Bio 130 chpt 1

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lcunrod7
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Bio 130 chpt 1
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2013-09-14 20:29:53
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  1. What are the four functions all living things perform?
    • 1. respond to change in enviornment
    • 2. show adaptability
    • 3. grow and reproduce
    • 4. capable of some movement
  2. indicated that the organism recognizes changes in its internal or external environment; required for adaptability
    responsiveness
  3. changes the organism's behavior, capabilities, or structure; required for survival in a constantly changing world
    Adaptability
  4. indicates that the organism is successful; organisms that do not respond, or do not adapt will not__ and cannot__
    growth and reproduction
  5. changes orientation or position for immovable animals, moves around the environment; animals show locomotion at some point in their lives
    movement
  6. oxygen is required, and the generation and release of carbon dioxide
    respiration
  7. movement of fluid within the organism; may involve a pump and a network of special vessels
    circulation
  8. the chemical breakdown of complex materials for absorption and use by the organism
    digestion
  9. the elimination of chemical waste products generated by the organism
    excretion
  10. examination of relatively large structures and features that can be seen by naked eye
    macroscopic anatomy
  11. structures that cannot be seen without magnification
    microscopic anatomy
  12. What are the levels of organization in the human body?
    organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cells, chemical or molecules, atoms
  13. whole human body(highest level); must work together to maintain life and health
    organism
  14. multiple organs interacting (11) heart, blood, blood vessels
    organ system
  15. two or more tissues working together to perform several functions; cardiac muscle combines with connective tissue and another tissue to make up the heart wall
    organ
  16. group of cells working together to perform 1 or more specific fuctions; heart muscle cells and cardiac muscle cells combine to get cardiac muscle tissue
    tissue
  17. smallest living unit, depends on organelles function composed of interacting molecules; protein filaments to make contractions in muscle cells in heart
    cells
  18. smallest stable unit of matter form molecules; unique three dimensional shape and atomic component
    atoms
  19. What are the three principles of the Cell Theory?
    • 1. cells are the structural building blocks of all plants and animals
    • 2. cells are produced by the division of pre-exisiting cells
    • 3. cells are the smallest structural units that perform all vital functions
  20. study of tissues
    histology
  21. what are the four primary tissue?
    epithelial, connective, muscle, neural
  22. forms a barrier with specific properties
    epithelial
  23. covers every exposed body surface
    epithelial
  24. lines digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts
    epithelial
  25. surrounds inner cavities and passageways; chest cavity, fluid filled chambers in the brain, eye and inner ear
    epitherlial
  26. line inner surfaces of blood vessels and heart
    epithelial
  27. produces glandular secreations
    epithelial
  28. diverse in appearance but all contain cells surround by extracellular matrix
    connective
  29. comprised of protein fibers, ground substance (liquid)
    matrix
  30. amount of matrix varies in particular tissue type
    connective
  31. fills internal spaces
    connective
  32. provides structural support
    connective
  33. stores energy
    connective
  34. have the ability to contract forcefully
    muscle
  35. skeletal movement
    muscle
  36. soft tissue support
    muscle
  37. maintenance of blood flow
    muscle
  38. movement of materials internally
    muscle
  39. stabilization of body temperature
    muscle
  40. what kind of muscle usually attaches to the skeleton
    skeletal muscle
  41. what kind of muscle moves or stabilizes position of skeleton or internal organs
    skeletal muscle
  42. what muscle is found only in the heart
    cardiac muscle
  43. what kind of muscle propels blood through blood vessels
    cardiac muscle
  44. what kind of muscle is found in the blood vessel walls, within glands, along respiratory, circulatory, digestive, and reproductive tracts
    smooth muscle
  45. what muscle is striated
    skeletal and cardiac
  46. what muscle is voluntary
    skeletal
  47. what muscle has no striations, spindle shaped
    smooth
  48. what muscle is involuntary
    cardiac and smooth
  49. what muscle is uninucleate
    cardiac and smooth
  50. what muscle is multinucleate
    skeletal
  51. what muscle has intercalated discs
    cardiac
  52. specialized to carry information within the body
    neural
  53. what type of neural tissue are nerve cells
    neurons
