Vet Histology readings pgs 234-261

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Vet Histology readings pgs 234-261
2013-09-17 23:12:56
Vet Histology readings pgs 234 261

Vet Histology readings pgs 234-261
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  1. The liquid portion of circulating blood is?
  2. What comprises the formed element of the blood?
    Cells and platelets
  3. Upon clotting some proteins are removed from plasma and ohers are released from platelets, this forms a new liquid termed
  4. 5 proteins found in the plasma that are important? where are 4/5 of these made?
    • Albumin
    • Alpha and beta globulins
    • Proteins of the complement system
    • fibrinogen
    • immunoglobulins

  5. What is the hematocrit portion of blood?
    red blood cells (erythrocytes) (45%)
  6. What is the normal lifespan of a red blood cell?
    120 days
  7. Describe a red blood cell
    Enucleated, biconcave, filled with hemoglobin
  8. leukocytes are broadly grouped into what 2 groups?
    Agranulocytes and granulocytes
  9. leukocytes become active when?
    They migrate outside circulation
  10. leukocytes leave the vasculature in a process involving what 4 things?
    • cytokines
    • selective adhesion
    • changes in endothelium
    • and transendothelial migration or diapedesis
  11. All granulocytes have what 2 kinds of specialized lysosymes?
    Azurophilic and specific granules
  12. What are the most abundant type of leukocyte
  13. How do neutrophils kill? describe their appearance
    • Phagocytosis
    • polymorphic multilobed nuclei, faint pink cytoplasmic granules
  14. What do eosinophils do? Describe them.
    • They help defend against parasites
    • Bilobed nuclei
  15. What is the rarest type of circulating leukocyte? What other cell do they resemble?
    • basophil
    • mast cell
  16. what do basophils carry and what are they important in?
    • histamine, heparin, chemokines, and hydrolases
    • allergies and chronic inflammations
  17. Describe lymphocytes? Why are they famous?
    • Large circular nuclei with little or no cytoplasm
    • Because they are B and T cells, you cant tell them apart and their is great variation in their size
  18. What is the largest leukocyte out there? What shape is the nuclei?they are precursors to what? (2)
    • monocyte
    • u shaped
    • macrophages, and/or the other cells in the  mononuclear phagocyte system
  19. What are platelet? Where do they originate? what is their purpose? What do they come in contact with that helps them degranulate? What makes them up?
    • Small cell fragments
    • Megakaryocytes in bone marrow
    • blood clotting
    • collagen
    • actin filaments, alpha granules, delta granules and an open canalicular system
  20. What is band 3 protein and glycophorin A
    anion transporters found on the red blood cell
  21. Name 2 proteins found on the inside of the red blood cell and their function
    • Spectrin - dorm a lattice bound to actin filaments
    • Ankyrin - achors the lattice to glycophorins and band 3 proteins
  22. What is a cell adhesion protein that is released when micro vasculature is injured or infected
  23. P-selectin
  24. Describe diapedesis and chemotaxis
    • diapedesis - leukocytes send extensions through the openings between endothelial cells, migrate out of the blood and into the surrounding tissue
    • Chemotaxis - attraction of a cell along a chemical graident
  25. What are three proteases and antimicrobial proteins found in azurophilic primnary granules? In which kind of cell do we find azurophillic granules?
    • Myeloperoxidase - toxic to bacteria
    • Lysozyme - degrades bacterial cell walls
    • Defensins - disrupts bacterial cell membranes through binding
    • Neutrophils
  26. Differentiate between specific secondary granules and azurophilic primary granules in neutrophils
    Secondary are smaller and less dense and have very diverse functions
  27. Who often releases chemokines and cytokines?
  28. What makes up about 50% of the eosinophils granules?
    major basic protein (MBP) which causes acidophilia
  29. What is a leukotriene
    Pro-inflammatory factor
  30. name 3 lymphocytres
    • B cell
    • T cells
    • NK cells
  31. When a platelet is stained it often has 2 areas describe them
    • Hyalomere - very lightly stained peripheral zone
    • Granulomere - dark staining central zone
  32. What can be found in the granulomere of a platelet?
    • Mitochondria
    • Glycogen particles
    • Delta granules - ADP, ATP, and serotonin
    • Alpha granules - Platelet derived growth factor and other platelet specific proteins
  33. Go through the 5 steps of controlling blood loss and wound healing in platelets
    • primary aggregation - disrupts microvasculature makes platelet plug
    • Secondary aggregation - platelets in plug release adhesive glycoprotein to attach more platelets and plug grows in size
    • Blood coagulation - fibrinogen and other clotting factors arrive and give rise to a fibrin polymer which creates a thrombus (blood clot)
    • Platelet factor 4 attracts monocytes and neutrophils as a chemokine
    • Clot retraction - The clot that initially bulges now contracts slightly
    • Clot removal - once endothelium is healed and replaced the proteolytic enzyme plasmin dissolved away at the clot till it is removed
  34. What is the name of the cell that undergoes hemopoiesis? Where does it occur?
    • Pluripotent stem cell
    • Bone marrow
  35. While stem cells divide slowly only fast enough to keep their colony numbers, the next level of cell the ______ cell divides _______ and creates ____ main linneages, essentially this cell is the ___ ____ __
    • progenitor
    • quickly
    • 2
    • colony forming unit
  36. Progenitor cells proliferate and differentiate in the microenvironment of the ___________, _____ _______, and _____ with specific growth factors
    • stromal cell
    • other cells
    • ECM
  37. What is the stroma? What is it made of?
    The stroma is a delicate mesh like web supporting the bone marrow. It is made up of stroma cells
  38. What is another name for progenitor cells? What is the name for the growth factors affecting them
    • Colony forming units (CFUS)
    • Colony stimulating factors CSFs
  39. Differentiate red vs yellow bone marrow
    • Red is active in hemapoiesis
    • Yellow is adipose storing
  40. Erythropoeitic islands or cords within the bone marrow contain the lineage which goes from what to what? (describe in histological colours) (3) What does this change represent?
    • Basophili, polychromatophilic, and orthochromatophilic
    • The change from RNA rich to hemoglobin filled and denucleated
  41. When the nucleus is extruded from the developing erythrocyte what is it now reffered to as?
  42. In which stage of granulopoiesis do we see azurophillic granules begin to be produced? What about specific granules?
    • Promyelocytes
    • Myelocytes
  43. During granulopoiesis where do we see the change in nuclear morphology occur?
  44. During infection we will see what happen to immature neutrophils (band cells)?
    They will be released prematurely when the compartment of babysitting neutrophils is deleted
  45. What do we call the cytoplasmic processes of megakaryocytes where platelets are released from?
  46. Is the endothelium of the sinusoids continuous or discontinuous?
    Discontinous that's how all these cells enter the blood
  47. What is thrombopoietin?
    Hormone that drives thrombopoiesis