Plant 1-12

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ederington
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234854
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Plant 1-12
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2013-09-14 20:47:04
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  1. The word _____ is translated from the Greek physis, meaning nature, and logos meaning discourse, study of, explanation of, or spoken or unspoken word.
    Physiology
  2. _____ can be defined as the complete biochemical and biophysical nature of plants, and how the underlying processes of metabloism and environmental response work as a whole for plant growth, development, behavior, and survival.
    Plant Physiology
  3. Plants capture the energy of sunlight and covert it to strored chemical energy in the form of _____, _____, and _____.
    ATP, NADPH, and carbohydrate
  4. The carbohydrate molecules of _____ and _____ are used as precursors in the construction of nearly all the biomolueucles that comprise the plant body.
    3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (3-PGAL) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)
  5. The environments of the earth, and all other natural systems are constantly moving towards a state of increasing _____ or _____, which is the _____.
    • Entropy or Disorder
    • Second Law of Thermodynamics
  6. The two types of life strategies to accomplish extraction of energy from the environment are _____ and _____.
    Photoautotrophs and Chemiautotrophs
  7. _____ are organisms that use sunlight as an energy source to accomplish and maintain order and specificity.
    Photoautotrophs
  8. _____ are organisms that use chemical energy available in the envoronment to accomplish and maintain order and specificity.
    Chemiautotrophs
  9. Photosynthetic organisms are able to take up CO2 from the environment and combine it with organic molecules to build new complex organic molecules in a process known as _____.
    CO2 Fixation or Carbon Fixation
  10. Phototrophic organisms gain useable energy through both _____ and the process of _____.
    Photosynthesis and Respiration
  11. What are the six general categories of biochemical reactions that occur in neraly all cells?
    • Group Transfer
    • Rearrangement
    • Cleavage
    • Condensation/Dehydration Synthesis
    • Hydrolysis
    • Oxidation/Reduction
  12. _____ is the transfer functional groups to different portions of the molecule, or transfer of functional groups between two different molecules and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
    Group Transfer 

    Transferase
  13. _____ rearranges the bond structure around one or more carbons in the molecule and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
    Rearrangement

    Isomerase
  14. _____ breaks carbon-carbon bonds (bonds between two carbon atoms) and is enzyme mediated.
    Cleavage
  15. _____/_____ is when two molecules condense/combine with the elimination of water and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
    Condensation/Dehydration Synthesis

    Ligase
  16. In _____, one molecule is split into two or more parts by the addition of water to a specific bond in that molecule and can reverse a condensation reaction.  It is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
    Hydrolysis

    Hydrolase
  17. _____ is the transfer or acceptance of electrons and hyrdogens from one molecule to another and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
    Oxidation/Reduction

    Oxioreductase
  18. Most enzymes are _____, however a few enzymes occur as _____ molecules.
    Proteins

    Catalytic RNA
  19. The catalytic capability of an enzyme depends on its _____.
    Native Confirmation
  20. Some enzymes consist only of amino acids, whereas others require an additional chemical componenet for proper frunctioning known as a _____.
    Cofactor
  21. The cofactor may be one or more metal ions, or a complex organic or metallorganic molecule known as a _____.
    Coenzyme
  22. _____ function as transient carriers of specific functional groups.
    Coenzymes
  23. A coenzyme or metal ion that is covalently bonded to the protein portion of the enzyme is referred to as a _____.
    Prosthetic Group
  24. The enzyme plus its coenzyme and/or metal ion(s) is referred to as a _____.
    Holoenzyme
  25. The protein portion of holoenzymes is referred to as an _____ or _____.
    Apoprotein or Apoenzyme
  26. What are the 7 categories or classes of enzymes:
    • Oxidoreductase
    • Transferase
    • Hydrolase
    • Lyase
    • Isomerase
    • Ligase
    • Kinase
  27. _____ catalyzes the transfer of electrons, hydrogen ions (H+), or hydride (H-) ions.
    Oxidoreductase
  28. _____ catalyzes group transfer reactions.
    Transferase
  29. _____ catalyzes hydrolysis reactions.
    Hydrolase
  30. _____ catalyzes the addition of groups to double bonds or formation of double bonds by removal of groups.
    Lyase
  31. _____ catalyzes transfer of functional groups within molecules to produce isomeric forms.
    Isomerase
  32. _____ are any two molecules with the same molecular formula, but a different arrangement of molecular groups, i.e. atoms.
    Isomers
  33. _____ catalyzes the formation of C-C, C-O, C-N, or C-S bonds through condensation reactions coupled to ATP cleavage.
    Ligase
  34. _____ catalyzes the transfer of the terminal phosphate group of ATP to some other molecule (actually a subclass of transferase enzymes).
    Kinase
  35. The basic components necessary to sustain life on earth are:
    • Water (HOH, H2O)
    • Diatomic Oxygen (O2)
    • Ozone (O3)
    • CO2
    • Certain essential elements
    • Sunlight
  36. _____ from the sun is the ultimate source of energy for the earth's biospere.
    Electromagnetic radiation
  37. The earth's atmosphere contains four of the major elements essential for life:
    • Nitrogen
    • Carbon
    • Oxygen
    • Hydrogen
  38. Water is a _____ molecule and has a special chemical property known as _____.
    Polar