  54. what type of neural tissue are supporting cells that isolate and protect nerves while forming a supporting framework
    neurogila
  55. which nervous system is associated with brain and spinal cord
    central nervous system
  56. which nervous system is associated with connecting CNS with other tissues and organs
    peripheral nervous system
  57. protection, from environmental hazards; temperature control
    integumentary system
  58. support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage; blood formation
    skeletal system
  59. locomotion, support, heat production
    muscular system
  60. directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems
    nervous system
  61. directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems
    endocrine system
  62. internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases
    cardiovascular system
  63. defense against infection and disease
    lymphatic system
  64. delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood
    respiratory system
  65. processing of food and absorption of organic, nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water
    digestive system
  66. elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products; control of pH
    urinary system
  67. production of sex cells and hormones
    reproductive system
  68. presence of stable internal environment
    homeostasis
  69. physiological adjustment to preserve homeostasis in variable environments
    homeostatic regulation
  70. sensitive to environmental change
    receptor (sensor)
  71. processes information from the receptor and sends out commands
    control center (integration center)
  72. responds to commands opposing stimulus
    effector
  73. receptor stimulation triggers a response that changes the environment at the receptor
    feedback
  74. effector opposes the original stimulus
    negative feeback
  75. minimizes change
    negative feedback
  76. primary mechanism of homeostatic regulation
    negative feedback
  77. set point may vary with changing enviornments or activity levels
    negative feedback
  78. initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original conditions
    positive feedback
  79. typically occurs when a potentially dangerous or stressful process must be completed quickly e.g clotting mechanism
    positive feedback
  80. standing up, hands at sides, palms facing forward, feet together
    anatomical position
  81. laying down face up in anatomical position
    supine
  82. laying down face down in anatomical position
    prone
  83. imaginary perpendicular lines that intersect at navel
    abdominopelvic quadrants
  84. used by clinicians to determine possible cause of patient pains, aches, or injuries
    abdominopelvic quadrants
  85. nine regions
    abdominopelvic regions
  86. preferred by anatomistis
    abdominopelvic regions
  87. describes the precise location and orientation of internal organs
    abdominopelvic regions
  88. RL hypochondriac region, RL lumbar region, RL inguinal region, epigastric region, umbilical region, hypogastric region
    abdominopelvic regions
  89. RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
    abdominopelvic quadrants
  90. separates superior and inferior portions of the body
    transverse or horizontal section
  91. separates right and left portions
    sagittal section
  92. the plane passes through the midline, dividing the body into right and left halves
    midsagittal or median section
  93. separates the body into right and left portions of unequal size
    parasagittal section
  94. separates anterior and posterior portions of the body; passing through the skull
    frontal or coronal section
  95. largest body cavity
    ventral body cavity or coelom
  96. the ventral body cavity containing organs from which systems
    respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, reproductive
  97. What are the two essential functions of the body cavity?
    • 1. protect delicate organs from shocks and impact
    • 2. permit significant changes in size and shape of internal organs
  98. internal organ partially or totally enclosed by body cavities; connected to the rest of the body
    viscera
  99. around the heart is a delicate membrane, serous membrane, secretes watery fluid that keeps surfaces moist and reduces fritction
    pericardium
  100. permits heart to change size and shape when beating
    pericardial cavity
  101. everything deep to the chest wall
    thoracic cavity
  102. contain lungs, shiny slippery membrane
    pleural cavities
  103. contains connective tissue and pericardial cavity containing the heart
    mediastinum
  104. everything deep to abdominal and pelvic walls
    abdominopelvic cavity
  105. contains many digestive glands and organs
    abdominal cavity
  106. contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and last portion of digestive tract, many of these structures lie posterior or inferior to the peritoneal cavity
    pelvic cavity

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