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Origins of Psychology
Early German Psychologists-Psychology is
- Geisteswissnchaft-Social Science
- Naturewissenschaft-Natural Science
Psyche is a Greek word referring to
Ancient Greek Philosophers discussed topics of interest to psychologists
- acquisition of knowledge
- importance of temporal contiguity-associating events or ideas that occur close in time with each other
Ancient Greek physicians also made adcances in medicine
In the middle ages, Arab physicians preserved many of the ancient Greek writings, developed more advanced medical techniques
Emergence of Modern Sciences
- Physics: discoveries in physics revolutionized how people viewed their physical world
- Chemistry: helped people understand the chemical composition of their surroundings
- In order to have a science of psychology, people needed to think about living beings, and their behavior in terms in scientific terms.
Dualism vs. Monism
- mind/body "dualism"
- body operates according to mechanical principles
- mind is separate from body, interacts with body through the pineal gland
- mind/body "monist"
- mind and body are two different aspects of the same phenomenon
- established a philosophical basis for much psychology and neuroscience
Further Philosophical Developments: British Empiricist and Associationism
- Locke and Hume
- emphasized sensory experience as the basis of knowledge
- emphasized that sensory experiences could be associated or lined; suggested "Laws of Association"
- one of these was the Law of temporal contiguity
Development in Physiology and Medicine
- Physiology views organisms as functioning according to physical, chemical and mechanical principles
- Harvey; basis of circulation, heart acts as a pump: the brain acts like a computer
- Studies of physiology helped to change the way life science was viewed; various functions, including psychological functions, began to be viewed as a scientific phenomena
Pseudoscience and Science
- The pseudoscience of Phrenology assumed different brain areas had different functions, but erroneously linked bumps on the head to made-up functions; it popularized the idea of localization of functions in the brain
- Scientific study of brain function; medical scientists came to understand different parts of the brain performed different functions, such as language or aspects of behavior
- Phineas Gage-change in personality after damage in the frontal lobe
Development of Scientific Psychology(late 1800s)
- sensory psychologists started to study perceptual phenomena in labs
- Wilhelm Wundt established first psychology lab in 1879, he and Williams James wrote influential psychology textbooks
- Ivan Pavlov studied physiology of reflexes, later discovered basic mechanisms of learning (conditioning)
- Broca and Wernicke studied how particular brain areas were involved in aspects of language.