bio 1151-H

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bio 1151-H
2013-09-14 18:50:18
bio 1151

COD bio 1151 exam 1
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  1. What are the 5 steps to the scientific method?
    • 1. Observation
    • 2. Hypothesis
    • 3. Experimentation
    • 4. Analysis
    • 5. Peer review
  2. What is inductive reasoning?
    generalize from a large number of specific observations
  3. What is deductive reasoning?
    • (general to specific)
    • assume generalizations apply to scientific observations
  4. What is a hypothesis?
    Your idea
  5. What is a Theory?
    Many people agree with your hypothesis
  6. What is Law?
  7. Why are there experimental standards?
    For purposes of comparisons
  8. What are blind experiments?
    paitent doesn't know
  9. What are double blind experiments?
    Patient and experimenter do not know
  10. Define biology.
    life science
  11. What are the characteristics of living organisms?
    • 1. Reproduction
    • 2. Cell
    • 3. metabolism
    • 4. ordered in structure
    • 5. growth and development
    • 6. adapt
    • 7. carbon based
  12. What is matter?
    anything which takes up space and has mass
  13. What is energy?
    ability to do work or cause change (measured in Joule, or calorie)
  14. What is an atom?
    smallest unit of chemical element which cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
  15. What are elements?
    different forms of atoms each is defined by proton number
  16. What are isotopes?
    Variation of atomic form. Varies in terms of neutron number.
  17. What is a valence shell?
    outermost electrons
  18. What is octect rule?
    • 8-stable
    • 7-gain 1 e
    • 6-gain 2 e
    • 3-5 gain or lose
    • 2 lose 2 e
    • 1 lose 1 e
  19. What is a free radical?
    molecule that contains an atom that steals electrons from other molecules to complete its valence shell this causes damage to the cell
  20. What are chemical bonds?
    bond energy determines stability
  21. What is a non-polar covalent bond?
    occurs between atoms that have the same electroegativity
  22. What is electronegativity?
    tendency to attract electrons
  23. What is a polar covalent bond?
    Molecule has electrically charged sides. (Water) atoms that bond differ in elctronegativity
  24. What is an ionic bond?
    Valence electrons are stripped from one atom by another
  25. What is a hydrogen bond?
    temporary bond (10^-4 seconds) of hydrogen atoms due to differences in electronegativity
  26. What are Van der Waals interactions?
    attractive forces between molecules that becomes temporarily polar (due to electrons orbiting around)
  27. What are chemical reactions?
    Involve making and breaking chemical bonds due to differences in electronegativity and changes in energy content
  28. Why is water so important?
    • 1. Polar- also being a liquid, water is a good solvent of other polar molecules
    • 2. high specific heat - resist changes in temperature
    • 3. Dissociates slightly - H20 -> H + OH
    • 4. Cohesive - stacks together
    • 5. Adhesive - sticks together
    • 6. Water organizes non-polar molecules there by affecting the structures of proteins, DNA, and membranes
  29. What is a acid?
    proton donors (H+)
  30. What is an inorganic acid?
    Hydrocloric, Sulfric
  31. What is a organic acid
    citric acid
  32. What is pH?
    measure of H+ concentration
  33. What is a base?
    Hydroxide donors (OH-) feels soapy to the touch
  34. What are buffers?
    resist changes in pH by absorbing or releasing H+ (Bicarbonate)
  35. What are electrolytes?
    Salts,acids, and bases which conduct electrical currents when placed in water due to charged particles
  36. What are Organic molecules?
    contain carbon
  37. What are isomers?
    Have same chemical empirical formula, however, differ in arrangement to some degree
  38. What are Geocentric isomers?
    different dimensional structures due to inflexible double convalent bonds
  39. What is an Enantiomer?
    Mirror image isomer
  40. What are carbohydrates?
  41. What is monsacharide?
    smallest carb, is sweet
  42. What is a disacharide?
    two monosacharides sweet
  43. What is a polysaccharide?
    Chains of monsacharides, not sweet
  44. Starch belongs to...
  45. Glycogen belongs to...
  46. Cellulose belongs to...
  47. Chitin belongs to...
  48. What are lipids shaped like?
  49. Saturated fats belong to...
  50. unsaturated fats belong to...
