The word _____ is translated from the Greek physis, meaning nature, and logos meaning discourse, study of, explanation of, or spoken or unspoken word.
_____ can be defined as the complete biochemical and biophysical nature of plants, and how the underlying processes of metabloism and environmental response work as a whole for plant growth, development, behavior, and survival.
Plants capture the energy of sunlight and covert it to strored chemical energy in the form of _____, _____, and _____.
ATP, NADPH, and carbohydrate
The carbohydrate molecules of _____ and _____ are used as precursors in the construction of nearly all the biomolueucles that comprise the plant body.
3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (3-PGAL) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)
The environments of the earth, and all other natural systems are constantly moving towards a state of increasing _____ or _____, which is the _____.
Entropy or Disorder
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The two types of life strategies to accomplish extraction of energy from the environment are _____ and _____.
Photoautotrophs and Chemiautotrophs
_____ are organisms that use sunlight as an energy source to accomplish and maintain order and specificity.
_____ are organisms that use chemical energy available in the envoronment to accomplish and maintain order and specificity.
Photosynthetic organisms are able to take up CO2 from the environment and combine it with organic molecules to build new complex organic molecules in a process known as _____.
CO2 Fixation or Carbon Fixation
Phototrophic organisms gain useable energy through both _____ and the process of _____.
Photosynthesis and Respiration
What are the six general categories of biochemical reactions that occur in neraly all cells?
_____ is the transfer functional groups to different portions of the molecule, or transfer of functional groups between two different molecules and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
_____ rearranges the bond structure around one or more carbons in the molecule and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
_____ breaks carbon-carbon bonds (bonds between two carbon atoms) and is enzyme mediated.
_____/_____ is when two molecules condense/combine with the elimination of water and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
In _____, one molecule is split into two or more parts by the addition of water to a specific bond in that molecule and can reverse a condensation reaction. It is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
_____ is the transfer or acceptance of electrons and hyrdogens from one molecule to another and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
Most enzymes are _____, however a few enzymes occur as _____ molecules.
The catalytic capability of an enzyme depends on its _____.
Some enzymes consist only of amino acids, whereas others require an additional chemical componenet for proper frunctioning known as a _____.
The cofactor may be one or more metal ions, or a complex organic or metallorganic molecule known as a _____.
_____ function as transient carriers of specific functional groups.
A coenzyme or metal ion that is covalently bonded to the protein portion of the enzyme is referred to as a _____.
The enzyme plus its coenzyme and/or metal ion(s) is referred to as a _____.
The protein portion of holoenzymes is referred to as an _____ or _____.
Apoprotein or Apoenzyme
What are the 7 categories or classes of enzymes:
_____ catalyzes the transfer of electrons, hydrogen ions (H+), or hydride (H-) ions.
_____ catalyzes group transfer reactions.
_____ catalyzes hydrolysis reactions.
_____ catalyzes the addition of groups to double bonds or formation of double bonds by removal of groups.
_____ catalyzes transfer of functional groups within molecules to produce isomeric forms.
_____ are any two molecules with the same molecular formula, but a different arrangement of molecular groups, i.e. atoms.
_____ catalyzes the formation of C-C, C-O, C-N, or C-S bonds through condensation reactions coupled to ATP cleavage.
_____ catalyzes the transfer of the terminal phosphate group of ATP to some other molecule (actually a subclass of transferase enzymes).
The basic components necessary to sustain life on earth are:
Water (HOH, H2O)
Diatomic Oxygen (O2)
Certain essential elements
_____ from the sun is the ultimate source of energy for the earth's biospere.
The earth's atmosphere contains four of the major elements essential for life:
Water is a _____ molecule and has a special chemical property known as _____.
Other than Hydrogen, the other two principle elements that actively engage in hydrogen bonding are _____ and _____.
Oxygen and Hydrogen
Molecules that readily dissolve in water are known as _____.
Molecules that are not soluble in water are known as _____.
_____ can be defined as the potential energy of water; the work water can do as it moves from one area to a different area; and can be used to express the difference between the energy potential of water at any point in a system and that of pure water under standard conditions.
_____ of the water molecules and _____ are two of the things that water potential can be used to determine.
Transitional Kinetic Energy
Capacity to do work
The energy content water is most easily described in terms of its _____.
_____ can be defined as the free energy per mole of a given substance and is a measure of the capacity of a substance to react or move.
Osmosis will occur when the _____ of water on one side of the membrane exceeds the molar free energy of the other side of the membrane.
Molar Free Energy
When solutes are dissolved in water, the _____ of water is decreased in solution, and the chemical potential and the molar free energy of the water is also decreased.
Water will move from areas of _____ solute concentration to areas of _____ solute potential.
Plant cells control the flow of water in and out of the _____ by changing the concentration of solutes in the cell, thus lowering or raising the water potential of the cell accordingly.
_____ is the process whereby a plant cell regulates its water status through the accumulation of solutes. This is an energy requiring process.
Water potential (ψ) is equal to the _____ (P) minus the _____ (π).
Hydrostatic pressure (P)
Osmotic Pressure (π)
The driving force for water movement is the _____ - water will move from a region of high water potential to a region of low water potential
Water potential gradient
Water potential (ψ) is equal to the _____ plus _____ plus _____.
Pressure potential (ψP)
Solute potential (Osmotic potential) (ψS)
Matric Potential (ψM)
_____ is idential to hydrostatic pressure and represents the hydrostatic pressure in excess of the ambient atmosphere.
Pressure potential ψP
_____ is the same as the osmotic pressure.
Solute potential (osmotic potential) ψS
Matric potential is the result of _____ of water to solid surfaces, and is important during _____ (water uptake) by sees and soil water potential.
