Plant 13-24

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Plant 13-24
2013-09-15 16:25:41

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  1. In neutral to basic soils (pH greater than 6 or 7), the cation exchange normally hold _____, _____, and _____.
    • Ca+2
    • Mg+2
    • K+1
  2. In acidic soils, cation exchange sites are mostly occupied by _____ and _____, followed by _____, _____, and _____.
    • Al(OH)2+1
    • H+1
    • Na+1
    • NH4+1
    • Zn+2
  3. Colloids that have appreciable _____ are those that have a correspondingly low cation exchange capacity.
    Anion Exchange Capacity
  4. Humus is often referred to as an _____.
    Organic colloid
  5. In addition to chains of carbon atoms, humus is comprised of about 30% nitrogen rich protein, lignin, and complex carbohydrates known as _____.
  6. _____ is an indicator of the acidity or basicity of the soil and is measured in pH units.
    Soil reaction pH
  7. Most micronutrient problems on basic soils are solved by adding special fertilizers, such as water soluble _____.
  8. Chelates are stable, soluble complexes of metal ions and an organic molecule known as a _____ or _____.
    Chelating agent or Ligand
  9. The metal ion and the ligand share electron pairs forming a _____.
    Coordinate Bond
  10. _____, such as hemoglobin, cytochrome, and chlorophyll are natural chelating agents.
  11. _____, another natural ligand, is secreted by the roots of plants that are iron deficient.
    Caffeic acid
  12. _____, low molecular weight, iron binding ligands, can also be released by the roots of plants and very selectively scavenge for iron from the rhizosphere.
  13. Once the iron atom is bound by the phytosiderophore, the entire complex known as a _____, is taken up by the root.
  14. _____ is the movement of water into soils. Soil texture, structure, organic matter content, and compaction all affect the soil's ability to hold water.
  15. Water is held in the soil because of the _____ between water and soil particles.
    Electrostatic Interactions
  16. The hydrogen atoms of water molecules can electrostatically bond via hydrogen bonding to adsorbed water molecules, creating a _____ of several layers of water molecules around a single soil particle.
  17. The forces that hold water to soil are _____. The more clay and organic matter a soil has, the greater it water holding capacity.
    Surface-attractive forces
  18. _____ can be defined as the work the water can do when it moves from its present state to a pool of water.
    Water potential
  19. _____ is defined as the work the water can do when it moves from its present state to a pool of water in the defined reference state, and it used to determine the strength at which soil water is held.
    Soil water potential
  20. Plane standing water has a water potential of _____.
  21. Soil water potential is a combination of the effects of the surface area of soil particles and small soil particles that adsorb water (_____), dissolved substances (_____), and elevation and gravity (_____).
    Matric potential

    Solute or Osmotic potential

    Gravitational potential
  22. Water moves through soil either by _____ (this usually occurs very rapidly after heavy rainfall or flooding) or by _____ (where water moves more slowly in all directions from areas of higher potential to areas of lower potential).
    Gravity Flow

    Capillary Movement
  23. Capillary water moves through soil because of a _____.
    Water potential gradient
  24. Soil water potential is measured in _____, or more precisely in _____.
    Pascals (Pa)

    kilo Pascals (kPa)
  25. _____ is water that is held in the soil at a potential of greater than -33kPa.
    Gravitational Water
  26. _____ is the portion of stored soil water that is available for plant uptake at a rate that is fast enough for plant survival (more or less keeps pace with transpiration). Ranges from -33 to -1,500 kPa.
    Plant-available water
  27. _____ are formed naturally under plant cover and after forest fires.  Plants can exude or drip resinous compounds into the soils.
    Water-repellent soils
  28. Ion uptake by the cells in roots is _____.
    Extremely selective
  29. For unchanged solutes, concentration gradient alone determines the gradient in _____.
    Chemical potential
  30. Movement of ions, in addition to chemical potential, is also affected by the _____.
    Electric potential
  31. Ions move in response to _____ and the electrical properties of the cell, or its _____.
    Electrochemical gradients

