geol/exam1/ch.2

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MoralesG_93
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234830
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geol/exam1/ch.2
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2013-09-14 18:47:08
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geol exam1
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geol/exam1/ch.2
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  1. Define:
    Mineral
    A mineral is made up of an element or elements bonded together
  2. Define:
    Element
    An element is a substance that CANNOT be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical methods
  3. Define:
    Atom
    An atom is the smallest unit of a substance that retains properties of that element.
  4. What are the 3 types of subatomic particles that make up an atom?
    • 1. Protons(+charge)
    • 2. Neutrons(0 net charge)
    • 3.¬†Electrons (-charge)
  5. What forms the nucleus of an atom?
    Protons and Neutrons
  6. ______ orbit the nucleus in discrete shells or energy levels
    electrons
  7. The numbers of electrons and protons are ____ in a neutral atom
    equal or not equal?
    equal
  8. the outermost shell of a atom is it's _____ electron
    valence
  9. chemical reactions involve only the outermost shell, _____ electrons
    valence
  10. What are isotopes?
    atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons
  11. Isotopes may be either stable or unstable.
    true/false
    true
  12. stable/unstable isotopes retain all of their protons and neutrons over time
    stable
  13. unstable or radioactive isotopes spontaneously ____ subatomic particles from their nuclei
    lose
  14. stable isotopes can be used to track _______ over time
    climate change
  15. What is an Ionic Bond?
    when the "transfer"of valence electrons from one atom to another occurs
  16. What is a Covalent Bond?
    when the "sharing" of valence electrons among adjacent atoms occurs
  17. What is a Metallic Bond?
    when electrons flow freely throughout metals which results in high electrical conductivity
  18. What is chemical bonding controlled by?
    the outermost shell (valence electrons)
  19. What is an example of ionic bonding in a household item in the kitchen?
    salt
  20. What can break an ionic bond?
    water (think of salt)
  21. Atoms or groups with unequal numbers of protons and electrons, which have a non-zero charge, are called ____
    ions
  22. Positive and negative ions are attracted to one another and may stick or bond together
    true/false?
    true
  23. in a chemical bond, elements will usually be _____ unless their valence shell is full
    reactive
  24. there are __ electrons when a valence shell is full
    8
  25. A mineral is a _______ solid
    formed by natural ________ processes
    with a specific _______ composition
    consistent and recognizable ______ properties and _______ properties
    • A mineral is a crystalline solid
    • formed by natural geological processes
    • with a specific chemical composition
    • consistent and recognizable physical properties and chemical properties
  26. What are the 8 most common elements that are apart of 97% of the atoms in Earths crust?
    O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg
  27. what is the most common minerals in the Earths Crust?
    silicates which is Si and O bonded together
  28. The minerals in

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