male goat; intact male rabbit
  8. Calorie
    A measurement of food energy. A kilocalorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g or water by 1 degree
  9. Chick
    A young chicken or gamebird of either sex from 1 day old to about 5-6 weeks
  10. Colt
    A young male horse
  11. Doe
    A female goat; a female rabbit
  12. Domestic animals
    Those species that have been brought under human control
  13. Filly
    A young female horse
  14. Equine
    pertaining to horses
  15. Ewe
    a female sheep
  16. Filly
    a young female horse
  17. Foal
    A newborn horse of either sex.
  18. Gelding
    A castrated male horse
  19. Gilt
    Any female pig that has not yet given birth. sometimes used after the first litter as a "first litter gilt"
  20. Hen
    A mature female chicken or turkey
  21. Husbandry
    The combined animal care and management practices
  22. Lamb
    A sheep under 1 year of age. Also the meat from a sheep under 1 year of age.
  23. Layer
    A hen in the physiological state of producing eggs regularly
  24. Mare
    A mature female horse
  25. Meat
    The flesh of animals used for food
  26. Per Capita
    Per unit of population
  27. Pork
    the meat from a hog. "pig meat"
  28. Poultry
    Domestic birds raised for eggs and meat
  29. Rooster
    A mature male chicken. also referred to as a cock
  30. Sow
    A female pig that has given birth
  31. Stallion
    A mature intact male horse
  32. Tom
    An intact male turkey. Also called a "gobbler"
  33. Beef
    The meat from cattle other than calves (that is called veal)
  34. Bovine
    Refers to cattle
  35. Bull
    intact male bovine
  36. Calf
    A young bovine animal under 1 year of age
  37. Caprine
    refers to goats
  38. Cow
    A sexually mature female bovine, usually one that has produced a calf
  39. cwt.
    abbreviation for hundredweight (100 lbs)
  40. Heifer
    young female bovine before having her first calf
  41. Mutton
    meat from a sheep 1 year or older
  42. Ovine
    refers to sheep
  43. Porcine
    refers to swine
  44. Steer
    a castrated male bovine animal
  45. By-Products
    Substances left over after meat is removed that still have value
  46. Companion Animal
    An animal to whom an owner has in intense emotional tie
  47. Contract grower
    Producers who contract with an organization to produce a product for a price determines through a contractual arrangement
  48. Economy of size
    a relatively simple concept revolving around the maximization of the use of equipment, labor, and other costly items
  49. Farrow
    In swine, the term used to indicate giving birth
  50. Feeder pig
    Generally thought of as a pig weighing between 30 and 90 lbs.
  51. Feedlot
    An area or building where livestock are fattened for market
  52. Grain- fed beef
    Graze on pasture before moving to feedlot where they are fed a balanced diet of grain
  53. Finishing Phase
    The final feeding stage when animals are readied for market
  54. Forage
    Fiber containing feeds like grass or hay. can be grazed or harvested for feeding
  55. Milk
    The normal secretion of the mammary glands of female animals
  56. Mohair
    The fiber produced by the Angora goat
  57. Nursery Pig
    Early Weaned pig of light weight housed in special, environmentally controlled housing. 10-15 lbs and 2-3 weeks of age
  58. Nutrient
    Chemical substance that provides nourishment to the body. Essential nutrients are those necessary for normal maintenance, growth, and function
  59. Nutrient Density
    Measurement of essential nutrients compared to caloric content
  60. Seedstock
    Broodstock (offspring) intended for future production
  61. Stocker Calf
    Weaned calf being grown prior to placement in a feedlot
  62. Vertical intergration
    The control of two adjacent stages in the vertical marketing channel from producers to consumers
  63. Xeno-transplantation
    Transplanting animal organs into humans
  64. Antemortem
    Before death
  65. Cutability
    Fat, lean, and bone composition of meat animals; used interchangeably with Yield Grade
  66. Dressing Percentage (Yield)
    The percentage of the live animal that becomes the carcass; determined by diving carcass weight by live weight and multiplying by 100.
