Chem133 Chapter2

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Chem133 Chapter2
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2013-10-08 19:53:26
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Chem 133 Chapter2 test1
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  1. Define Substance
    Matter whos composition is FIXED
  2. What is an Element? HERPADERPADAYDERRRRR
    The simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical properties. It consists of only one kind of atom and, therefore, cannot be broken down into a simpler type of matter by physical or chemical processes.
  3. What is a molecule? daherpadyderpa
    An independent structure of two or more atoms bound together. There are Elemental molecules and molecules of a compound.
  4. Define Compound.
    A compound Consists of two or more elements that are bonded chemically.
  5. What's a mixture?
    A mixture consists of two or more substances that are physically INTERMINGLED.
  6. What is the law of mass conservation?
    Total mass of a substance doesn't change during a chemical reaction.
  7. What is the law of definite composition? And the subsequent implications for mass %?
    No matter the source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts.

    The compounds will have the same mass fractions/ mass percents.
  8. What is the law of multiple proportions?
    If elements A and B react to form two compounds, the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers.
  9. What is the Atomic number and its symbol?
    (Z): Number of protons in a nucleus of the atom.
  10. What is the Mass Number and its symbol?
    (A): total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
  11. What is the symbol for the number of Neutrons?
    (N)
  12. What is an isotope?
    The same element with a different mass number. It has a different number of neutrons.
  13. Chemical properties are closely related to the number of.
    Electrons. This is why isotopes have nearly identical chemical properties, yet different masses.
  14. What is an atomic mass unit? (AMU)
    An AMU is 1/12th the mass of a carbon-12 atom. Also known as a dalton (Da).

    It may be a relative mass, but it has an absolute mass of 1.66054x10-24g
  15. Describe the notation 
    • A is the mass number
    • Z is the atomic number
    • X is the atomic symbol
  16. What are the horizontal and vertical sections of the periodic table called?
    The horizontal rows are PERIODS.

    The vertical columns are Groups.
  17. Group 1A
    Group 2A
    Group 7A
    Group 8A
    Other Groups
    • 1A: Alkali Metals
    • 2A: Alkali earth metals
    • 7A: Halogens
    • 8A: Nobles gasses
    • Others: Named for the first element in the group (Oxygen Family)
  18. What is an Ionic Bond?
    A bond between two atoms in which one ore more electrons from one atom are transferred to another atom.
  19. What is a covalent bond?
    A bond between two atoms which atoms are shared between the two.
  20. What are the cations and anions in an ionic bond?
    • The cation is the metal which loses and electron to obtain a positive charge (+)
    • The anion is the nonmetal which gains the electron to obtain a net negative charge (-)
  21. How can you distinguish a covalent substance from an ionic substance?
    • Most covalent substances have molecules, while ionic substances normally don't have molecules under normal conditions.
    • - for example there is a continuous array in three dimensions of oppositely charged sodium and chloride ions.
  22. What is a polyatomic ion?
    An ion (IE they take part in ionic bonds) which is composed of two or more atoms bonded covalently to have a net charge.
  23. What suffix goes on the end of the anion?
    ide: chloride, bromide,...
  24. What common cations have a 1+ charge?
    • Hydrogen (H+)
    • Lithium(Li+)
    • Sodium(Na+)
    • Potassium(K+)
    • Cesium(Cs+)
    • Silver(Ag+)
  25. What common cations have a 2+ charge?
    • Magnesium (Mg2+)
    • Calcium(Ca2+)
    • Strontium(Sr2+)
    • Barium(Ba2+)
    • Zinc(Zn2+)
    • Cadmium(Cd2+)
  26. What is the normal charge on an aluminum ion?
    Al3+
  27. List some anions with 1- charge.
    • Hydride (H-)
    • Fluoride (F-)
    • Chloride(Cl-)
    • Bromide (Br-)
    • Iodide (I-)
  28. Anions with 2- Charge.
    • Oxide (O2-)
    • Sulfide (S2-)
  29. What is the normal charge of a Nitride ion?
    N3-
  30. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Ammonium?
    NH4+
  31. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Hydronium?
    H3O+
  32. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Acetate?
    • CH3COO-
    • C2H3O2-
  33. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Cyanide?
    CN-
  34. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Hydroxide?
    OH-
  35. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Hypochlorite?
    ClO-
  36. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Chlorite?
    ClO2-
  37. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Chlorate?
    ClO3-
  38. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Perchlorate?
    ClO4-
  39. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion nitrite?
    NO2-
  40. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Nitrate?
    NO3-
  41. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Permanganate
    MnO4-
  42. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Carbonate?
    CO32-
  43. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Hydrogen Carbonate (Bicarbonate)?
    HCO3-
  44. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Chromate?
    CrO42-
  45. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion dichromate?
    Cr2O72-
  46. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Peroxide?
    O22-
  47. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Phosphate?
    PO43-
  48. What are the formulas for the polyatomic ions Hydrogen Phosphate and Dihydrogen Phosphate?
    • HPO42-
    • H2PO4-
  49. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Sulphite?
    SO32-
  50. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Sulphate?
    SO42-
  51. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion Hydrogen Sulphate?
    HSO4-
  52. Define Heterogeneous mixture.
    Has one or more visible boundaries between the components.
  53. Define Homogeneous mixture.
    Also called a solution, they have no visible boundaries because the components are individual atoms, ions, or molecules.
  54. Spout off some diatomic molecules.
    • H2
    • N2
    • O2
    • F2
    • Cl2
    • Br2
    • I2
  55. What does Phosphorous naturally occur as?
    P4
  56. What do Sulfur and Selenium naturally occur as?
    • S8
    • Se8

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