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What are the 5 steps to the scientific method?
- 1. Observation
- 2. Hypothesis
- 3. Experimentation
- 4. Analysis
- 5. Peer review
What is inductive reasoning?
generalize from a large number of specific observations
What is deductive reasoning?
- (general to specific)
- assume generalizations apply to scientific observations
What is a hypothesis?
What is a Theory?
Many people agree with your hypothesis
Why are there experimental standards?
For purposes of comparisons
What are blind experiments?
paitent doesn't know
What are double blind experiments?
Patient and experimenter do not know
What are the characteristics of living organisms?
- 1. Reproduction
- 2. Cell
- 3. metabolism
- 4. ordered in structure
- 5. growth and development
- 6. adapt
- 7. carbon based
What is matter?
anything which takes up space and has mass
What is energy?
ability to do work or cause change (measured in Joule, or calorie)
What is an atom?
smallest unit of chemical element which cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
What are elements?
different forms of atoms each is defined by proton number
What are isotopes?
Variation of atomic form. Varies in terms of neutron number.
What is a valence shell?
What is octect rule?
- 7-gain 1 e
- 6-gain 2 e
- 3-5 gain or lose
- 2 lose 2 e
- 1 lose 1 e
What is a free radical?
molecule that contains an atom that steals electrons from other molecules to complete its valence shell this causes damage to the cell
What are chemical bonds?
bond energy determines stability
What is a non-polar covalent bond?
occurs between atoms that have the same electroegativity
What is electronegativity?
tendency to attract electrons
What is a polar covalent bond?
Molecule has electrically charged sides. (Water) atoms that bond differ in elctronegativity
What is an ionic bond?
Valence electrons are stripped from one atom by another
What is a hydrogen bond?
temporary bond (10^-4 seconds) of hydrogen atoms due to differences in electronegativity
What are Van der Waals interactions?
attractive forces between molecules that becomes temporarily polar (due to electrons orbiting around)
What are chemical reactions?
Involve making and breaking chemical bonds due to differences in electronegativity and changes in energy content
Why is water so important?
- 1. Polar- also being a liquid, water is a good solvent of other polar molecules
- 2. high specific heat - resist changes in temperature
- 3. Dissociates slightly - H20 -> H + OH
- 4. Cohesive - stacks together
- 5. Adhesive - sticks together
- 6. Water organizes non-polar molecules there by affecting the structures of proteins, DNA, and membranes
What is a acid?
proton donors (H+)
What is an inorganic acid?
What is a organic acid
What is pH?
measure of H+ concentration
What is a base?
Hydroxide donors (OH-) feels soapy to the touch
What are buffers?
resist changes in pH by absorbing or releasing H+ (Bicarbonate)
What are electrolytes?
Salts,acids, and bases which conduct electrical currents when placed in water due to charged particles
What are Organic molecules?
What are isomers?
Have same chemical empirical formula, however, differ in arrangement to some degree
What are Geocentric isomers?
different dimensional structures due to inflexible double convalent bonds
What is an Enantiomer?
Mirror image isomer
What are carbohydrates?
What is monsacharide?
smallest carb, is sweet
What is a disacharide?
two monosacharides sweet
What is a polysaccharide?
Chains of monsacharides, not sweet
Starch belongs to...
Glycogen belongs to...
Cellulose belongs to...
Chitin belongs to...
What are lipids shaped like?
Saturated fats belong to...
unsaturated fats belong to...
Peptides are made up of
Polypeptides are made up of...
Proteins are made up of...
What are the two structural types for proteins?
- Fibrous (tendons, ligaments)
- Globular (enzymes)
What are the levels of structural conformation?
- 1. Primary - sequence of amino acids that compose a protein
- 2. Secondary - coiling or pleating of a protein
- 3. Tertiary- coiling if the polypeptide upon itself
- 4. Quaternary- two or more polypeptides complex to make a protien
What is Denaturing?
When a protein falls apart (Due to heat)
What are protein chaperonins?
proteins that fold other proteins
What are the two nucleic acids?
- Deoxyribonucleic acids DNA
- ribonucleic acid RNA
When did humans began to understand the cell?
1600 with the light microscope
What are the three Domains of life?
What distinguishes prokareotic cells?
No membrane bound internal structures
What distinguishes Eukaryotic cells?
nuclean membrane, Membrane structures
What are the Limits to cell size?
cells must be large enough to contain the bio materials that support life. As a cell increase in size, the ratio of volume to SA decrease, so there is less cell membrane space to feed and remove waste from the cell
What is the cytoplasm?
area outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane or plamalemma
What is the cytosol?
Contains fluid, cytoskeleton, cytoplasmic incusion
What are Organelles?
membrane-bound functional units in cells
What is the Endomembrane system?
includes membranes of the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, and vesicles / vaculoes
What is the nucleus?
What is chromotin?
chemical made up of chromosomes, largely protein, but also nucleic acids like DNA
What is the nucleous?