  67. Early Maturity
    • 1) reaches full development quickly
    • 2) reaches market size and finish quickly
    • 3) Tendency to grow and fatten at the same time
  68. Finish
    The degree of fatness of an animal
  69. Lard
    Rendered (processed) fat from swine
  70. Marbling
    Intramuscular fat; distribution of fat within muscle
  71. Market class
    Grouping of animals according to use or characteristic (Ex: Angus feeder steers)
  72. Market grade
    Animals grouped within a market class according to their value
  73. Meatiness
    Degree of muscling; ratio of muscle to fat and bone
  74. Offal
    All organs and tissues removed from an animal during the slaughter process
  75. Pelt
    The natural whole skin, including the wool, hair, or fur.
  76. Primal Cuts
    The most valuable portions of a carcass; usually includes leg, loin and rib but may include other cuts as well
  77. Shrink
    loss of weight, generally used in reference to the marketing process
  78. Tallow
    Rendered (processed) fat from cattle or sheep
  79. Veal
    Meat from very young cattle, usually under 3 months of age
  80. Wasty
    As applied to a carcass, this term means having too much fat, requiring excessive trimming; may also be applied to paunchy live animals
  81. Additive gene action
    When the total phenotypic effect is the sum of the individual effect of the alleles
  82. Alleles
    One of two or more alternative forms of a gene occupying corresponding sites (loci) on homologous chromosomes.
  83. Biotechnology
    A collective set of tools and applications of living organisms to make or modify products
  84. Breed
    Animals with common ancestry that have distinguishable, fixed characteristics.
  85. Crossbreeding
    Mating animals of diverse genetic backgrounds within species
  86. EPD
    expected progeny difference; a value equal to half the breeding value for an animal
  87. Epistasis
    Interaction among genes at different loci.
  88. Gametes
    Mature sperm in the male and egg or ova in the female. The reproductive cells
  89. Gene
    a short segment of a chromosome. Direct the synthesis of proteins or perform regulatory functions
  90. Genetic engineering
    The term most frequently used to describe the technologies for moving genes from one animal of one species to another
  91. Genome
    The complete genetic material of an organism
  92. Genotype
    The genetic makeup of an organism
  93. Heritability
    A measure of the proportion of phenotypic variation that is caused by additive gene effects.
  94. Heterosis
    The superiority of an outbreed individual relative to the average performance of the parent populations
  95. Homologous
    Chromosomes with the same size and shape, occurring in pairs, and effecting the same traits
  96. Homozygous
    When two genes of a gene pair are the same
  97. Inbreeding
    Mating systems in which mated individuals have on common ancestor appearing several times at least 3-4 generations back in the pedigree
  98. Outbreeding
    The process of mating less closely related individuals when compared to the average of the populations
  99. F1
    two breed cross animals
  100. Phenotypic value
    A measure of individual's performance for a specific unit
  101. Selection
    The process of allowing some animals to be parents more than others
  102. Breed type
    Distinctive features in which one breed differs from another
  103. Conformation
    the physical form of an animal; its shape and arrangement of parts
  104. Cull
    To eliminate one or more animals from a herd
  105. Full (half) sibs
    Animals have the same sire and dam (full), or one parent in common (Half)
  106. Pedigree
    The record of the ancestry of an animal
  107. Purebred
    An animal eligible for registry with a recognized breed organization
  108. Scrub
    a very inferior animal in breeding and conformation; ancestry unknown
  109. Anestrus
    period of time when a female is not having estrous cycles
  110. Colostrum
    Specialized milk produced in the early days following parturition to provide extra nutrients and immune function
  111. Conception
    When the sperm fertilizes the ovum
  112. Dystocia
    difficulty in birthing
  113. Estrous Cycle
    the time from one period of sexual receptivity in the female (estrus or heat) to the next
  114. Estrus
    the period when a female is receptive to mating; heat
  115. Farrow
    in swine, the term to give birth
  116. Flushing
    Feeding extra feed to stimulate estrus and ovulation rates
  117. Freemartin
    Condition in cattle in which the female born twin to a bull is infertile because of improper development of the female anatomy
  118. Gestation
    the period when the female is pregnant
  119. Gonads
    Sex organs; testis in male, ovary in female
  120. In vitro
    In a test tube or other environment outside the body
  121. Involution
    an organ's return to a normal state or size.
