generalize from a large number of specific observations
What is deductive reasoning?
(general to specific)
assume generalizations apply to scientific observations
What is a hypothesis?
What is a Theory?
Many people agree with your hypothesis
What is Law?
Why are there experimental standards?
For purposes of comparisons
What are blind experiments?
paitent doesn't know
What are double blind experiments?
Patient and experimenter do not know
What are the characteristics of living organisms?
4. ordered in structure
5. growth and development
7. carbon based
What is matter?
anything which takes up space and has mass
What is energy?
ability to do work or cause change (measured in Joule, or calorie)
What is an atom?
smallest unit of chemical element which cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
What are elements?
different forms of atoms each is defined by proton number
What are isotopes?
Variation of atomic form. Varies in terms of neutron number.
What is a valence shell?
What is octect rule?
7-gain 1 e
6-gain 2 e
3-5 gain or lose
2 lose 2 e
1 lose 1 e
What is a free radical?
molecule that contains an atom that steals electrons from other molecules to complete its valence shell this causes damage to the cell
What are chemical bonds?
bond energy determines stability
What is a non-polar covalent bond?
occurs between atoms that have the same electroegativity
What is electronegativity?
tendency to attract electrons
What is a polar covalent bond?
Molecule has electrically charged sides. (Water) atoms that bond differ in elctronegativity
What is an ionic bond?
Valence electrons are stripped from one atom by another
What is a hydrogen bond?
temporary bond (10^-4 seconds) of hydrogen atoms due to differences in electronegativity
What are Van der Waals interactions?
attractive forces between molecules that becomes temporarily polar (due to electrons orbiting around)
What are chemical reactions?
Involve making and breaking chemical bonds due to differences in electronegativity and changes in energy content
Why is water so important?
1. Polar- also being a liquid, water is a good solvent of other polar molecules
2. high specific heat - resist changes in temperature
3. Dissociates slightly - H20 -> H + OH
4. Cohesive - stacks together
5. Adhesive - sticks together
6. Water organizes non-polar molecules there by affecting the structures of proteins, DNA, and membranes
What is a acid?
proton donors (H+)
What is an inorganic acid?
What is a organic acid
What is pH?
measure of H+ concentration
What is a base?
Hydroxide donors (OH-) feels soapy to the touch
What are buffers?
resist changes in pH by absorbing or releasing H+ (Bicarbonate)
What are electrolytes?
Salts,acids, and bases which conduct electrical currents when placed in water due to charged particles
What are Organic molecules?
What are isomers?
Have same chemical empirical formula, however, differ in arrangement to some degree
What are Geocentric isomers?
different dimensional structures due to inflexible double convalent bonds
What is an Enantiomer?
Mirror image isomer
What are carbohydrates?
What is monsacharide?
smallest carb, is sweet
What is a disacharide?
two monosacharides sweet
What is a polysaccharide?
Chains of monsacharides, not sweet
Starch belongs to...
Glycogen belongs to...
Cellulose belongs to...
Chitin belongs to...
What are lipids shaped like?
Saturated fats belong to...
unsaturated fats belong to...
Peptides are made up of
Polypeptides are made up of...
Proteins are made up of...
What are the two structural types for proteins?
Fibrous (tendons, ligaments)
What are the levels of structural conformation?
1. Primary - sequence of amino acids that compose a protein
2. Secondary - coiling or pleating of a protein
3. Tertiary- coiling if the polypeptide upon itself
4. Quaternary- two or more polypeptides complex to make a protien
What is Denaturing?
When a protein falls apart (Due to heat)
What are protein chaperonins?
proteins that fold other proteins
What are the two nucleic acids?
Deoxyribonucleic acids DNA
ribonucleic acid RNA
When did humans began to understand the cell?
1600 with the light microscope
What are the three Domains of life?
What distinguishes prokareotic cells?
No membrane bound internal structures
What distinguishes Eukaryotic cells?
nuclean membrane, Membrane structures
What are the Limits to cell size?
cells must be large enough to contain the bio materials that support life. As a cell increase in size, the ratio of volume to SA decrease, so there is less cell membrane space to feed and remove waste from the cell
What is the cytoplasm?
area outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane or plamalemma