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The liquid portion of circulating blood is?
What comprises the formed element of the blood?
Cells and platelets
Upon clotting some proteins are removed from plasma and ohers are released from platelets, this forms a new liquid termed
5 proteins found in the plasma that are important? where are 4/5 of these made?
- Alpha and beta globulins
- Proteins of the complement system
What is the hematocrit portion of blood?
red blood cells (erythrocytes) (45%)
What is the normal lifespan of a red blood cell?
Describe a red blood cell
Enucleated, biconcave, filled with hemoglobin
leukocytes are broadly grouped into what 2 groups?
Agranulocytes and granulocytes
leukocytes become active when?
They migrate outside circulation
leukocytes leave the vasculature in a process involving what 4 things?
- selective adhesion
- changes in endothelium
- and transendothelial migration or diapedesis
All granulocytes have what 2 kinds of specialized lysosymes?
Azurophilic and specific granules
What are the most abundant type of leukocyte
How do neutrophils kill? describe their appearance
- polymorphic multilobed nuclei, faint pink cytoplasmic granules
What do eosinophils do? Describe them.
- They help defend against parasites
- Bilobed nuclei
What is the rarest type of circulating leukocyte? What other cell do they resemble?
what do basophils carry and what are they important in?
- histamine, heparin, chemokines, and hydrolases
- allergies and chronic inflammations
Describe lymphocytes? Why are they famous?
- Large circular nuclei with little or no cytoplasm
- Because they are B and T cells, you cant tell them apart and their is great variation in their size
What is the largest leukocyte out there? What shape is the nuclei?they are precursors to what? (2)
- u shaped
- macrophages, and/or the other cells in the mononuclear phagocyte system
What are platelet? Where do they originate? what is their purpose? What do they come in contact with that helps them degranulate? What makes them up?
- Small cell fragments
- Megakaryocytes in bone marrow
- blood clotting
- actin filaments, alpha granules, delta granules and an open canalicular system
What is band 3 protein and glycophorin A
anion transporters found on the red blood cell
Name 2 proteins found on the inside of the red blood cell and their function
- Spectrin - dorm a lattice bound to actin filaments
- Ankyrin - achors the lattice to glycophorins and band 3 proteins
What is a cell adhesion protein that is released when micro vasculature is injured or infected
Describe diapedesis and chemotaxis
- diapedesis - leukocytes send extensions through the openings between endothelial cells, migrate out of the blood and into the surrounding tissue
- Chemotaxis - attraction of a cell along a chemical graident
What are three proteases and antimicrobial proteins found in azurophilic primnary granules? In which kind of cell do we find azurophillic granules?
- Myeloperoxidase - toxic to bacteria
- Lysozyme - degrades bacterial cell walls
- Defensins - disrupts bacterial cell membranes through binding
Differentiate between specific secondary granules and azurophilic primary granules in neutrophils
Secondary are smaller and less dense and have very diverse functions
Who often releases chemokines and cytokines?
What makes up about 50% of the eosinophils granules?
major basic protein (MBP) which causes acidophilia
What is a leukotriene
When a platelet is stained it often has 2 areas describe them
- Hyalomere - very lightly stained peripheral zone
- Granulomere - dark staining central zone
What can be found in the granulomere of a platelet?
- Glycogen particles
- Delta granules - ADP, ATP, and serotonin
- Alpha granules - Platelet derived growth factor and other platelet specific proteins
Go through the 5 steps of controlling blood loss and wound healing in platelets
- primary aggregation - disrupts microvasculature makes platelet plug
- Secondary aggregation - platelets in plug release adhesive glycoprotein to attach more platelets and plug grows in size
- Blood coagulation - fibrinogen and other clotting factors arrive and give rise to a fibrin polymer which creates a thrombus (blood clot)
- Platelet factor 4 attracts monocytes and neutrophils as a chemokine
- Clot retraction - The clot that initially bulges now contracts slightly
- Clot removal - once endothelium is healed and replaced the proteolytic enzyme plasmin dissolved away at the clot till it is removed
What is the name of the cell that undergoes hemopoiesis? Where does it occur?
- Pluripotent stem cell
- Bone marrow
While stem cells divide slowly only fast enough to keep their colony numbers, the next level of cell the ______ cell divides _______ and creates ____ main linneages, essentially this cell is the ___ ____ __
- colony forming unit
Progenitor cells proliferate and differentiate in the microenvironment of the ___________, _____ _______, and _____ with specific growth factors
- stromal cell
- other cells
What is the stroma? What is it made of?
The stroma is a delicate mesh like web supporting the bone marrow. It is made up of stroma cells
What is another name for progenitor cells? What is the name for the growth factors affecting them
- Colony forming units (CFUS)
- Colony stimulating factors CSFs
Differentiate red vs yellow bone marrow
- Red is active in hemapoiesis
- Yellow is adipose storing
Erythropoeitic islands or cords within the bone marrow contain the lineage which goes from what to what? (describe in histological colours) (3) What does this change represent?
- Basophili, polychromatophilic, and orthochromatophilic
- The change from RNA rich to hemoglobin filled and denucleated
When the nucleus is extruded from the developing erythrocyte what is it now reffered to as?
In which stage of granulopoiesis do we see azurophillic granules begin to be produced? What about specific granules?
During granulopoiesis where do we see the change in nuclear morphology occur?
During infection we will see what happen to immature neutrophils (band cells)?
They will be released prematurely when the compartment of babysitting neutrophils is deleted
What do we call the cytoplasmic processes of megakaryocytes where platelets are released from?
Is the endothelium of the sinusoids continuous or discontinuous?
Discontinous that's how all these cells enter the blood
What is thrombopoietin?
Hormone that drives thrombopoiesis