  122. Libido
    sexual drive
  123. Lordosis
    pasture assumed by females in estrus in response to pressure applied to the back
  124. Mastitis
    Inflammation of the mammary gland, most often caused by bacterial infection.
  125. Milk
    the normal secretion of the mammary glands on female mammals
  126. Monoestrous
    Exhibiting only one estrous cycle
  127. Ovulation
    release of the ovum or egg from the ovary
  128. Parturition
    process of giving birth
  129. Passive immunity
    immunity conferred to an animal through pre-formed antibodies that it receives from an outside source.
  130. Polyestrous
    exhibiting more than one estrous cycle
  131. Postpartum
    after parturition (birth)
  132. Puberty
    Transition state through which animals progress from an immature reproductive and hormonal state to a mature state
  133. Secondary sex characteristics
    Characteristics that differentiate the sexes from each other
  134. Semen
    Fluid from the male that contains sperm from the testes and secretions from several other reproductive organs
  135. Stud
    a unit of male animals kept for breeding
  136. Calve
    to give birth to a calf
  137. Cryptorchidism
    the retention of one or both testicles in the abdominal cavity of an animal that normally has testicles descended into the scrotal sac
  138. Cycling
    nonpregnant females that have active estrous cycles
  139. Dry
    refers to a non lactating mammal
  140. Embryo
    very early stage of development of an individual within the uterus.
  141. Fetus
    later stage of development of an individual within the uterus. usually the second half of pregnancy
  142. Hormone
    chemical substance secreted by a ductless gland
  143. open
    refers to non-pregnant females
  144. Parity
    number of different times a female has given birth
  145. Prolific
    reproducing regularly and numerously
  146. Service
    to breed or mate
  147. Settle
    to become pregnant
  148. Anterior
    Situated in front of or towards the front part of a point of reference; toward the head of an animal
  149. Caudal
    Toward the tail of an animal
  150. Cranial
    Toward the head of an animal
  151. Distal
    Position that is distant from the point of attachment of an organ
  152. Dorsal
    of, on, or near the back of an animal
  153. Lateral
    Away from the median plane (that plane that divides the body into left and right halves, front to rear)
  154. Medial
    Towards the median plane (that plane that divides the body into left and right halves, front to rear)
  155. Posterior
    Toward the rear of an animal
  156. Proximal
    The position closest to the point of attachment of an organ
  157. Ventral
    Away from (below) the backbone or toward the mid-abdominal wall
  158. Abomasum
    The true glandular stomach in the ruminant
  159. Ad libitum
    having feed available at all times
  160. Anaerobic
    conditions that lack molecular oxygen
  161. Ash
    the incombustible residue remaining after complete combustion of a feed sample.
  162. Bolus
    A rounded mass that is ready to swallow
  163. Carbohydrates
    Chemically defined as polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketanes, or substances that can be hydrolyzed to them.
  164. Carnivore
    Animals that subsist on meat
  165. Cellulose
    A carbohydrate composed of thousands of glucose molecules that forms the support structure of plants
  166. Chyme
    The mixture of food, saliva, and gastric secretions as it is ready to leave the stomach and go into the duodenum
  167. Corprophgy
    eating feces
  168. Creep
    an area where young nursing animals can have access to starter feeds.