    Transmembrane potential
  32. Active transport is driven by _____.
    ATPase-proton pumps
  33. 5 functions of ATPase-proton pumps:
    • 1. transport of solutes
    • 2. regulation of cytoplasmic pH
    • 3. stomatal opening and closure
    • 4. sucrose transport during phloem loading
    • 5. hormone-mediated cell elongation
  34. There is a portion of the plant's root system that is not separated from the external environment by a membrane.  This portion is known as the _____ (there is no diffusion barrier between this portion and the external environment).
    Apparent free space
  35. The cation exchange capacity of the apparent free space is owed to the negatively charged _____ of the galacturonic acid residues in the cell wall pectic compounds.
    Carboxyl groups (R-COO-)
  36. Prior to entering the xylem tissue, all ions must first enter the symplast of the endodermal cells [ions are generally precluded from crossing the endodermis via the apoplast because of the _____ (_____) found in the transverse and longitudinal walls of the endodermal cells].
    Casparian strips (casparian bands)
  37. The tangential walls of the endodermal cells are not _____.
  38. _____ of the endodermis, if present, may represent a major point of entry of solutes into the stele.
    Passage cells
  39. _____ involves the uptake from the environment of all the raw materials required for essential biochemical processes, the distribution of these materials in the plant, and their use in metabolism, growth and reproduction.
    Plant Nutrition
  40. There are 17 _____ or _____ for plant survival and growth.
    Essential elements or essential nutrient elements
  41. Some elements known as _____ are only essential for the survival of certain plants, or are accumulated by a specific type of plant, but are not essential for its survival.
    Beneficial elements
  42. Non-essential and essential elements are usually taken up by the plant as inorganic ions (the ion is sometimes _____ or often _____)
    Monatomic or often Polyatomic
  43. _____ are required in large amounts by the plant (1,000 mg/kg of dry matter or greater).
  44. _____ are required in very small amounts by the plant (less than 100 mg/kg of dry matter).
    Micronutrients or Trace Elements
  45. Name the 9 macronutrients:
    • Hydrogen
    • Carbon
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Potassium
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Phosphorous
    • Sulfur
  46. Name the 8 micronutrients
    • Chlorine
    • Iron
    • Boron
    • Manganese
    • Zinc
    • Copper
    • Nickel
    • Molybdenum
  47. Name the 3 beneficial elements:
    • Sodium
    • Cobalt
    • Silicon
  48. What is the preferred uptake form of nitrogen?
  49. What is the preferred uptake form of phosphorous?
  50. What is the preferred uptake form of Sulfur?
  51. What is the preferred uptake form of iron?
  52. What is the preferred uptake form of copper?
  53. _____ is a component of cell walls; production of O2 from photolysis of water in the oxygen evolving complex (photosynthesis); enzyme cofactor and regulator; protein phosphorylation; secondary hormonal messenger; involved in cellular membrane permeability; aids in regulating membrane activities; aids in induction of various nastic and tropic responses, including as a component of the protein calmodulin; and cytoplasmic streaming.
  54. _____ is also important in mediating growth responses, including polarized cell growth and mitosis and meiosis-cell plate formation and plays a role in the mitotic spindle.
  55. _____ deficiency symptoms include malformation and necrosis of young leaves, poor root growth and discolored and slippery roots, necrosis and rotting of fruits.

  56. In extreme calcium deficiencies, the entire ________ will die.
  57. Calcium is relatively immobile in the plant body, thus symptoms usually occur in the _____ tissues first.
  58. _____, _____, and _____ are the major components of the plant's organic compounds and the plant body itself. Practically the entire plant body.
    Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon
  59. Plant growth, development, and survival as a whole is minimized without an adequate supply of these three elements
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon
  60. _____ is a component of cell walls; component of chlorophyll molecules; stabilization of ribosome structure; activator for many enzymes, forms complexes with ATP to increase the free energy associated with ATP hydrolysis.
  61. Magnesium is _____ in the plant body.
  62. _____ (yellowing of the plant tissues) is the primary symptom of magnesium deficiency and is particularly pronounced in the lamina or blade tissues between the veins.
  63. _____ is an essential component of amino acids, proteins (including enzymes), nucleotides, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, cytochromes, some hormones (IAA and cytokinins), ATP, NADH, NADPH, FADH2, flavins, betacyanins, and many secondary metabolites.
  64. Nitrogen is very mobile in the plant, thus symptomology is first seen on _____ leaves and herbaceous tissues.
  65. Primary symptoms of nitrogen deficiency are
    Slow, stunted growth and chlorosis
  66. Accumulations of anthocyanins in the tissues, giving the plant a reddish or purple coloration, along with older leaves becoming necrotic and abscising are also symptoms of _____ deficiency.
  67. Excess _____ stimulates abundant vegetative growth compared to root growth and can delay flowering in some species.
  68. Too little nitrogen can
    induce flowering earlier than normal.
  69. In the plant, ___________ is usually found as phosphate esters and is essential for carrying out normal metabolic processes.
  70. _____ is a component of energy-carrying and electron-carrying molecules associated with cellular energetics (ATP, UTP, GTP, CTP, NADPH, FADH2); component of DNA and RNA; component of phospholipids, sugar phosphates, phosphorylated organic acids, inorganic phosphate, and several coenzymes.
  71. _____ is essential for sulfur metabolism.
  72. _____ is usually the most common limiting element for plant growth and development in natural systems.
  73. What are the 3 reasons phosphorous is the most common limiting element for plant growth?
    • 1. Phosphorous tends to form insoluble complexes with aluminum and iron in acidic soils
    • 2. Phosphorous may also be bound up in organic form.
    • 3. Plants must compete with soil microflora for what phosphorous is available.
  74. Organic phosphorous must first be converted to inorganic phosphorous by soil microorganisms or through the actin of _____ released by the roots.
    Phosphatase enzymes
  75. Phosphorous is _____ in the plant body.
  76. _____ deficiency symptoms include: leaves with an intense green coloration and in extreme cases leaves may become curled and have necrotic spots.
  77. Excess _____ allows the development of a large root system.
  78. _____ is the most abundant cellular cation.
  79. _____ is involved in osmosis (including regulation of cellular osmotic potential) and ionic balance (charge balancing); plant movements, including opening and closing of stomata, turgor regulation in general, and various turgor-operated movements and mechanisms; is an activator for many enzymes; and is involved in starch and protein synthesis.
  80. Potassium is _____ in the plant body.
  81. _____ deficiency symptoms include: mottling or chlorosis in older leaves, followed by necrotic lesions (spots) on the leaf margins, shortened and weakened stems, susceptibility to root-rotting fungi is increased.
  82. Potassium deficient plants are easily _____ (stems are easily bent and often found bent over).
  83. Sulfur is used primarily in stabilization of the native conformation of proteins and enzymes by _____ (S-S).
    Disulfide Bridges
  84. _____ is a component of some amino acids and proteins; essential component of coenzyme A and the vitamins thiamine and biotin; component of certain secondary metabolites; nitrogen fixation and fatty acid metabolism; and  photosynthesis and respiration by being a component in iron-sulfur proteins in electron carriers.
  85. Sulfur is important for the production of the molecule _____ and important in the structure of some _____.

