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Making Reasoned Judgement
The idea or belief that reasons ought to prevail in human affair.
The idea or belief that material experience is the chief and best source of knowledge.
Six of the eleven "right question" B/K:
- 1. What are the issues and conclusions?
- 2.What are the reasons?
- 3. How good is the evidence?
- 4. What are the descriptive assumptions?
- 5. Are there rival causes?
- 6. Are the statistics deceptive?
most important element in human thought; Ideas and Information are born and transmitted in the meaning of words and phrases.
clearer more precise the language the clearer more precise the communication,
fail to make ourselves understood because we assume that the meaning of a word or phrase is obvious.
We often misunderstand or fail to make ourselves understood in what we say or write because we know what we mean but not what we are saying or writing.
Some words have implications: Denotative, Connotative:
1. Denotation: the literal or dictionary meaning of a word
2. Connotation: a secondary association connected with a word or phrase
Words that are construed or explain by synonyms and examples are:
in critical thinking and academic writing these (synonym and examples) are inadequate or insufficient when compared to the words precise meaning or denotation
oral and written the meaning of a word is determined by its context
Ambiguity: Definition, when are they a concern,
refers to the existence of multiple meaning for a word or phrase.
is of concern when its meaning is so unclear and uncertain in the context of the presentation as to confound confuse or puzzle the audience or reader. one can not reasonably judge
abstract conceptual general and unspecific a word or phrase the more susceptible it is to ambiguity., being vague unclear and indistinct.
words or phrases with charged emotional implications,biased language.
reasonable evaluation of an argument requires: And what should the reader or listener look for.
that we understand the speaker or writer's ;language or what she or he has written.
- 1) Key terms and phrases
- 2) which words and phrases are adequately defined or specified.
- 3) which words and phrase if any are ambiguous in the context and require further clarification before we can judge the strength or validity of the argument.
A speaker or writers diction and syntax / word choice and word order is
of major significance.
controversies and disputes mostly those that generate "heat and noise" are called:
What are prescriptive issues
Moral and ethnic issues.
Judgements regarding what we should or should not do, what is good or bad right or wrong,
Individuals value judgement are:
based on their own basic value system or beliefs.
rarely expressed when developing an argument or a conclusion or taking an action.
usually taken for granted and are unquestioned.
unstated implicit belief that underlies the stated explicit reasoning.
preferences, the standards principles and ideals that people referred as creditable, worthy and good, measured by human thought.
courage, honesty, fairness, rationality, justice, law, law and order, fame, tradition, faith. etc
Persuasive communication or reasoning:
is advancing an argument or taking a position on an issue involves choosing or preferring one value or set of values over another value or set of values.
an unstated implicit preference for or priority of one value over another in a particular situation or issue.
Characteristics of assumptions
They are implicit, unstated
taken for granted, unquestioned, assumed to be true
influential or determinant in drawing a conclusion.
they are unspoken they are necessary if the reasoning is to make sense.
potentially deceptive when they are deliberately obscured or hidden
In reasoning or arguments regarding a prescriptive issue one should
look for the value assumptions which underlie the reasons and conclusion.
is a difference opposition or clash between values and values systems.
- public safety, law and order..... individual freedom, liberty, rights.
Prescriptive controversies and issues are fundamentally value conflicts
Most values and set of values have not been...
Most values and set of values have not been questioned or reasoned by who holds them,
merely accepted the values and value systems of their families and society without ever critically considering whether or not they have justification.
Conflicts today are:
Most social, national, and global conflict are based on this general state of human ignorance, irrationality, and stupidity
an unstated implicit belief about how the world was is or will become.
- The teaching of values in public schools is an illegal merging of
- church and state made worse by the fact that public school teachers are
- not trained theologians( the constitution enjoins the separation of church and state)( all values and values system are based on religion)Therefore, values should not be taught in public schools