  169. Crude fiber
    in proximate analysis, the insoluble carbohydrates remaining in a feed after boiling in acid and alkali
  170. Crude Protein
    An estimate of protein content obtained by multiplying the nitrogen content of a substance by the factor 6.25
  171. Deglutition
    the act of swallowing
  172. Diet
    All of the feeds consumed by an animal, including water
  173. Digestibility
    A measure of the degree to which a feedstuff can be chemically simplified and absorbed by the digestive system of the body
  174. Digestion
    The physical, chemical, and enzymatic means the body uses t render a feedstuff ready for adsorption
  175. Dry matter
    Everything in a feed other than water
  176. Enzymes
    Proteins capable of catalyzing reactions associated with a specific substrate
  177. Eructation
    Belching, Removing gas from the rumen via the esophagus
  178. Ether Extract
    In proximate analysis, the portion of a sample that is removed by extraction with a fat solvent such as ethyl ether
  179. Feed efficiency
    Product per unit of feed
  180. Forage
    Fiber containing feeds like grass or hay, can be grazed or harvested for feeding. contain at least 18% fiber
  181. Growth
    The process of adding tissues similar to those already present in the body to increase the size of an organism
  182. Herbivore
    Animals that eat a diet of only plant material
  183. Lignin
    Polymers of phenolic acid found in plants as part of the structural components of the plant. it is indigestible.
  184. Maintenance
    The nutritional needs of the animal exclusive of those required for a productive function such as growth or milk production
  185. Mastication
    The process of chewing
  186. Minerals
    In nutrition, the specific set of inorganic elements thus far established as necessary for life in one or more animal species
  187. Monogastric
    Having only one stomach. do not have rumen
  188. Nitrogen free extract
    In proximate analysis, a measure of readily available carbohydrates calculated by subtracting all measured proximate components from 100
  189. Nutrient
    A chemical substance that provides nourishment to the body
  190. Omnivore
    Animals that eat both plant and animal based foods
  191. Peristalsis
    The progressive squeezing movements produced by the contraction of muscle fibers in the wall of the digestive tract. purpose: to move material down the tract
  192. Protein quality
    A measure f the presence and digestibility of the essential amino acids in feeds
  193. Ration
    The specific feed allotment given to an animal in a 24 hour period
  194. Roughage
    A bulky feedstuff with low weight per unit volume. Contains at least 18% fiber, but up to 50% less digestible that forages
  195. Ruminant
    Hooved animals that have a rumen and chew the cud
  196. Rumination
    The process in ruminants where a cud or bolus of rumen contents is regurgitated, remasticated, and reswallowed for further digestion.
  197. Salivation
    The elaboration of the mixed secretion produced primarily in 3 bilateral glands in the mouth known as salivary glands
  198. Symbiosis
    A relationship in which dissimilar organisms live together or in close association.
  199. Vitamin
    Term that is used to group together a dissimilar set of organic substances required in very small amounts by the body
  200. Work
    Physical exertion as a production function
  201. Adipose
    fat cells or fat tissue
  202. As Fed
    refers to feeding feed that contains their normal amount of moisture
  203. By-product
    a product of considerably less value than the main product
  204. Essential Nutrient
    a nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be supplied in the diet
  205. Non-nutritive feed additive
    ingredient added to a diet to perform a specific role other than supplying nutrients
  206. Fermentation
    anaerobic metabolic process that converts sugars to acids, gases, and/or alcohol using yeast or bacteria
  207. Regurgitation
    the process by which partially digested feed in cast up to the mouth as a normal part of digestion
  208. Silage
    forage or other plant matter such as corn fodder that is preserved by fermentation; similar to pickled food
  209. Volatile Fatty Acids
    a group of short chain fatty acids produced by microbes in the rumen; examples includes acetic, proprionic, and butyric acids
  210. Boxed Beef
    Cuts of beef shipped in boxes from packer to retailer. These primal and subprimal cuts are intermediate cuts between carcass and retail cuts
  211. Bullock
    A young bull, typically less than 20 months of age
  212. Margin
    The difference in cost per hundredweight of the feeder animal and the selling price per hundredweight if the slaughter animal
  213. Antibiotic
    A drug used to treat infection caused by bacteria or other microorganisms
  214. Antibodies
    Proteins produced by the body that attack infectious agents and neutralize them
  215. Applied Ethology
    The study of domestic animal behavior
  216. Aversive Event
    A negative experience that may be painful, frightening, or nauseating. It may even involve the senses.
  217. Classical Conditioning
    the type of conditioning demonstrated by Pavlov in which a reflex like response can be stimulated by a neural stimulus.