The pressure potential arises from the force exerted outwardly against the cell walls by the expanding protoplast. This is known as _____.
The equal and opposite of turgor pressure is _____ and is exerted by the cell wall on the protoplast.
A cell experiencing turgor pressure is said to be _____.
A cell that experiences water loss to the point where the turgor pressure is zero is considered to be _____
Five items, known as _____, are primarily responsible for the development of soil and the physical and chemical character of developed soil.
What are the 5 soil-forming factors?
1. Parent Material
Solid rocks are gradually _____ into loosened soil materials.
The various, distinguishable layers of soil that occur are referred to as _____.
The vertical exposure of the soil with its various horizons or layers is referred to as the _____.
_____ can be defined as the production of nonconsolidated material by weathering processes, and soil profile development.
The soil _____ can consist of one or more horizons.
_____ has two different subcategories: 1. most plant parts are still readily identifiable; usually very thin or 2. altered enough to where identification of the specific type of plant materials is usually no longer possible and many centimeters thick.
To be classified as an O horizon, must contain ___% or more organic matter.
The _____ is the mineral horizon darkened by organic matter accumulation, usually fairly thin.
The _____ is mineral horizon that is lighter colored than the A or O horizon above it and the B horizon below it; formed because fine clays and minute organic substances have been leached out by percolating waters.
The _____ is a transition horizon more like the A or E above than the B below it.
The _____ is a transition horizon more like the B below it, than the A or E above it.
The _____ is a layer of illuvial colloids (accumulated by movement in solution or suspension in water) or evidence of weathering below the A horizon; marked by accumulation of small particles that have leached and accumulated from the O, A, and/or E horizons; often high in clay and low in organic matter.
The _____ is a transition horizon from the B to the C horizon.
The _____ is unconsolidated material; little evidence of profile development.
The _____ is underlying material consisting of bedrock or softer materials; often the parent material for the overlying soil.
List the horizons from the top to the bottom:
Soil particles (also known as _____) come in three basic classes: _____, _____, and _____.
Sand, Silt, and Clay
_____ are assigned to soils based on their predominate particle type.
What are the 5 particle classes of sand and their size?
Very coarse sand 2.0-1.0 mm
Coarse sand 1.0-0.5
Medium sand 0.5-0.25
Fine sand 0.25-0.10
Very fine sand 0.10-0.05
Very coarse sand and coarse sand have _____ water and nutrient holding capacity and _____ aeration.
Silt is _____mm and has _____ water and nutrient holding capacity and _____ aeration.
Clay is _____mm and has _____ water and nutrient holding capacity and _____ aeration.
less than 0.002mm
_____ is a stable, highly decomposed form of organic matter.
_____ is produced by the relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay that comprise the particular soil.
_____ is the arrangement and structure of the soils solid and porous phase. Includes the morphology of the soil solum, and the arrangement and spatial and structural relationship of all physical aspects of the soil itself, primarily the relationships between the separates.
Soil structure is also a function of secondary structures known as _____, which are clusters of separates held together by organic substances, iron oxides, carbonates, clays, and or silicates.
Natural aggregates are also known as _____.
Soil structure affects the _____, and ultimately the soil's ability to retain water and aeration.
Porosity or _____ (also known as _____) refers to the interconnected channels between irregularly shaped soil particles or particle aggregates.
Under field conditions, pore spaces are always occupied by _____ and _____.
Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is greater than 5mm.
Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is 2-5mm.
Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is 0.5-2mm.
Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is less than 0.5mm.
There are two major categories of pores: _____ and _____
Water is not regularly held (against gravity) by _____, and drains from them via the force of gravity.
Only _____ will hold water against gravity.
When a soil is completely saturated with water (all of the capillary pores are filled with water after the force of gravity has drained off all excess) it is said to be at _____.
The _____ is the water content of soil when all of the pores are filled with water.
A _____ is a special class of soils that is comprised of sand, silt, and clay where none of these particles are the dominant particle type.
Rate of oxygen exchange between the soil and the atmosphere is known as the _____.
Oxygen Diffusion Rate
Soils that are not compacted and have large pores have a _____ oxygen exchange rate than do soils that are compacted, waterlogged, having small pores, or pores that are bottlenecked and blocked by water.
_____ are crystalline particles comprised of repeating arrangement of the atoms of which they are comprised.
Most clays are comprised of planes of _____ atoms with _____ or _____ atoms holding it all together by ionic bonds.
Silicon or aluminum
A clay particle is known as a _____.
A few types of clays have the oxygen and other atoms less regularly oriented and are known as _____.
Clays are negatively charged because hydrogen atoms that are part of the Al-OH or Si-OH ionize/disassociate from the clay particle (known as _____) leaving an unneutralized portion or negatively charged portion on the clay particle.
Ionizable Hydrogen Ions
_____ is the substitiution of one ion for another of similar size, but often with a lower positive valence.
The negative sites or charges on the surface of the clay particle are known as _____.
Cation Exchange Sites
The cations are _____ or electrostatically attracted and held to the cation exchange sites.
The total amount of negatively charged sites is known as the soil's _____.
Cation Exchange Capacity
Cations are replaced by other cations via the process of _____ (competition for the negative site because of a large number of ions present).
The exchange of one ion for another is termed _____.
In reference to soils, _____ are substances that are in a state of fine subdivision with particles from one micrometer to one nanometer in size.