What is the rarest type of circulating leukocyte? What other cell do they resemble?
what do basophils carry and what are they important in?
histamine, heparin, chemokines, and hydrolases
allergies and chronic inflammations
Describe lymphocytes? Why are they famous?
Large circular nuclei with little or no cytoplasm
Because they are B and T cells, you cant tell them apart and their is great variation in their size
What is the largest leukocyte out there? What shape is the nuclei?they are precursors to what? (2)
macrophages, and/or the other cells in the mononuclear phagocyte system
What are platelet? Where do they originate? what is their purpose? What do they come in contact with that helps them degranulate? What makes them up?
Small cell fragments
Megakaryocytes in bone marrow
actin filaments, alpha granules, delta granules and an open canalicular system
What is band 3 protein and glycophorin A
anion transporters found on the red blood cell
Name 2 proteins found on the inside of the red blood cell and their function
Spectrin - dorm a lattice bound to actin filaments
Ankyrin - achors the lattice to glycophorins and band 3 proteins
What is a cell adhesion protein that is released when micro vasculature is injured or infected
Describe diapedesis and chemotaxis
diapedesis - leukocytes send extensions through the openings between endothelial cells, migrate out of the blood and into the surrounding tissue
Chemotaxis - attraction of a cell along a chemical graident
What are three proteases and antimicrobial proteins found in azurophilic primnary granules? In which kind of cell do we find azurophillic granules?
Myeloperoxidase - toxic to bacteria
Lysozyme - degrades bacterial cell walls
Defensins - disrupts bacterial cell membranes through binding
Differentiate between specific secondary granules and azurophilic primary granules in neutrophils
Secondary are smaller and less dense and have very diverse functions
Who often releases chemokines and cytokines?
What makes up about 50% of the eosinophils granules?
major basic protein (MBP) which causes acidophilia
What is a leukotriene
name 3 lymphocytres
When a platelet is stained it often has 2 areas describe them
Hyalomere - very lightly stained peripheral zone
Granulomere - dark staining central zone
What can be found in the granulomere of a platelet?
Delta granules - ADP, ATP, and serotonin
Alpha granules - Platelet derived growth factor and other platelet specific proteins
Go through the 5 steps of controlling blood loss and wound healing in platelets
primary aggregation - disrupts microvasculature makes platelet plug
Secondary aggregation - platelets in plug release adhesive glycoprotein to attach more platelets and plug grows in size
Blood coagulation - fibrinogen and other clotting factors arrive and give rise to a fibrin polymer which creates a thrombus (blood clot)
Platelet factor 4 attracts monocytes and neutrophils as a chemokine
Clot retraction - The clot that initially bulges now contracts slightly
Clot removal - once endothelium is healed and replaced the proteolytic enzyme plasmin dissolved away at the clot till it is removed
What is the name of the cell that undergoes hemopoiesis? Where does it occur?
Pluripotent stem cell
While stem cells divide slowly only fast enough to keep their colony numbers, the next level of cell the ______ cell divides _______ and creates ____ main linneages, essentially this cell is the ___ ____ __
colony forming unit
Progenitor cells proliferate and differentiate in the microenvironment of the ___________, _____ _______, and _____ with specific growth factors
What is the stroma? What is it made of?
The stroma is a delicate mesh like web supporting the bone marrow. It is made up of stroma cells
What is another name for progenitor cells? What is the name for the growth factors affecting them
Colony forming units (CFUS)
Colony stimulating factors CSFs
Differentiate red vs yellow bone marrow
Red is active in hemapoiesis
Yellow is adipose storing
Erythropoeitic islands or cords within the bone marrow contain the lineage which goes from what to what? (describe in histological colours) (3) What does this change represent?
Basophili, polychromatophilic, and orthochromatophilic
The change from RNA rich to hemoglobin filled and denucleated
When the nucleus is extruded from the developing erythrocyte what is it now reffered to as?
In which stage of granulopoiesis do we see azurophillic granules begin to be produced? What about specific granules?
During granulopoiesis where do we see the change in nuclear morphology occur?
During infection we will see what happen to immature neutrophils (band cells)?
They will be released prematurely when the compartment of babysitting neutrophils is deleted
What do we call the cytoplasmic processes of megakaryocytes where platelets are released from?
Is the endothelium of the sinusoids continuous or discontinuous?
Discontinous that's how all these cells enter the blood