  218. Clinical Sign
    Observable difference in an animal's normal function or state of health that indicates the presence of a bodily disorder or disease.
  219. Cortisol
    A hormone produces by the adrenal cortex; elevated during stress
  220. Cribbing
    An undesirable behavior in horses in which they bite or hold on to objects such as fence posts
  221. Disease
    State of being other than  complete health
  222. Dominance
    In behavior, an animal's place in the social ranking.
  223. Ethogram
    A catalog or inventory of all the behaviors an animal exhibits in its natural environment.
  224. Ethology
    The study of animals in their natural surroundings. The focus is on instinctive or innate behavior
  225. Etiology
    • The study of the factors that cause disease;
    • the factor that causes a disease
  226. Flight Zone
    The distance which an animal is caused to flee from an intruder
  227. Grading Up
    In animal species, the process of improving animals for some productive function by consecutive matings with animals considered to be genetically superior
  228. Habituation
    A type of operant conditioning. It refers to an animals ability to eventually ignore something that occurs often
  229. Imprint learning
    Learning that has restrictive conditions and times when it can occur
  230. Infectious disease
    Diseases caused by living organisms, which invade and multiply in or on the body and result in damage to the body
  231. Lesion
    Abnormal changes in body organs because of injury or disease
  232. Necropsy
    The examination of a body after death
  233. Novelty
    Anything new or sudden in an animal's environment
  234. Parasite
    An organism that lives at the expense of a host organism
  235. Passive immunity
    Immunity conferred to an animal through preformed antibodies that it receives from an outside source
  236. Pathogen
    Any living disease producing agent
  237. Pica
    A craving for and willingness to eat unnatural feed-stuffs. often caused by  nutritional deficiencies
  238. Stereotypic behavior
    nonfunctional, repetitive, and intentional behavior.
  239. Stress
    A physical, emotional, or chemical factor causing body or mental strain or tension.
  240. Vector
    Animal, usually an arthropod, that transfers an infectious agent form one host to another
  241. Withdrawal time
    The length of time an antibiotic must not be administered or fed to an animal before the animal can be legally slaughtered
  242. Zoonotic
    The ability to be passed form animals to humans under natural conditions
  243. Anthelmintics
    A drug or chemical agent used to kill or remove internal parasites
  244. Antigen
    A foreign substance, that when introduced into tissue or blood, causes the formation of antibodies
  245. Biologicals
    Medicinal products used primarily to prevent disease. Includes serums, vaccines, antigens, antitoxins...
  246. Chemotherapeutics
    Chemical agents used to treat or prevent disease
  247. Drench
    To give fluid by mouth
  248. Environment
    The sum total of all external conditions that affect the well being and performance of an animal
  249. Intelligence
    The ability to learn, to adjust, successfully to conditions or situations
  250. Morbidity
    measurement of illnesss
  251. Scours
    Diarrhea; a profuse watery discharge from the intestines
  252. Subcutaneous
    under the skin
  253. Thermo-neutral zone
    Range in temperature where rate and efficiency of gain in maximized; also known as the comfort zone
  254. Vaccine
    Suspension of attenuated (killed) microbes or toxins administered to induce active immunity
  255. Virus
    disease causing ultramicroscopic bundle of genetic material capable of multiplying in living cells
  256. Backfat
    the subcutaneous fat on an animal's back
  257. Biosecurity
    Procedures designed to minimize disease transmission from outside and inside a production unit
  258. Hog
    Pig, either sex, usually between 160lbs and market weight
  259. Pig
    Young of swine, usually under six months of age
  260. Angora
    A specialized fiber producing breed of goat
  261. Browse
    The tender twigs and leaves from brush and trees
  262. flock
    a group of sheep
  263. Kidding
    parturition in goats
  264. Mohair
    the fiber produced by the Angora goat
  265. Wool
    The fiber that grows instead of hair on the bodies of sheep
  266. Break joint
    the cartilaginous junction where the foot and pastern are removed from the front leg on a lamb carcass
  267. Dock
    • 1. to cut off the tail
    • 2. the remaining portion of the tail of a sheep after it is docked