    Hydrogen bonding
  39. Other than Hydrogen, the other two principle elements that actively engage in hydrogen bonding are _____ and _____.
    Oxygen and Hydrogen
  40. Molecules that readily dissolve in water are known as _____.
    Hydrophilic
  41. Molecules that are not soluble in water are known as _____.
    Hydrophobic
  42. _____ can be defined as the potential energy of water; the work water can do as it moves from one area to a different area; and can be used to express the difference between the energy potential of water at any point in a system and that of pure water under standard conditions.
    Water Potential
  43. _____ of the water molecules and _____ are two of the things that water potential can be used to determine.
    Transitional Kinetic Energy

    Capacity to do work
  44. The energy content water is most easily described in terms of its _____.
    Chemical potential
  45. _____ can be defined as the free energy per mole of a given substance and is a measure of the capacity of a substance to react or move.
    Chemical potential
  46. Osmosis will occur when the _____ of water on one side of the membrane exceeds the molar free energy of the other side of the membrane.
    Molar Free Energy
  47. When solutes are dissolved in water, the _____ of water is decreased in solution, and the chemical potential and the molar free energy of the water is also decreased.
    Mole Fraction
  48. Water will move from areas of _____ solute concentration to areas of _____ solute potential.
    Low

    High
  49. Plant cells control the flow of water in and out of the _____ by changing the concentration of solutes in the cell, thus lowering or raising the water potential of the cell accordingly.
    Protoplast
  50. _____ is the process whereby a plant cell regulates its water status through the accumulation of solutes.  This is an energy requiring process.
    Osmotic adjustment
  51. Water potential (ψ) is equal to the _____ (P) minus the _____ (π).
    Hydrostatic pressure (P)

    Osmotic Pressure (π)
  52. The driving force for water movement is the _____ - water will move from a region of high water potential to a region of low water potential
    Water potential gradient
  53. Water potential (ψ) is equal to the _____ plus _____ plus _____.
    Pressure potential (ψP)

    Solute potential (Osmotic potential) (ψS)

    Matric Potential (ψM)
  54. _____ is idential to hydrostatic pressure and represents the hydrostatic pressure in excess of the ambient atmosphere.
    Pressure potential ψP
  55. _____ is the same as the osmotic pressure.
    Solute potential (osmotic potential) ψS
  56. Matric potential is the result of _____ of water to solid surfaces, and is important during _____ (water uptake) by sees and soil water potential.
    Adsorption

    Imbibition
  57. The pressure potential arises from the force exerted outwardly against the cell walls by the expanding protoplast.  This is known as _____.
    Turgor pressure
  58. The equal and opposite of turgor pressure is _____ and is exerted by the cell wall on the protoplast.
    Wall pressure
  59. A cell experiencing turgor pressure is said to be _____.
    Turgid
  60. A cell that experiences water loss to the point where the turgor pressure is zero is considered to be _____
    Flaccid
  61. Five items, known as _____, are primarily responsible for the development of soil and the physical and chemical character of developed soil.
    Soil-forming factors
  62. What are the 5 soil-forming factors?
    • 1. Parent Material
    • 2. Climate
    • 3. Biota
    • 4. Topography
    • 5. Time
  63. Solid rocks are gradually _____ into loosened soil materials.
    Weathered
  64. The various, distinguishable layers of soil that occur are referred to as _____.
    Horizons
  65. The vertical exposure of the soil with its various horizons or layers is referred to as the _____.
    Soil Profile
  66. _____ can be defined as the production of nonconsolidated material by weathering processes, and soil profile development.
    Soil formation
  67. The soil _____ can consist of one or more horizons.
    Solum
  68. _____ has two different subcategories: 1. most plant parts are still readily identifiable; usually very thin or 2. altered enough to where identification of the specific type of plant materials is usually no longer possible and many centimeters thick.
    O Horizon
  69. To be classified as an O horizon, must contain ___% or more organic matter.
    20-30%
  70. The _____ is the mineral horizon darkened by organic matter accumulation, usually fairly thin.
    A Horizon
  71. The _____ is mineral horizon that is lighter colored than the A or O horizon above it and the B horizon below it; formed because fine clays and minute organic substances have been leached out by percolating waters.
    E Horizon
  72. The _____ is a transition horizon more like the A or E above than the B below it.
    AB Horizon
  73. The _____ is a transition horizon more like the B below it, than the A or E above it.
    BA Horizon
  74. The _____ is a layer of illuvial colloids (accumulated by movement in solution or suspension in water) or evidence of weathering below the A horizon; marked by accumulation of small particles that have leached and accumulated from the O, A, and/or E horizons; often high in clay and low in organic matter.
    B Horizon
  75. The _____ is a transition horizon from the B to the C horizon.
    BC Horizon
  76. The _____ is unconsolidated material; little evidence of profile development.
    C Horizon
  77. The _____ is underlying material consisting of bedrock or softer materials; often the parent material for the overlying soil.
    R Horizon
  78. List the horizons from the top to the bottom:
    • O
    • A
    • E
    • AB
    • BA
    • B
    • BC
    • C
    • R
  79. Soil particles (also known as _____) come in three basic classes: _____, _____, and _____.
    Separates