  51. Peptides are made up of
    amino acids
  52. Polypeptides are made up of...
  53. Proteins are made up of...
  54. What are the two structural types for proteins?
    • Fibrous (tendons, ligaments)
    • Globular (enzymes)
  55. What are the levels of structural conformation?
    • 1. Primary - sequence of amino acids that compose a protein
    • 2. Secondary - coiling or pleating of a protein
    • 3. Tertiary- coiling if the polypeptide upon itself
    • 4. Quaternary- two or more polypeptides complex to make a protien
  56. What is Denaturing?
    When a protein falls apart (Due to heat)
  57. What are protein chaperonins?
    proteins that fold other proteins 
  58. What are the two nucleic acids?
    • Deoxyribonucleic acids DNA
    • ribonucleic acid RNA
  59. When did humans began to understand the cell?
    1600 with the light microscope
  60. What are the three Domains of life?
    • Bacteria 
    • Archaea
    • Eucara
  61. What distinguishes prokareotic cells?
    No membrane bound internal structures
  62. What distinguishes Eukaryotic cells?
    nuclean membrane, Membrane structures
  63. What are the Limits to cell size?
    cells  must be large enough to contain the bio materials that support life. As a cell increase in size, the ratio of volume to SA decrease, so there is less cell membrane space to feed and remove waste from the cell
  64. What is the cytoplasm?
    area outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane or plamalemma
  65. What is the cytosol?
    Contains fluid, cytoskeleton, cytoplasmic incusion
  66. What are Organelles?
    membrane-bound functional units in cells
  67. What is the Endomembrane system?
    includes membranes of the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, and vesicles / vaculoes
  68. What is the nucleus?
    Contains chromosomes
  69. What is chromotin?
    chemical made up of chromosomes, largely protein, but also nucleic acids like DNA
  70. What is the nucleous?
    Where genes are making RNA
  71. What is the function of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?
    • 1. Have ribosomes which synthesizes proteins
    • 2. passes polypeptides on to the rest of the endomembrane system
    • 3. Glycosylation- attachment of carbohydrates to protein or lipid
    • 4. Molecular chaperonins- protiens that fold up polypeptides
  72. What is the function of the Smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
    • 1. Lipid synthesis (steriods)
    • 2. Carbohydrates synthesis (glycogen)
    • 3. Detoxification of drugs/poisons by adding OH to increase solubility
  73. What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?
    • 1. Secretion
    • 2. Procleiolysis - breaking up larger polypeptides into smaller ones
    • 3. Protein storage
  74. What is the function of mitochondria?
    • 1. Aerobic resperation - cellular fuels are catabolized to liberate energy
    • 2. Apoptosis - self destruct
    • 3. own DNA RNA proteins
    • 4. 2 memebranes
  75. What are plastids?
    Differentiated by synthetic ability snf pigments photosythesis
  76. What are chloroplasts?
    Own DNA, RNA, nakes own protiens
  77. What is a ribsome?
    • Not an organelle
    • Not surrounded by membrane
    • Polypeptide sythesis
    • bound-attached to ER
    • free- polysomes
    • Has signal recognition particle that docks ribosems to ER
  78. What is a vacuole?
    • Storage- Starch, water
    • Osmoregulation - H2O / salt balance
  79. What is a vesicle?
    smaller sacs that store and transport material
  80. What is a Lysome?
    • Vesicle derived from Golgi that contains hydrolytic digestive enzymes which digest proteins, fats, nucleic acids, bacteria, wastes
    • Also Apoptosis (self destruct)