  86. Sulfur is _____ in the plant body.
  87. Deficiency symptoms of _____ include, generalized chlorosis of younger leaves first, followed by older leaves.
  88. Mycorrhizal fungi help plants in the uptake of _____, _____, _____, and _____.
    • Phosphorous
    • Zinc
    • Manganese
    • Copper
  89. _____ influences calcium utilization, involved in nucleic acid synthesis, membrane integrity, cell division and elongation, structural stability and integrity of the cell wall, and pollen tube initiation, formation, and elongation.
  90. Much of the boron in plant cells is found in the _____.
    Cell Wall
  91. Borate has the ability to form _____ with cell wall polysaccharides and other sugars, such as mannose and its derivatives that have adjacent hydroxyl groups.
    Stable esters
  92. Shoot and root growth and elongation are slowed or inhibited by a lack of _____.  Necrosis of young leaves and meristems occurs later.
  93. Other symptoms of _____ deficiency are shortened internodes, enlarged stems, and bushy, highly branched plants.  Stem crack and heart rot in storage roots are also caused by _____ deficiencies.
  94. _____ is involved in osmosis and ionic balance, opening and closing of the stomata, production of O2 from photolysis of water in the oxygen evolving complex (photosynthesis), cell division in leaves and roots, and nitrogen assimilation into organic compounds.
  95. _____ is rarely limited enough in the environment to be deficient in plants.
  96. _____ is an activator or component of many oxidase enzymes and electron carriers, involved with oxidation/reductions in photosynthesis.
  97. _____ readily forms chelates with organic humus and this may be a source of it for plant uptake.
  98. _____ deficiency symptoms include stunted growth, distortion of leaves, and especially in species of the genus Citrus, the loss of young leaves.
  99. _____ is required for chlorophyll synthesis, component of cytochromes and nitrogenase enzymes, involved in oxidation/reduction reactions of photosynthesis, and is a component of certain proteins.
  100. Iron is important for two main functions in the plant:
    • 1. it is part of the catalytic group of many redox carriers or enzymes
    • 2. chlorophyll synthesis
  101. Iron mobility in the plant is _____.
    Very limited
  102. _____ deficiencies lead to a lack of chlorophyll synthesis and degradation of chloroplast structure.
  103. _____ deficiency symptoms occurs as a generalized chlorosis in young leaves and stems, in severe cases the leaves are pale yellow or almost white.
  104. _____ is needed in the highest amount of the micronutrients and is considered a macronutrient by some.
  105. _____ is involved in the activation of certain enzymes, required for integrity of the chloroplast membrane and for oxygen release from the oxygen evolving complex in photosynthesis.
  106. In the OEC, manganese is bound by a _____.
  107. Manganese can sometimes substitute for _____ in reactions involving ATP.
  108. _____ deficiency symptoms includes gray speck in cereal grains and is represented by green-ish gray, oval spots on the basal regions on young leaves.
  109. _____ and _____ are needed the least by plants.
    Molybdenum and Nickel
  110. _____ is required for nitrogen fixation and nitrate reduction. Also a component of the enzymes dinitrogenase and nitrate reductase.
  111. Molybdenum deficiency symptoms mimic those of _____ deficiency.
  112. _____ is an essential part of some enzymes that function in nitrogen metabolism (urase and hydrogenase).
  113. Deficiency symptoms of _____ lead to reduced hydrogenase activity and probably reduced efficiency in nitrogen fixation into organic compounds.
  114. _____ is an activator or component (cofactor) of many enzymes. Super oxide dismutase, auxin IAA metabolism, and the synthesis of tryptophan (precursor to IAA).
  115. _____ deficiency symptoms includes shortened internodes and smaller than normal leaves (little-leaf in fruit trees)