    Sand, Silt, and Clay
  80. _____ are assigned to soils based on their predominate particle type.
    Textural Classes
  81. What are the 5 particle classes of sand and their size?
    • Very coarse sand 2.0-1.0 mm
    • Coarse sand 1.0-0.5
    • Medium sand 0.5-0.25
    • Fine sand 0.25-0.10
    • Very fine sand 0.10-0.05
  82. Very coarse sand and coarse sand have _____ water and nutrient holding capacity and _____ aeration.
    Poor

    Excellent
  83. Silt is _____mm and has _____ water and nutrient holding capacity and _____ aeration.
    0.05-0.002mm

    Good

    Good
  84. Clay is _____mm and has _____ water and nutrient holding capacity and _____ aeration.
    less than 0.002mm

    Excellent

    Poor
  85. _____ is a stable, highly decomposed form of organic matter.
    Humus
  86. _____ is produced by the relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay that comprise the particular soil.
    Soil texture
  87. _____ is the arrangement and structure of the soils solid and porous phase.  Includes the morphology of the soil solum, and the arrangement and spatial and structural relationship of all physical aspects of the soil itself, primarily the relationships between the separates.
    Soil structure
  88. Soil structure is also a function of secondary structures known as _____, which are clusters of separates held together by organic substances, iron oxides, carbonates, clays, and or silicates.
    Aggregates
  89. Natural aggregates are also known as _____.
    Peds
  90. Soil structure affects the _____, and ultimately the soil's ability to retain water and aeration.
    Porosity
  91. Porosity or _____ (also known as _____) refers to the interconnected channels between irregularly shaped soil particles or particle aggregates.
    Pore space

    Voids
  92. Under field conditions, pore spaces are always occupied by _____ and _____.
    Air

    Water
  93. Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is greater than 5mm.
    Coarse
  94. Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is 2-5mm.
    Medium
  95. Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is 0.5-2mm.
    Fine
  96. Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is less than 0.5mm.
    Very fine
  97. There are two major categories of pores: _____ and _____
    Large pores

    Capillary pores
  98. Water is not regularly held (against gravity) by _____, and drains from them via the force of gravity.
    Large pores
  99. Only _____ will hold water against gravity.
    Capillary pores
  100. When a soil is completely saturated with water (all of the capillary pores are filled with water after the force of gravity has drained off all excess) it is said to be at _____.
    Field capacity
  101. The _____ is the water content of soil when all of the pores are filled with water.
    Saturation percentage
  102. A _____ is a special class of soils that is comprised of sand, silt, and clay where none of these particles are the dominant particle type.
    Loam
  103. Rate of oxygen exchange between the soil and the atmosphere is known as the _____.
    Oxygen Diffusion Rate
  104. Soils that are not compacted and have large pores have a _____ oxygen exchange rate than do soils that are compacted, waterlogged, having small pores, or pores that are bottlenecked and blocked by water.
    Higher
  105. _____ are crystalline particles comprised of repeating arrangement of the atoms of which they are comprised.
    Clays
  106. Most clays are comprised of planes of _____ atoms with _____ or _____ atoms holding it all together by ionic bonds.
    Oxygen

    Silicon or aluminum
  107. A clay particle is known as a _____.
    Micelle
  108. A few types of clays have the oxygen and other atoms less regularly oriented and are known as _____.
    Amorphous materials
  109. Clays are negatively charged because hydrogen atoms that are part of the Al-OH or Si-OH ionize/disassociate from the clay particle (known as _____) leaving an unneutralized portion or negatively charged portion on the clay particle.
    Ionizable Hydrogen Ions
  110. _____ is the substitiution of one ion for another of similar size, but often with a lower positive valence.
    Isomorphous Substitution
  111. The negative sites or charges on the surface of the clay particle are known as _____.
    Cation Exchange Sites
  112. The cations are _____ or electrostatically attracted and held to the cation exchange sites.
    Adsorbed
  113. The total amount of negatively charged sites is known as the soil's _____.
    Cation Exchange Capacity
  114. Cations are replaced by other cations via the process of _____ (competition for the negative site because of a large number of ions present).
    Mass Action
  115. The exchange of one ion for another is termed _____.
    Cation exchange
  116. In reference to soils, _____ are substances that are in a state of fine subdivision with particles from one micrometer to one nanometer in size.
    Colloids

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