Where genes are making RNA
What is the function of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?
- 1. Have ribosomes which synthesizes proteins
- 2. passes polypeptides on to the rest of the endomembrane system
- 3. Glycosylation- attachment of carbohydrates to protein or lipid
- 4. Molecular chaperonins- protiens that fold up polypeptides
What is the function of the Smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
- 1. Lipid synthesis (steriods)
- 2. Carbohydrates synthesis (glycogen)
- 3. Detoxification of drugs/poisons by adding OH to increase solubility
What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?
- 1. Secretion
- 2. Procleiolysis - breaking up larger polypeptides into smaller ones
- 3. Protein storage
What is the function of mitochondria?
- 1. Aerobic resperation - cellular fuels are catabolized to liberate energy
- 2. Apoptosis - self destruct
- 3. own DNA RNA proteins
- 4. 2 memebranes
What are plastids?
Differentiated by synthetic ability snf pigments photosythesis
What are chloroplasts?
Own DNA, RNA, nakes own protiens
What is a ribsome?
- Not an organelle
- Not surrounded by membrane
- Polypeptide sythesis
- bound-attached to ER
- free- polysomes
- Has signal recognition particle that docks ribosems to ER
What is a vacuole?
- Storage- Starch, water
- Osmoregulation - H2O / salt balance
What is a vesicle?
smaller sacs that store and transport material
What is a Lysome?
- Vesicle derived from Golgi that contains hydrolytic digestive enzymes which digest proteins, fats, nucleic acids, bacteria, wastes
- Also Apoptosis (self destruct)
What are Peroxisomes?
- Found in animal cells
- detoxify alcohol
- H2O2 -> H20 + O
- often found in Liver and kidney cells
What is the cytoskeleton?
For support and mobility
What are the charateristics of microtubules?
- last for a short time
- contribute to centrioles and flagella
What are the functions of microtubules?
- 1. motility - compose eukaryotic flagella and cilla
- 2. Chromosomes movement
- 3. organize cytoplasm
- 4. cell structure
- 5. Distribution of organelles
What are the characteristics/functions of microfilaments?
- Ameboid movement
What is Cytoplasmic streaming?
Circular flow if cytoplasm often seen in plant cells due to actin-myosin interactions
What are intermediate Filaments?
- intermediate in size
- made up of keratin to support cell shape
What do cells use for mobility?
- Cilia - numerous shorter, transport material externally
- Flagella- less numerous, long
What is the basal body?
is similar to structure of a centriole, anchors the flagellum or cilium
What is a centriole?
Helps organize cell division?
What is the Extracellular matrix?
- Animals- have strong collegen fibers that hold cell positions
- Plant- cell wall, secondary cell wall my also occur
What is the purpose of inter cellular junctions?
What are tight junctions?
hold cells together
What are gap junctions?
donut hole, rapid exchange of material
What are Desmosomes?
connect cells loosely together and allow for material exchnage
What makes up the plamelemma?
Integral proteins, phosopholiids, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, peripheral proteins
Functions of phosopholipids?
Amphipathic, rotate, steriods
What are integral proteins?
- enzymatic activity
- signal transduction
- cell-cell recognition
- intercelluar joining
- attachment to cytoskeleton and ECM
What is diffusion?
random movement of molecules the tendency of movement from higher concentrations to lower concentrations
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water through semi permeable membrane
What is hypertonic?
Higher concentration of solute? (water leakes out)
What is hypotonic?
Lower concentration of solute (water leaks in)
What is isotonic?
YOU SHALL NOT PASS nothing allowed through
What is carrier-mediated transport?
- 1. Facilitated diffusion-passive
- 2. Aquaporin - integral-membrane protein that facilitates water diffusion
What is carrier-mediated active transport?
Allows movement up the concentration gradient (energy required)
What are symporters?
Two materials go one way
What are antiporters?
one material goes one way another material the other way
What are Ligand-gated channels?
open with reception of a chemical(the ligand)
What are voltage channels?
open based on changes in electrical charge
What are integrated multiple transport systems?
using several means of cellular transport
What is exocytosis?
large particle exchange out
What is endocytosis?
Large particle exchange in
What is phagocytosis?
What is pinoctosis?
What is kinetic energy?
Light, heat, mechanical, electrical energy
What is potential energy?
What are the first 2 laws of thermodynamics
- First- energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transformed or transferred
- Second - every energy transformation results in the reduction of free(usable) energy
What is exergonic?
Net release of energy (Aerobic respiration)
What is Endergonic?
net absorption of energy (photosynthesis)
What is anabolic?
synthesis of larger molecules from smaller one
What is catabolic?
break down of large molecules
What are the two the pathways involved in changes in energy?
What are the two pathways involved in changes in matter?
How do animals and plants store energy?
- Animal-glycogen, saturated fats
- Plants - starch, unsaturated fats
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