  81. What are Peroxisomes?
    • Found in animal cells
    • detoxify alcohol
    • H2O2 -> H20 + O
    • often found in Liver and kidney cells
  82. What is the cytoskeleton?
    For support and mobility
  83. What are the charateristics of microtubules?
    • Thick
    • last for a short time
    • hollow
    • contribute to centrioles and flagella
  84. What are the functions of microtubules?
    • 1. motility - compose eukaryotic flagella and cilla 
    • 2. Chromosomes movement
    • 3. organize cytoplasm
    • 4. cell structure
    • 5. Distribution of organelles
  85. What are the characteristics/functions of microfilaments?
    • Thin
    • Cytoskeleton
    • Ameboid movement
  86. What is Cytoplasmic streaming?
    Circular flow if cytoplasm often seen in plant cells due to actin-myosin interactions
  87. What are intermediate Filaments?
    • intermediate in size
    • made up of keratin to support cell shape
  88. What do cells use for mobility?
    • Cilia - numerous shorter, transport material externally
    • Flagella- less numerous, long
  89. What is the basal body?
    is similar to structure of a centriole, anchors the flagellum or cilium
  90. What is a centriole?
    Helps organize cell division?
  91. What is the Extracellular matrix?
    • Animals- have strong collegen fibers that hold cell positions
    • Plant- cell wall, secondary cell wall my also occur
  92. What is the purpose of inter cellular junctions?
    connect cells
  93. What are tight junctions?
    hold cells together
  94. What are gap junctions?
    donut hole, rapid exchange of material
  95. What are Desmosomes?
    connect cells loosely together and allow for material exchnage
  96. What makes up the plamelemma?
    Integral proteins, phosopholiids, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, peripheral proteins
  97. Functions of phosopholipids?
    Amphipathic, rotate, steriods
  98. What are integral proteins?
    • Amphipatic, 
    • Functions-
    • transport
    • enzymatic activity
    • signal transduction
    • cell-cell recognition
    • intercelluar joining
    • attachment to cytoskeleton and ECM
  99. What is diffusion?
    random movement of molecules the tendency of movement from higher concentrations to lower concentrations
  100. What is osmosis?
    Diffusion of water through semi permeable membrane
  101. What is hypertonic?
    Higher concentration of solute? (water leakes out)
  102. What is hypotonic?
    Lower concentration of solute (water leaks in)
  103. What is isotonic?
    YOU SHALL NOT PASS nothing allowed through
  104. What is carrier-mediated transport?
    • 1. Facilitated diffusion-passive
    • 2. Aquaporin - integral-membrane protein that facilitates water diffusion
  105. What is carrier-mediated active transport?
    Allows movement up the concentration gradient (energy required)
  106. What are symporters?
    Two materials go one way
  107. What are antiporters?
    one material goes  one way another material the other way
  108. What are Ligand-gated channels?
    open with reception of a chemical(the ligand)
  109. What are voltage channels?
    open based on changes in electrical charge
  110. What are integrated multiple transport systems?
    using several means of cellular transport
  111. What is exocytosis?
    large particle exchange out
  112. What is endocytosis?
    Large particle exchange in
  113. What is phagocytosis?
    Solid endocytosis
  114. What is pinoctosis?
    liquid endocytosis
  115. What is kinetic energy?
    Light, heat, mechanical, electrical energy
  116. What is potential energy?
    Chemical energy
  117. What are the first 2 laws of thermodynamics
    • First- energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transformed or transferred
    • Second - every energy transformation results in the reduction of free(usable) energy
  118. What is exergonic?
    Net release of energy (Aerobic respiration)
  119. What is Endergonic?
    net absorption of energy (photosynthesis) 
  120. What is anabolic?
    synthesis of larger molecules from smaller one
  121. What is catabolic?
    break down of large molecules
  122. What are the two the pathways involved in changes in energy?
    • Exergonic
    • Endergonic
  123. What are the two pathways involved in changes in matter?
    • Anabolic
    • Catabolic
  124. How do animals and plants store energy?
    • Animal-glycogen, saturated fats
    • Plants - starch, unsaturated fats