    • 3. to reduce or lower in value
  268. Fleece
    The wool shorn from all parts of the sheep at one time
  269. Pelt
    the natural whole skin covering, including the wool, hair, or fur
  270. Ram
    Intact male sheep; typically refers to a sexually mature animal
  271. Shearing
    the process of removal of the wool from a sheep
  272. Spool joint
    the joint where the foot and pastern are removed from the front leg of a sheep carcass. a carcass must have 2 spool joints to be classified as mutton
  273. Wether
    a male sheep castrated before puberty
  274. yolk
    • 1. yellow part of an egg
    • 2. the natural grease (lanolin) of wool
  275. Agribussiness
    The segment of agriculture that deals in sales and service to production agriculturists and consumers
  276. Contract integration
    When one firm from one industry phase contracts with a fir at an adjacent phase for products and/or services
  277. Strategic Alliances
    Partnerships between various independent segments of an industry to maximize cooperation, value, and return on investment
  278. value-added product
    A product processed in some way that has enhanced its value
  279. Vertical coordination
    The process of organizing, synchronizing, or orchestrating the flow of products from producers to consumers and the reverse flow of information from consumers to producers
  280. Balance sheet
    A statement of assets owned and liabilities owned in dollar terms that shows the equity or net worth at a specific point in time; also known as a net worth statement
  281. Cash-flow Statement
    A financial statement summarizing all cash receipts and disbursements over the period of time covered by the statement
  282. Body condition
    the amount of fat on an animal's body
  283. Colic
    a broad term that means digestive disturbance. considered the most prevalent ,costly, and dangerous disease in horses
  284. Hand
    equals 4 inches, horses are measure at the withers for height
  285. Laminitis
    Commonly referred to as "founder", an inflammation of the laminae of the hoof
  286. Prepotent
    An animal that transmits it characteristics to its offspring in a consistent fashion
  287. Teasing
    Placing a stallion and a  mare in proximity to each other and observing the mare's actions
  288. Unsoundness
    Any injury or defect that interferes with the ability of an animal to be used for its given purpose
  289. Blemish
    any defect or injury that mars the appearance of, but does not interfere with the usefulness of, an animal.
  290. Jack (jackass)
    male donkey
  291. Jenny (jennet)
    female donkey
  292. Mule
     the offspring of a jack mated to a mare; they are usually sterile
  293. Pony
    small horse, less than 14.2 hands at the withers
  294. Broodiness
    When a hen stops laying eggs and prepares to sit on the eggs to incubate them. Once the eggs hatch the hen will care for them
  295. Cock
    a rooster aged 1 year or older
  296. Cockerel
    a rooster less than 1 year old
  297. Fowl
    any bird, but generally refers to the larger birds.
  298. Gander
    a male goose
  299. Incubation
    the process of sitting on eggs by a hen to warm them with the body heat so that the eggs develop into young. Can also be done in an incubator
  300. Molting
    The shedding of feathers by chickens. Usually egg laying is reduced or stops during molting
  301. Poult
    Baby turkeys. Once sex can be determined that are called toms or hens
  302. Pullet
    a young female chicken
  303. Tom
    an intact male turkey
  304. Trapnest
    a nest that traps a hen while she is on the nest so that her production and egg quality can be recorded
  305. Capon
    castrated male chicken
  306. Clutch
    eggs laid by a hen on consecutive days
  307. Down
    soft, fluffy type of feather located under the contour feathers; serves as insulating material
  308. Drake
    mature male duck
  309. Tim
    a castrated turkey
  310. AAFCO
    Association of American Feed Control Officials. an organization that provides a mechanism for developing and implementing uniform and equitable laws, regulations, standards, and enforcement policies to regulate the distribution and sale of animal feeds
  311. Bitch
    a female dog
  312. Companion animal
    an animal to whom an owner has an intense emotional tie
  313. Pet
    an animal kept for pleasure rather than utility
  314. Queen
    a female cat
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APSC vocab
2013-12-15 23:54:38
animal poultry science vocabulary chapters

Animal Science review
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